네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

House of cards p.5

Western institutions must speak out against human-rights abuses in their partner countries.

doi: 10.1038/518005b

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Redirection home p.5

Europe's researchers should grab every opportunity to ensure that funds redirected towards strategic investment will not miss science altogether.

doi: 10.1038/518005a

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Road test p.6

Realizing the benefits of driverless cars will require governments to embrace the technology.

doi: 10.1038/518006a

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News

Obama budget seeks big boost for science p.13

White House plan would increase research and development funding but faces rough road in Congress.

Boer Deng, Richard Monastersky, Lauren Morello, Sara Reardon & Jeff Tollefson

doi: 10.1038/518013a

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News Features

No drivers required p.20

Automation is one of the hottest topics in transportation research and could yield completely driverless cars in less than a decade.

M. Mitchell Waldrop

doi: 10.1038/518020a

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The brain, interrupted p.24

Babies are increasingly surviving premature birth — but researchers are only beginning to understand the lasting consequences for their mental development.

Alison Abbott

doi: 10.1038/518024a

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News & Views

How to minimalize antibodies p.38

The success of antibodies as pharmaceuticals has triggered interest in crafting much smaller mimics. A crucial step forward has been taken with the chemical synthesis of small molecules that recruit immune cells to attack cancer cells.

Christoph Rader

doi: 10.1038/518038a

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The slippery base of a tectonic plate p.39

High-resolution imaging of the base of the Pacific plate as it descends beneath New Zealand discloses a 10-kilometre-thick channel that decouples the plate from underlying upper mantle. See Letter p.85

Catherine A. Rychert

doi: 10.1038/518039a

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Organelles under light control p.41

Optogenetic techniques enable light-activated control of protein–protein interactions in the cell. This approach has now been used to alter membrane dynamics and induce cellular reorganization. See Letter p.111

Franck Perez

doi: 10.1038/nature14086

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Three-dimensional printed electronics p.42

Can three-dimensional printing enable the mass customization of electronic devices? A study that exploits this method to create light-emitting diodes based on 'quantum dots' provides a step towards this goal.

Jennifer A. Lewis & Bok Y. Ahn

doi: 10.1038/518042a

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Deep and complex ways to survive bleaching p.43

Mass coral bleaching events can drive reefs from being the domains of corals to becoming dominated by seaweed. But longitudinal data show that more than half of the reefs studied rebound to their former glory. See Letter p.94

John M. Pandolfi

doi: 10.1038/nature14196

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Elusive source of sulfur unravelled p.45

The metabolic origin of the sulfur atom in the naturally occurring antibiotic lincomycin A has been obscure — until now. The biosynthetic steps involved reveal surprising roles for two sulfur-containing metabolites. See Letter p.115

Charles E. Melançon

doi: 10.1038/nature14197

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Climate sensitivity in a warmer world p.46

Comparison of climate records from the Pliocene and Pleistocene geological epochs of the past five million years suggests that positive climate feedbacks are not strengthened during warm climate intervals. See Article p.49

David W. Lea

doi: 10.1038/518046b

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Articles

Plio-Pleistocene climate sensitivity evaluated using high-resolution CO2 records p.49

A new record of Pliocene carbon dioxide variations derived from boron isotopes shows that climate sensitivity (the change in global mean temperature in response to radiative forcing) during the Plio-Pleistocene does not vary when cycles in continental ice are taken into account; this suggests that current estimates can be used to predict future climate.

M. A. Martínez-Botí, G. L. Foster, T. B. Chalk, E. J. Rohling, P. F. Sexton, D. J. Lunt, R. D. Pancost, M. P. S. Badger & D. N. Schmidt

doi: 10.1038/nature14145

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Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design p.55

Essential enzymes in genetically modified organisms are computationally redesigned to functionally depend on non-standard amino acids, thereby achieving biocontainment with unprecedented resistance to escape by evolution or by supplementation with environmental metabolites.

Daniel J. Mandell, Marc J. Lajoie, Michael T. Mee, Ryo Takeuchi, Gleb Kuznetsov, Julie E. Norville, Christopher J. Gregg, Barry L. Stoddard & George M. Church

doi: 10.1038/nature14121

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Mechanistic insights into the recycling machine of the SNARE complex p.61

Using single-particle electron cryomicroscopy, several structures are reported which illuminate the mechanisms of action of the ATPase NSF that disassembles the SNARE complex into individual protein components.

Minglei Zhao, Shenping Wu, Qiangjun Zhou, Sandro Vivona, Daniel J. Cipriano, Yifan Cheng & Axel T. Brunger

doi: 10.1038/nature14148

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Transport domain unlocking sets the uptake rate of an aspartate transporter p.68

An analysis of a bacterial homologue of the human glutamate transporter using single-molecule FRET and X-ray crystallography reveals that opening of the interface between its distinct transport and scaffold domains is rate determining for the transport cycle.

Nurunisa Akyuz, Elka R. Georgieva, Zhou Zhou, Sebastian Stolzenberg, Michel A. Cuendet, George Khelashvili, Roger B. Altman, Daniel S. Terry, Jack H. Freed, Harel Weinstein + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14158

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Letters

A possible close supermassive black-hole binary in a quasar with optical periodicity p.74

A search of a data set of light curves for 247,000 known, spectroscopically confirmed quasars with a temporal baseline of about 9 years reveals a strong, smooth periodic signal in the optical variability of quasar PG 1302−102 with a mean observed period of 1,884 ± 88 days, indicating a possible supermassive black-hole binary.

Matthew J. Graham, S. G. Djorgovski, Daniel Stern, Eilat Glikman, Andrew J. Drake, Ashish A. Mahabal, Ciro Donalek, Steve Larson & Eric Christensen

doi: 10.1038/nature14143

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Silylation of C–H bonds in aromatic heterocycles by an Earth-abundant metal catalyst p.80

Carbon–hydrogen (C–H) bond functionalization catalysed by potassium tert-butoxide, which is abundant and inexpensive, offers a direct route to the silylation of aromatic heterocycles that both obviates the need for precious metal catalysts and overcomes the limitations of previous methods.

Anton A. Toutov, Wen-Bo Liu, Kerry N. Betz, Alexey Fedorov, Brian M. Stoltz & Robert H. Grubbs

doi: 10.1038/nature14126

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A seismic reflection image for the base of a tectonic plate p.85

A high-resolution image for the base of an oceanic plate that is subducting beneath North Island, New Zealand, reveals a channel, which is interpreted as a sheared zone of ponded partial melts or volatiles; this low-viscosity channel decouples the plate from mantle flow beneath, allowing plate tectonics to work.

T. A. Stern, S. A. Henrys, D. Okaya, J. N. Louie, M. K. Savage, S. Lamb, H. Sato, R. Sutherland & T. Iwasaki

doi: 10.1038/nature14146

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Recoded organisms engineered to depend on synthetic amino acids p.89

Construction of a series of genomically recoded organisms whose growth is restricted by the expression of essential genes dependent on exogenously supplied synthetic amino acids introduces novel orthogonal barriers between these engineered organisms and the environment, thereby creating safer genetically modified organisms.

Alexis J. Rovner, Adrian D. Haimovich, Spencer R. Katz, Zhe Li, Michael W. Grome, Brandon M. Gassaway, Miriam Amiram, Jaymin R. Patel, Ryan R. Gallagher, Jesse Rinehart + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14095

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Predicting climate-driven regime shifts versus rebound potential in coral reefs p.94

An analysis of 21 coral reefs in the Indian Ocean using data across 17 years that spanned a major climatic disturbance reveals factors that predispose a coral reef to recovery or regime shift from hard corals to macroalgae; these results could foreshadow the likely outcomes of tropical coral reefs to the effects of climate change, informing management and adaptation plans.

Nicholas A. J. Graham, Simon Jennings, M. Aaron MacNeil, David Mouillot & Shaun K. Wilson

doi: 10.1038/nature14140

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Transferred interbacterial antagonism genes augment eukaryotic innate immune function p.98

Documented cases of horizontal gene transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes are rare, but now, not only is a new class of transferred genes identified, the function of one representative is also demonstrated in its new setting, where it controls bacterial growth.

Seemay Chou, Matthew D. Daugherty, S. Brook Peterson, Jacob Biboy, Youyun Yang, Brandon L. Jutras, Lillian K. Fritz-Laylin, Michael A. Ferrin, Brittany N. Harding, Christine Jacobs-Wagner + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13965

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Exome sequencing identifies rare LDLR and APOA5 alleles conferring risk for myocardial infarction p.102

Exome sequence analysis of nearly 10,000 people was carried out to identify alleles associated with early-onset myocardial infarction; mutations in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) or apolipoprotein A-V (APOA5) were associated with disease risk, identifying the key roles of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

Ron Do, Nathan O. Stitziel, Hong-Hee Won, Anders Berg Jørgensen, Stefano Duga, Pier Angelica Merlini, Adam Kiezun, Martin Farrall, Anuj Goel, Or Zuk + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13917

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MicroRNA silencing for cancer therapy targeted to the tumour microenvironment p.107

A novel anti-microRNA delivery platform that targets the acidic tumour microenvironment, in which a chosen anti-miRNA is coupled to a peptide that can transport the anti-miRNA across cell membranes specifically in an acidic environment.

Christopher J. Cheng, Raman Bahal, Imran A. Babar, Zachary Pincus, Francisco Barrera, Connie Liu, Alexander Svoronos, Demetrios T. Braddock, Peter M. Glazer, Donald M. Engelman + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13905

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Optogenetic control of organelle transport and positioning p.111

An optogenetic strategy allowing light-mediated recruitment of distinct cytoskeletal motor proteins to specific organelles is established; this technique enabled rapid and reversible activation or inhibition of the transport of organelles such as peroxisomes, recycling endosomes and mitochondria with high spatiotemporal accuracy, and the approach was also applied to primary neurons to demonstrate optical control of axonal growth by recycling endosome repositioning.

Petra van Bergeijk, Max Adrian, Casper C. Hoogenraad & Lukas C. Kapitein

doi: 10.1038/nature14128

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