네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

An array of problems p.129

Political interference in the selection process for the headquarters of the Square Kilometre Array should not go unchallenged.

doi: 10.1038/519129a

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All in good time p.129

Stratigraphers have yet to decide whether the Anthropocene is a new unit of geological time.

doi: 10.1038/519129b

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In the beginning p.130

As the first true science journal marks 350 years, we must defend scholarly pursuits.

doi: 10.1038/519130a

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News

News Features

The human age p.144

Momentum is building to establish a new geological epoch that recognizes humanity's impact on the planet. But there is fierce debate behind the scenes.

Richard Monastersky

doi: 10.1038/519144a

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Wars without end p.148

The world is full of bloody conflicts that can drag on for decades. Some researchers are trying to find resolutions through complexity science.

Dan Jones

doi: 10.1038/19148a

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News & Views

Enceladus' hot springs p.162

The detection of silicon-rich particles originating from Saturn's moon Enceladus suggests that water–rock interactions are currently occurring inside it — the first evidence of ongoing hydrothermal activity beyond Earth. See Letter p.207

Gabriel Tobie

doi: 10.1038/519162a

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Disarming Wnt p.163

The secreted enzyme Notum has been found to inhibit the Wnt signalling pathway through removal of a lipid that is linked to the Wnt protein and that is required for activation of Wnt receptor proteins. See Article p.187

Roel Nusse

doi: 10.1038/nature14208

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Fitness tracking for adapting populations p.164

A method for tracking the descendants of hundreds of thousands of yeast cells in an evolving population reveals that thousands of individuals contribute to early increases in population-wide fitness. See Article p.181

David Gresham

doi: 10.1038/nature14207

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How bacteria get spacers from invaders p.166

Bacteria use CRISPR–Cas systems to develop immunity to viruses. Details of how these systems select viral DNA fragments and integrate them into bacterial DNA to create a memory of invaders have now been reported. See Articles p.193 & p.199

Ido Yosef & Udi Qimron

doi: 10.1038/nature14204

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Black carbon and atmospheric feedbacks p.167

Climate simulations show that interactions between particles of black carbon and convective and cloud processes in the atmosphere must be considered when assessing the full climatic effects of these light-absorbing particulates.

Ben Booth & Nicolas Bellouin

doi: 10.1038/519167a

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The origin of terrestrial hearing p.168

A study of the African lungfish reveals that it has a rudimentary ability to detect pressure waves caused by sound. The finding expands our knowledge of how hearing evolved in early tetrapods, the first vertebrates to have limbs and digits.

Jennifer A. Clack

doi: 10.1038/519168a

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Perspective

Defining the Anthropocene p.171

Formal criteria must be met to define a new human-driven epoch; the geological evidence appears to do so, with 1610 and 1964 both likely to satisfy the requirements for the start of the Anthropocene.

Simon L. Lewis & Mark A. Maslin

doi: 10.1038/nature14258

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Articles

Notum deacylates Wnt proteins to suppress signalling activity p.187

The biochemical activity of Notum as a carboxylesterase that removes an essential lipid moiety from Wnt proteins is uncovered; the interaction of Notum with glypicans is required to ensure localization at the cell surface, and Notum may provide a new target for therapeutic development in diseases with defective Wnt signalling.

Satoshi Kakugawa, Paul F. Langton, Matthias Zebisch, Steven A. Howell, Tao-Hsin Chang, Yan Liu, Ten Feizi, Ganka Bineva, Nicola O’Reilly, Ambrosius P. Snijders + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14259

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Integrase-mediated spacer acquisition during CRISPR–Cas adaptive immunity p.193

The bacterial CRISPR/Cas system acquires short phage sequences known as spacers that integrate between CRISPR repeats and constitute a record of phage infection; this study shows that the Cas1–Cas2 complex is the minimal machinery required for spacer acquisition and the complex integrates oligonucleotide DNA substrates into acceptor DNA in a manner similar to retroviral integrases and DNA transposases with Cas 1 as the catalytic subunit and Cas2 acting to increase integration activity.

James K. Nuñez, Amy S. Y. Lee, Alan Engelman & Jennifer A. Doudna

doi: 10.1038/nature14237

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Cas9 specifies functional viral targets during CRISPR–Cas adaptation p.199

Bacterial CRISPR–Cas loci acquire short phage sequences called spacers that integrate between DNA repeats and how these viral sequences are chosen was unknown; in these studies of the type II CRISPR–Cas system of Streptococcus pyogenes, the Cas9 nuclease known to inactivate invading viral DNA was found to be required for the selection of functional spacers during CRISPR immunity.

Robert Heler, Poulami Samai, Joshua W. Modell, Catherine Weiner, Gregory W. Goldberg, David Bikard & Luciano A. Marraffini

doi: 10.1038/nature14245

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Letters

Ongoing hydrothermal activities within Enceladus p.207

Analysis of silicon-rich, nanometre-sized dust particles near Saturn shows them to consist of silica, which was initially embedded in icy grains emitted from Enceladus’ subsurface waters and released by sputter erosion in Saturn’s E ring; their properties indicate their ongoing formation and transport by high-temperature hydrothermal reactions from the ocean floor and up into the plume of Enceladus.

Hsiang-Wen Hsu, Frank Postberg, Yasuhito Sekine, Takazo Shibuya, Sascha Kempf, Mihály Horányi, Antal Juhász, Nicolas Altobelli, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Yuka Masaki + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14262

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Observation of antiferromagnetic correlations in the Hubbard model with ultracold atoms p.211

Ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices potentially offer simulations of condensed-matter phenomena beyond what theory and computations can access; compensated optical lattice techniques applied to the Hubbard model now enable unprecedented low temperatures to be reached for fermions — only 1.4 times that of the antiferromagnetic phase transition, approaching the limits of present modelling techniques.

Russell A. Hart, Pedro M. Duarte, Tsung-Lin Yang, Xinxing Liu, Thereza Paiva, Ehsan Khatami, Richard T. Scalettar, Nandini Trivedi, David A. Huse & Randall G. Hulet

doi: 10.1038/nature14223

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Spatiotemporal transcriptomics reveals the evolutionary history of the endoderm germ layer p.219

Studies of gene-expression levels in embryos of Caenorhabditis elegant and of other phyla reveal the timing and location of expression of all genes and support a model in which the endoderm program dates back to the origin of multicellularity while the ectoderm originated as a secondary germ layer freed from ancestral feeding functions.

Tamar Hashimshony, Martin Feder, Michal Levin, Brian K. Hall & Itai Yanai

doi: 10.1038/nature13996

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Large-scale discovery of novel genetic causes of developmental disorders p.223

Up to half of children with severe developmental disorders of probable genetic origin remain without a genetic diagnosis; here, in a systematic and nationwide study of 1,133 children with severe, undiagnosed developmental disorders, and their parents, exome sequencing and array-based detection of chromosomal rearrangements reveals novel genes causing developmental disorders, increasing the proportion of children that can now be diagnosed to 31%.

doi: 10.1038/nature14135

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Orientation columns in the mouse superior colliculus p.229

Population recordings reveal that neurons in the mouse superior colliculus are grouped according to their preferred orientations or movement axes for visual line stimuli, similar to the columnar arrangement in visual cortex of higher mammals; this functional architecture suggests that the superior colliculus samples the visual world unevenly for stimulus orientations.

Evan H. Feinberg & Markus Meister

doi: 10.1038/nature14103

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Mechanosensory interactions drive collective behaviour in Drosophila p.233

Collective behaviour in animal groups can improve individual perception and decision-making, but the neural mechanisms involved have been hard to access in classic models for these phenomena; here it is shown that Drosophila’s olfactory responses are enhanced in groups of flies, through mechanosensory neuron-dependent touch interactions.

Pavan Ramdya, Pawel Lichocki, Steeve Cruchet, Lukas Frisch, Winnie Tse, Dario Floreano & Richard Benton

doi: 10.1038/nature14024

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Identification of a mast-cell-specific receptor crucial for pseudo-allergic drug reactions p.237

Cationic substances, including some drugs, can activate mast cells in an IgE-independent manner, leading to histamine release, inflammation and airway contraction; here, the G-protein-coupled receptor MrgprB2, the orthologue of human MRGPRX2, is shown to be the sole mast cell receptor for these substances in mice.

Benjamin D. McNeil, Priyanka Pundir, Sonya Meeker, Liang Han, Bradley J. Undem, Marianna Kulka & Xinzhong Dong

doi: 10.1038/nature14022

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Group 2 innate lymphoid cells promote beiging of white adipose tissue and limit obesity p.242

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells are shown to have a critical role in energy homeostasis by producing methionine-enkephalin peptides in response to interleukin 33, thus promoting the beiging of white adipose tissue; increased numbers of beige (also known as brown-like or brite) fat cells in white adipose tissue leads to increased energy expenditure and decreased adiposity.

Jonathan R. Brestoff, Brian S. Kim, Steven A. Saenz, Rachel R. Stine, Laurel A. Monticelli, Gregory F. Sonnenberg, Joseph J. Thome, Donna L. Farber, Kabirullah Lutfy, Patrick Seale + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14115

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