네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

On the mend p.7

The scientific regeneration of central Europe is gathering pace, but needs further help to thrive.

doi: 10.1038/515007b

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Protect the parks p.8

Balancing the needs of development and conservation is difficult — but urgent.

doi: 10.1038/515008a

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News

Models overestimate Ebola cases p.18

Rate of infection in Liberia seems to plateau, raising questions over the usefulness of models in an outbreak.

Declan Butler

doi: 10.1038/515018a

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Lobbying sways NIH grants p.19

Pressure on lawmakers from patient-advocacy groups has shaped agency spending on rare-disease research.

Sara Reardon

doi: 10.1038/515019a

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News Features

Central Europe up close p.22

In the 25 years since the collapse of communism, the countries of central and Eastern Europe have each carved their own identity in science.

Alison Abbott & Quirin Schiermeier

doi: 10.1038/515022a

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News & Views

Surf's up at SLAC p.40

A 'plasma afterburner' just 30 centimetres long accelerates electrons hundreds of times faster than giant conventional accelerators. The result may ultimately open up a low-cost technology for particle colliders. See Letter p.92

Mike Downer & Rafal Zgadzaj

doi: 10.1038/515040a

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Cells unite by trapping a signal p.41

Gradients of fibroblast growth factors often induce cells to adopt different fates. A study in zebrafish embryos reveals another, unexpected role when the factors are trapped in small spaces by a special arrangement of cells. See Letter p.120

James Sharpe

doi: 10.1038/nature13933

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Monster star found hiding in plain sight p.42

Massive stars are rare, but they are sources of some of the most energetic phenomena seen in the Universe today. A high-mass candidate has now been found in a star-forming region that has been observed for more than 50 years.

Donald F. Figer

doi: 10.1038/515042a

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Diversity breeds complementarity p.44

Evolutionary and ecosystem processes have long been treated as distinct. The finding that interactions among plant species cause rapid evolutionary changes that affect ecosystem function suggests that it is time for unification. See Letter p.108

David Tilman & Emilie C. Snell-Rood

doi: 10.1038/nature13929

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Shape control in reactions with light p.45

The report of a light-activated catalyst that dictates the three-dimensional shape — the stereochemistry — of molecules formed in an organic reaction suggests a new strategy for controlling such reactions using visible light. See Letter p.100

Kazimer L. Skubi & Tehshik P. Yoon

doi: 10.1038/515045a

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Metastasis risk after anti-macrophage therapy p.46

Blocking the activity of macrophages may delay the spread of cancer. But new findings show that these immune cells can rapidly rebound to tumours after therapy withdrawal, accelerating lethal metastasis in mice. See Letter p.130

Ioanna Keklikoglou & Michele De Palma

doi: 10.1038/nature13931

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Articles

Life cycles, fitness decoupling and the evolution of multicellularity p.75

Simple cooperating groups of bacteria reproduced either by embracing or purging cheating types; those that embraced cheats adopted a life cycle of alternating phenotypic states, underpinned by a developmental switch that allowed the fitness of collectives to decouple from the fitness of constituent cells.

Katrin Hammerschmidt, Caroline J. Rose, Benjamin Kerr & Paul B. Rainey

doi: 10.1038/nature13884

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Architecture of mammalian respiratory complex I p.80

Complex I is the first enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and it is essential for oxidative phosphorylation in mammalian mitochondria; here the electron cryo-microscopy structure of complex I from bovine heart mitochondria is reported, advancing knowledge of its structure in mammals.

Kutti R. Vinothkumar, Jiapeng Zhu & Judy Hirst

doi: 10.1038/nature13686

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Letters

Suppression of cooling by strong magnetic fields in white dwarf stars p.88

Cool white dwarf stars often have mysteriously strong magnetic fields (because their coolness suggests that they are old, and magnetic fields should decline in strength with age) and unexplained brightness variations; here the magnetic field is shown to suppress atmospheric convection, inhibiting cooling evolution and causing dark spots.

G. Valyavin, D. Shulyak, G. A. Wade, K. Antonyuk, S. V. Zharikov, G. A. Galazutdinov, S. Plachinda, S. Bagnulo, L. Fox Machado, M. Alvarez + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13836

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High-efficiency acceleration of an electron beam in a plasma wakefield accelerator p.92

To develop plasma wakefield acceleration into a compact and affordable replacement for conventional accelerators, beams of charged particles must be accelerated at high efficiency in a high electric field; here this is demonstrated for a bunch of charged electrons ‘surfing’ on a previously excited plasma wave.

M. Litos, E. Adli, W. An, C. I. Clarke, C. E. Clayton, S. Corde, J. P. Delahaye, R. J. England, A. S. Fisher, J. Frederico + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13882

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Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots p.96

The insertion of an insulating layer into a multilayer light-emitting diode (LED) based on quantum dots and produced by depositing the layers from solution increases the performance of the LEDs to levels comparable to those of state-of-the-art organic LEDs produced by vacuum deposition, while retaining the advantages of solution processing.

Xingliang Dai, Zhenxing Zhang, Yizheng Jin, Yuan Niu, Hujia Cao, Xiaoyong Liang, Liwei Chen, Jianpu Wang & Xiaogang Peng

doi: 10.1038/nature13829

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Asymmetric photoredox transition-metal catalysis activated by visible light p.100

A chiral iridium complex serves as a sensitizer for photoredox catalysis and at the same time provides very effective asymmetric induction for the enantioselective alkylation of 2-acyl imidazoles; the metal centre simultaneously serves as the exclusive source of chirality, the catalytically active Lewis acid centre, and the photoredox centre.

Haohua Huo, Xiaodong Shen, Chuanyong Wang, Lilu Zhang, Philipp Röse, Liang-An Chen, Klaus Harms, Michael Marsch, Gerhard Hilt & Eric Meggers

doi: 10.1038/nature13892

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Recent Northern Hemisphere stratospheric HCl increase due to atmospheric circulation changes p.104

Policies have been in place since 1987 to reduce the release of chlorine atoms in the stratosphere, where they deplete ozone; here observations show that since 2007 hydrogen chloride has been increasing in the lower stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere, an increase that is attributed to a slowdown in atmospheric circulation.

E. Mahieu, M. P. Chipperfield, J. Notholt, T. Reddmann, J. Anderson, P. F. Bernath, T. Blumenstock, M. T. Coffey, S. S. Dhomse, W. Feng + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13857

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Selection for niche differentiation in plant communities increases biodiversity effects p.108

Here, new ecological communities are established using plants from mixed-species communities or monocultures; ecosystem functioning and morphological trait diversity are shown to be greater in plants from mixed-species communities, suggesting that biodiversity effects in natural communities strengthen over time.

Debra Zuppinger-Dingley, Bernhard Schmid, Jana S. Petermann, Varuna Yadav, Gerlinde B. De Deyn & Dan F. B. Flynn

doi: 10.1038/nature13869

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Nodal signalling determines biradial asymmetry in Hydra p.112

A Nodal-related gene is uncovered in Hydra and is involved in setting up the body axis, and a β-Catenin–Nodal–Pitx signalling cassette is shown to have existed before the divergence of cnidarians, including Hydra, and bilaterians.

Hiroshi Watanabe, Heiko A. Schmidt, Anne Kuhn, Stefanie K. Höger, Yigit Kocagöz, Nico Laumann-Lipp, Suat Özbek & Thomas W. Holstein

doi: 10.1038/nature13666

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Sensory-evoked LTP driven by dendritic plateau potentials in vivo p.116

Whole-cell recordings in mouse somatosensory cortex in vivo show that rhythmic sensory-whisker stimulation induces long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) in layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal cells, in the absence of somatic spikes, through long-lasting NMDAR-mediated depolarizations that are generated by synaptic networks originating from the posteromedial complex of the thalamus.

Frédéric Gambino, Stéphane Pagès, Vassilis Kehayas, Daniela Baptista, Roberta Tatti, Alan Carleton & Anthony Holtmaat

doi: 10.1038/nature13664

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Luminal signalling links cell communication to tissue architecture during organogenesis p.120

Groups of cells within a migrating collective assemble shared luminal cavities that trap and concentrate the signalling molecule fibroblast growth factor, providing a self-organising mechanism to focus and coordinate cell communication within tissues.

Sevi Durdu, Murat Iskar, Celine Revenu, Nicole Schieber, Andreas Kunze, Peer Bork, Yannick Schwab & Darren Gilmour

doi: 10.1038/nature13852

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PLETHORA gradient formation mechanism separates auxin responses p.125

Through a combination of experimental and computational approaches, the interplay between the plant hormone auxin and the auxin-induced PLETHORA transcription factors is shown to control zonation and gravity-prompted growth movements in plants.

Ari Pekka Mähönen, Kirsten ten Tusscher, Riccardo Siligato, Ondřej Smetana, Sara Díaz-Triviño, Jarkko Salojärvi, Guy Wachsman, Kalika Prasad, Renze Heidstra & Ben Scheres

doi: 10.1038/nature13663

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Cessation of CCL2 inhibition accelerates breast cancer metastasis by promoting angiogenesis p.130

In mouse models of breast cancer, anti-CCL2 therapy—thought to be potentially useful in treating cancer—is shown to accelerate the growth of lung metastases on discontinuation due to a surge of recruitment of bone marrow monocytes and increased interleukin-6-dependent vascularization of the lung metastatic environment.

Laura Bonapace, Marie-May Coissieux, Jeffrey Wyckoff, Kirsten D. Mertz, Zsuzsanna Varga, Tobias Junt & Mohamed Bentires-Alj

doi: 10.1038/nature13862

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Tumour-infiltrating Gr-1+ myeloid cells antagonize senescence in cancer p.134

Aberrant activation of oncogenes or loss of tumour suppressor genes opposes malignant transformation by triggering a stable arrest in cell growth, which is termed cellular senescence. This process is finely tuned by both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous mechanisms that regulate the entry of tumour cells to senescence. Whether tumour-infiltrating immune cells can oppose senescence is unknown. Here we show that at the onset of senescence, PTEN null prostate tumours in mice are massively infiltrated by a population of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells that protect a fraction of proliferating tumour cells from senescence, thus sustaining tumour growth. Mechanistically, we found that Gr-1+ cells antagonize senescence in a paracrine manner by interfering with the senescence-associated secretory phenotype of the tumour through the secretion of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA). Strikingly, Pten-loss-induced cellular senescence was enhanced in vivo when Il1ra knockout myeloid cells were adoptively transferred to PTEN null mice. Therapeutically, docetaxel-induced senescence and efficacy were higher in PTEN null tumours when the percentage of tumour-infiltrating CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells was reduced using an antagonist of CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2). Taken together, our findings identify a novel non-cell-autonomous network, established by innate immunity, that controls senescence evasion and chemoresistance. Targeting this network provides novel opportunities for cancer therapy.

Diletta Di Mitri, Alberto Toso, Jing Jing Chen, Manuela Sarti, Sandra Pinton, Tanja Rezzonico Jost, Rocco D’Antuono, Erica Montani, Ramon Garcia-Escudero, Ilaria Guccini + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13638

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Broad and potent HIV-1 neutralization by a human antibody that binds the gp41–gp120 interface p.138

Molecular and structural characterization is reported for a new broad and potent monoclonal antibody against HIV that binds to an epitope bridging the gp41 and gp120 subunits — the antibody affects a step in virus entry after binding to CD4 and before engagement of CCR5.

Jinghe Huang, Byong H. Kang, Marie Pancera, Jeong Hyun Lee, Tommy Tong, Yu Feng, Hiromi Imamichi, Ivelin S. Georgiev, Gwo-Yu Chuang, Aliaksandr Druz + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13601

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Pseudouridine profiling reveals regulated mRNA pseudouridylation in yeast and human cells p.143

The modification of uridine to pseudouridine is widespread in transfer and ribosomal RNAs but not observed so far in a coding RNA; here a new technique is used to detect this modification on a genome-wide scale, leading to the identification of pseudouridylation in messenger RNAs as well as almost 100 new sites in non-coding RNAs.

Thomas M. Carlile, Maria F. Rojas-Duran, Boris Zinshteyn, Hakyung Shin, Kristen M. Bartoli & Wendy V. Gilbert

doi: 10.1038/nature13802

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Crystal structure of the RNA-guided immune surveillance Cascade complex in Escherichia coli p.147

The CRISPR/Cas system is an RNA-guided bacterial protection system against foreign nucleic acids of bacterial and archaeal origin; here a high-resolution crystal structure of the CRIPSR RNA–Cas complex shows that the CRIPSR RNA plays an essential role not only in target recognition but also in complex assembly.

Hongtu Zhao, Gang Sheng, Jiuyu Wang, Min Wang, Gabor Bunkoczi, Weimin Gong, Zhiyi Wei & Yanli Wang

doi: 10.1038/nature13733

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