네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Listen up p.121

Human echolocation kicks off the Nature podcast’s new series on sound science

doi: 10.1038/517121b

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Reasons to be cheerful p.121

As two new fronts in the war on disease demonstrate, creativity remains a key weapon for scientists in the hunt for drugs.

doi: 10.1038/517121a

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News

News Features

The insurmountable gulf p.132

Twenty-four years after the conflict ended, scientists and veterans are still fighting for recognition of Gulf War illness.

Sara Reardon

doi: 10.1038/517132a

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Pollution patrol p.136

Step aside, fitness trackers. The next wave of personal sensors is giving people the ability to monitor the air they breathe.

Kat Austen

doi: 10.1038/517136a

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News & Views

Carbon at the coastal interface p.148

The extent to which coastal-ocean regions act as a sink for carbon dioxide has been enigmatic. An estimate based on more than 3 million observations suggests a smaller sink than was thought, concentrated at high latitudes.

Nicolas Gruber

doi: 10.1038/nature14082

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Enzymes surf the heat wave p.149

Molecular diffusion of some enzymes is enhanced when they catalyse reactions, but the reason for this was obscure. Dissipation of heat generated by catalysis through the protein is now thought to propel the molecules. See Letter p.227

A. Joshua Wand

doi: 10.1038/nature14079

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Unburnable fossil-fuel reserves p.150

How much more of Earth's fossil fuels can we extract and burn in the short- to medium-term future and still avoid severe global warming? A model provides the answer, and shows where these 'unburnable' reserves are. See Letter p.187

Michael Jakob & Jérôme Hilaire

doi: 10.1038/517150a

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Resistance through repopulation p.152

Bladder-cancer cells have been found to release prostaglandin E2 when they are killed by chemotherapy. Paradoxically, this molecule stimulates the proliferation of surviving cancer stem cells, leading to tumour repopulation. See Letter p.209

Ian F. Tannock

doi: 10.1038/nature14075

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Spin memories in for the long haul p.153

Spin systems have now been found that have lifetimes of up to six hours. They could be used to build quantum-communication networks and, if optical transmission fails, could even be shipped as a 'quantum memory stick'. See Letter p.177

John J. L. Morton & Klaus Mølmer

doi: 10.1038/517153a

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The versatile and plastic liver p.155

There is conflicting evidence about which cell type is responsible for liver regeneration following damage. It emerges that duct-like progenitor cells arise from hepatocytes after liver damage, a finding that reconciles previous data.

Meritxell Huch

doi: 10.1038/517155a

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A three-dimensional neural compass p.156

The discovery that the neural navigation system of the mammalian brain acts in three dimensions sheds light on how mammals orient themselves in complex environments. See Article p.159

David C. Rowland & May-Britt Moser

doi: 10.1038/nature14076

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Articles

Three-dimensional head-direction coding in the bat brain p.159

A study of freely moving bats provides new insights into how the brain encodes a three-dimensional neural compass; neurons were identified encoding the three Euler rotation angles of the head (azimuth, pitch, and roll) and recordings from these head-direction cells revealed a toroidal model of spatial orientation mapped out by cells tuned to two circular variables (azimuth × pitch).

Arseny Finkelstein, Dori Derdikman, Alon Rubin, Jakob N. Foerster, Liora Las & Nachum Ulanovsky

doi: 10.1038/nature14031

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Human gut Bacteroidetes can utilize yeast mannan through a selfish mechanism p.165

Mannan, a component of yeast cell walls, is shown to be a viable food source for Bacteroides thetaiotamicron, a dominant member of the gut microbiota, which catabolizes the mannan ‘selfishly’—countering the general assumption that multiple members of the gut microbiota take a role in, and benefit from, polysaccharide catabolism.

Fiona Cuskin, Elisabeth C. Lowe, Max J. Temple, Yanping Zhu, Elizabeth A. Cameron, Nicholas A. Pudlo, Nathan T. Porter, Karthik Urs, Andrew J. Thompson, Alan Cartmell + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13995

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Glutathione activates virulence gene expression of an intracellular pathogen p.170

This study shows that glutathione, a ubiquitous antioxidant, is also a critical signalling molecule that allosterically activates the master virulence regulator in the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes.

Michelle L. Reniere, Aaron T. Whiteley, Keri L. Hamilton, Sonya M. John, Peter Lauer, Richard G. Brennan & Daniel A. Portnoy

doi: 10.1038/nature14029

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Letters

The temperature and chronology of heavy-element synthesis in low-mass stars p.174

Spectrographically obtained zirconium, niobium and technetium abundances in a sample of low-mass stars of type S are used to determine that, in these stars, heavy elements are synthesized by the slow-neutron-capture process at a temperature of less than about 250 million kelvin, and that the process began one million to three million years ago.

P. Neyskens, S. Van Eck, A. Jorissen, S. Goriely, L. Siess & B. Plez

doi: 10.1038/nature14050

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Optically addressable nuclear spins in a solid with a six-hour coherence time p.177

An essential ingredient of future worldwide quantum communication is the generation of long-lived entangled quantum states; a coherence time of six hours is now reported for optically addressable nuclear spins in europium-doped yttrium orthosilicate.

Manjin Zhong, Morgan P. Hedges, Rose L. Ahlefeldt, John G. Bartholomew, Sarah E. Beavan, Sven M. Wittig, Jevon J. Longdell & Matthew J. Sellars

doi: 10.1038/nature14025

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The geographical distribution of fossil fuels unused when limiting global warming to 2 °C p.187

Policy makers have generally agreed that the average global temperature rise caused by greenhouse gas emissions should not exceed 2 °C above the average global temperature of pre-industrial times. It has been estimated that to have at least a 50 per cent chance of keeping warming below 2 °C throughout the twenty-first century, the cumulative carbon emissions between 2011 and 2050 need to be limited to around 1,100 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (Gt CO2). However, the greenhouse gas emissions contained in present estimates of global fossil fuel reserves are around three times higher than this, and so the unabated use of all current fossil fuel reserves is incompatible with a warming limit of 2 °C. Here we use a single integrated assessment model that contains estimates of the quantities, locations and nature of the world’s oil, gas and coal reserves and resources, and which is shown to be consistent with a wide variety of modelling approaches with different assumptions, to explore the implications of this emissions limit for fossil fuel production in different regions. Our results suggest that, globally, a third of oil reserves, half of gas reserves and over 80 per cent of current coal reserves should remain unused from 2010 to 2050 in order to meet the target of 2 °C. We show that development of resources in the Arctic and any increase in unconventional oil production are incommensurate with efforts to limit average global warming to 2 °C. Our results show that policy makers’ instincts to exploit rapidly and completely their territorial fossil fuels are, in aggregate, inconsistent with their commitments to this temperature limit. Implementation of this policy commitment would also render unnecessary continued substantial expenditure on fossil fuel exploration, because any new discoveries could not lead to increased aggregate production.

Christophe McGlade & Paul Ekins

doi: 10.1038/nature14016

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Segmented lateral dyke growth in a rifting event at Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland p.191

Seismicity and ground deformation measurements show how a recent segmented dyke intrusion in the Bárðarbunga volcanic system in Iceland grew laterally for 45 kilometres over 14 days; dyke opening and seismicity were focused at the most distal segment, where lateral dyke growth with segment barrier breaking by pressure build-up occurred.

Freysteinn Sigmundsson, Andrew Hooper, Sigrún Hreinsdóttir, Kristín S. Vogfjörd, Benedikt G. Ófeigsson, Elías Rafn Heimisson, Stéphanie Dumont, Michelle Parks, Karsten Spaans, Gunnar B. Gudmundsson + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14111

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Copulation in antiarch placoderms and the origin of gnathostome internal fertilization p.196

The discovery of claspers in fossils of antiarch placoderms, an ancient group of armoured fish, suggests that internal fertilization was the ancestral type of reproduction for all jawed vertebrates: this contrasts with the current understanding that external fertilization must be the ancestral state.

John A. Long, Elga Mark-Kurik, Zerina Johanson, Michael S. Y. Lee, Gavin C. Young, Zhu Min, Per E. Ahlberg, Michael Newman, Roger Jones, Jan den Blaauwen + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13825

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Precision microbiome reconstitution restores bile acid mediated resistance to Clostridium difficile p.205

A fraction of the intestinal microbiota as precise as a single bacterial species confers infection resistance by synthesizing Clostridium difficult-inhibiting metabolites from host-derived bile salts.

Charlie G. Buffie, Vanni Bucci, Richard R. Stein, Peter T. McKenney, Lilan Ling, Asia Gobourne, Daniel No, Hui Liu, Melissa Kinnebrew, Agnes Viale + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13828

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Blocking PGE2-induced tumour repopulation abrogates bladder cancer chemoresistance p.209

Using human bladder cancer xenograft models, a new mechanism involving an active proliferative response of cancer stem cells to chemotherapy-induced damage is shown, driven by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release in a manner similar to PGE2-induced wound repair; pharmacological inhibition of the PGE2/COX2 axis by celecoxib attenuates chemoresistance, suggesting a possible adjunctive therapy for bladder carcinomas.

Antonina V. Kurtova, Jing Xiao, Qianxing Mo, Senthil Pazhanisamy, Ross Krasnow, Seth P. Lerner, Fengju Chen, Terrence T. Roh, Erica Lay, Philip Levy Ho + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature14034

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T–B-cell entanglement and ICOSL-driven feed-forward regulation of germinal centre reaction p.214

Interactions between T and B cells in the germinal centre are brief but involve extensive cell-surface contact in an entangled mode; ICOSL promotes T–B entanglement and B-cell acquisition of CD40L, which drives B cells to upregulate ICOSL, thus forming an intercellular feed-forward loop that is required for efficient positive selection and development of the bone marrow plasma cell compartment.

Dan Liu, Heping Xu, Changming Shih, Zurong Wan, Xiaopeng Ma, Weiwei Ma, Dan Luo & Hai Qi

doi: 10.1038/nature13803

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EFF-1-mediated regenerative axonal fusion requires components of the apoptotic pathway p.219

Unlike the limited post-injury neuronal regeneration in humans, severed axons in C. elegant can regenerate through a cellular fusion mechanism; this study identifies the molecular basis for this process which includes phosphatidylserine recognition and a role for specific molecules that also act in apoptosis.

Brent Neumann, Sean Coakley, Rosina Giordano-Santini, Casey Linton, Eui Seung Lee, Akihisa Nakagawa, Ding Xue & Massimo A. Hilliard

doi: 10.1038/nature14102

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Allosteric activation of the RNF146 ubiquitin ligase by a poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation signal p.223

Structural and biochemical approaches are used to show how RNF146 activity is allosterically regulated by the binding of poly(ADP-ribose) ligand, and how substrate specificity is achieved with protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and ubiquitination occurring in the same protein complex.

Paul A. DaRosa, Zhizhi Wang, Xiaomo Jiang, Jonathan N. Pruneda, Feng Cong, Rachel E. Klevit & Wenqing Xu

doi: 10.1038/nature13826

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The heat released during catalytic turnover enhances the diffusion of an enzyme p.227

It has been traditionally assumed that the heat released during a single enzymatic catalytic event does not perturb the enzyme in any way; however, here single-molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy is used to show that, for enzymes that catalyse chemical reactions with large reaction enthalpies, the heat released at the protein's active site during catalysis transiently displaces the protein's centre-of-mass, essentially giving rise to a recoil effect that propels the enzyme.

Clement Riedel, Ronen Gabizon, Christian A. M. Wilson, Kambiz Hamadani, Konstantinos Tsekouras, Susan Marqusee, Steve Pressé & Carlos Bustamante

doi: 10.1038/nature14043

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