네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

A little knowledge p.139

The significance of expertise passed on by direct contact— tacit knowledge — is moot.

doi: 10.1038/514139b

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Out of Africa p.139

The Ebola outbreak in West Africa must be shut down now, or the disease will continue to spread.

doi: 10.1038/514139a

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Holy cows p.140

A mass beaching of walruses in Alaska is a sign of things to come.

doi: 10.1038/514140a

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News

Blue LED wins physics Nobel p.152

Physics prize recognizes potential of invention with power to reduce global electricity consumption.

Elizabeth Gibney

doi: 10.1038/514152a

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Prize for place cells p.153

Discoverers of brain’s navigation system get physiology Nobel.

Alison Abbott & Ewen Callaway

doi: 10.1038/514153a

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News Features

Brains of Norway p.154

Nobel prizewinners May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser have spent a career together near the Arctic Circle exploring how our brains know where we are.

Alison Abbott

doi: 10.1038/514154a

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The big reboot p.158

As the Large Hadron Collider prepares to come back to life after a two-year hiatus, physicists are gearing up to go beyond the standard model of particle physics.

Matthew Chalmers

doi: 10.1038/514158a

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News & Views

Art on the move p.170

Studies of stencils and paintings from prehistoric caves in Indonesia date the art to at least 39,900 years ago — around the same age as the earliest cave art previously known, 13,000 kilometres away in western Europe. See Letter p.223

Wil Roebroeks

doi: 10.1038/514170a

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Small field with a large impact p.171

The nature of ultraluminous X-ray astronomical sources has long been unclear. The latest observations of these rare systems provide some crucial clues, but still leave theorists scratching their heads. See Letters p.198 & p.202

Jeanette C. Gladstone

doi: 10.1038/514171a

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Lariat lessons p.173

The spliceosome enzyme complex removes intron sequences from RNA transcripts to form messenger RNA. The crystal structure of a lasso-shaped RNA suggests a mechanism for this splicing process. See Article p.193

Robert T. Batey

doi: 10.1038/nature13754

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The mass of a top p.174

A measurement of the mass of the heftiest-known elementary particle, the top quark, which exists for less than a trillionth of a trillionth of a second, sheds light on the ultimate fate of our Universe, although ambiguities cloud its interpretation.

Peter Skands

doi: 10.1038/514174a

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The weighty costs of non-caloric sweeteners p.176

Analyses in mice and humans indicate that non-caloric artificial sweeteners may promote obesity-associated metabolic changes by changing the function of the bacteria that colonize the gut. See Article p.181

Taylor Feehley & Cathryn R. Nagler

doi: 10.1038/nature13752

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Good vibrations p.177

A newly constructed electron-energy monochromator for an atomic-resolution transmission electron microscope has resolved spectroscopic signatures of chemical-bond vibrations that are spatially highly localized. See Letter p.209

Rik Brydson

doi: 10.1038/514177a

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Incipient tradition in wild chimpanzees p.178

The adoption of a new form of tool use has been observed to spread along social-network pathways in a chimpanzee community. The finding offers the first direct evidence of cultural diffusion in these animals in the wild.

Andrew Whiten

doi: 10.1038/nature13759

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Articles

Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota p.181

Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS), widely used food additives considered to be safe and beneficial alternatives to sugars, are shown here to lead to the development of glucose intolerance through compositional and functional changes in the gut microbiota of mice, and the deleterious metabolic effects are transferred to germ-free mice by faecal transplant; NAS-induced dysbiosis and glucose intolerance are also demonstrated in healthy human subjects.

Jotham Suez, Tal Korem, David Zeevi, Gili Zilberman-Schapira, Christoph A. Thaiss, Ori Maza, David Israeli, Niv Zmora, Shlomit Gilad, Adina Weinberger + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13793

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Inflammatory caspases are innate immune receptors for intracellular LPS p.187

Caspase-4 and caspase-11 are shown to be the direct sensors for cytoplasmic lipopolysaccharide in humans and mice, respectively, mediating inflammatory cell death in intracellular bacterial infection.

Jianjin Shi, Yue Zhao, Yupeng Wang, Wenqing Gao, Jingjin Ding, Peng Li, Liyan Hu & Feng Shao

doi: 10.1038/nature13683

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Crystal structure of a eukaryotic group II intron lariat p.193

This study determines the structure of a branched lariat RNA, providing insights into rearrangement of the intron between the two steps of RNA splicing.

Aaron R. Robart, Russell T. Chan, Jessica K. Peters, Kanagalaghatta R. Rajashankar & Navtej Toor

doi: 10.1038/nature13790

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Letters

An ultraluminous X-ray source powered by an accreting neutron star p.202

X-ray pulsations with an average period of 1.37 seconds have been detected from a known ultraluminous X-ray source hitherto thought to be a black hole; the pulsations instead unequivocally identify the source as an accreting magnetized neutron star ten times brighter than any previously known.

M. Bachetti, F. A. Harrison, D. J. Walton, B. W. Grefenstette, D. Chakrabarty, F. Fürst, D. Barret, A. Beloborodov, S. E. Boggs, F. E. Christensen + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13791

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Large, non-saturating magnetoresistance in WTe2 p.205

The magnetoresistance effect in WTe2, a layered semimetal, is extremely large: the electrical resistance can be changed by more than 13 million per cent at very high magnetic fields and low temperatures.

Mazhar N. Ali, Jun Xiong, Steven Flynn, Jing Tao, Quinn D. Gibson, Leslie M. Schoop, Tian Liang, Neel Haldolaarachchige, Max Hirschberger, N. P. Ong + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13763

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Vibrational spectroscopy in the electron microscope p.209

Recent advances in electron microscopy are shown to allow vibrational spectroscopy at high spatial resolution in a scanning transmission electron microscope, and also to enable the direct detection of hydrogen.

Ondrej L. Krivanek, Tracy C. Lovejoy, Niklas Dellby, Toshihiro Aoki, R. W. Carpenter, Peter Rez, Emmanuel Soignard, Jiangtao Zhu, Philip E. Batson, Maureen J. Lagos + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13870

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Global covariation of carbon turnover times with climate in terrestrial ecosystems p.213

A global, observation-based assessment of whole-ecosystem carbon turnover times shows that the overall mean global carbon turnover time is about 23 years and that locally its spatial variability depends on precipitation at least as strongly as on temperature.

Nuno Carvalhais, Matthias Forkel, Myroslava Khomik, Jessica Bellarby, Martin Jung, Mirco Migliavacca, Mingquan Μu, Sassan Saatchi, Maurizio Santoro, Martin Thurner + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13731

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Pleistocene cave art from Sulawesi, Indonesia p.223

Cave art from the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia, consisting of human hand stencils and animal paintings, is at least 40,000 years old, raising the question of why rock art traditions appeared at more or less the same time at opposite ends of the Late Pleistocene human world.

M. Aubert, A. Brumm, M. Ramli, T. Sutikna, E. W. Saptomo, B. Hakim, M. J. Morwood, G. D. van den Bergh, L. Kinsley & A. Dosseto

doi: 10.1038/nature13422

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Inappropriate p53 activation during development induces features of CHARGE syndrome p.228

Inappropriate activation of the tumour-suppressor protein p53 during development can promote phenotypes similar to those of CHARGE syndrome, suggesting that p53 activation not only has a beneficial function in suppressing cancer but also a deleterious function in promoting developmental syndromes.

Jeanine L. Van Nostrand, Colleen A. Brady, Heiyoun Jung, Daniel R. Fuentes, Margaret M. Kozak, Thomas M. Johnson, Chieh-Yu Lin, Chien-Jung Lin, Donald L. Swiderski, Hannes Vogel + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13585

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Protein competition switches the function of COP9 from self-renewal to differentiation p.233

Using biochemical and genetic approaches, a protein-competition-based mechanism that controls the balance between stem cell self-renewal and differentiation of germline stem cells in the Drosophila melanogaster ovary has been uncovered.

Lei Pan, Su Wang, Tinglin Lu, Changjiang Weng, Xiaoqing Song, Joseph K. Park, Jin Sun, Zhi-Hao Yang, Junjing Yu, Hong Tang + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13562

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Interleukin-22 alleviates metabolic disorders and restores mucosal immunity in diabetes p.237

In pre-clinical mouse models, the interleukin-22 pathway is identified as a novel target for therapeutic intervention in metabolic diseases.

Xiaoting Wang, Naruhisa Ota, Paolo Manzanillo, Lance Kates, Jose Zavala-Solorio, Celine Eidenschenk, Juan Zhang, Justin Lesch, Wyne P. Lee, Jed Ross + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13564

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HSP70 sequestration by free α-globin promotes ineffective erythropoiesis in β-thalassaemia p.242

β-Thalassaemia major (β-TM) is an inherited haemoglobinopathy caused by a quantitative defect in the synthesis of β-globin chains of haemoglobin, leading to the accumulation of free α-globin chains that form toxic aggregates. Despite extensive knowledge of the molecular defects causing β-TM, little is known of the mechanisms responsible for the ineffective erythropoiesis observed in the condition, which is characterized by accelerated erythroid differentiation, maturation arrest and apoptosis at the polychromatophilic stage. We have previously demonstrated that normal human erythroid maturation requires a transient activation of caspase-3 at the later stages of maturation. Although erythroid transcription factor GATA-1, the master transcriptional factor of erythropoiesis, is a caspase-3 target, it is not cleaved during erythroid differentiation. We have shown that, in human erythroblasts, the chaperone heat shock protein70 (HSP70) is constitutively expressed and, at later stages of maturation, translocates into the nucleus and protects GATA-1 from caspase-3 cleavage. The primary role of this ubiquitous chaperone is to participate in the refolding of proteins denatured by cytoplasmic stress, thus preventing their aggregation. Here we show in vitro that during the maturation of human β-TM erythroblasts, HSP70 interacts directly with free α-globin chains. As a consequence, HSP70 is sequestrated in the cytoplasm and GATA-1 is no longer protected, resulting in end-stage maturation arrest and apoptosis. Transduction of a nuclear-targeted HSP70 mutant or a caspase-3-uncleavable GATA-1 mutant restores terminal maturation of β-TM erythroblasts, which may provide a rationale for new targeted therapies of β-TM.

Jean-Benoît Arlet, Jean-Antoine Ribeil, Flavia Guillem, Olivier Negre, Adonis Hazoume, Guillaume Marcion, Yves Beuzard, Michaël Dussiot, Ivan Cruz Moura, Samuel Demarest + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13614

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PRC2 loss amplifies Ras-driven transcription and confers sensitivity to BRD4-based therapies p.247

SUZ12, a component of the PRC2 complex, can also function as a tumour suppressor in certain tumours of the nervous system and melanomas.

Thomas De Raedt, Eline Beert, Eric Pasmant, Armelle Luscan, Hilde Brems, Nicolas Ortonne, Kristian Helin, Jason L. Hornick, Victor Mautner, Hildegard Kehrer-Sawatzki + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13561

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Mechanism of Dis3l2 substrate recognition in the Lin28–let-7 pathway p.252

The structure of mouse Dis3l2 bound to an oligoU substrate shows a funnel-like substrate-binding site with the RNA being fed into the active site along a path that is distinct from that seen in the related catalytic subunit of the exosome — 12 uracils of the oligoU-tailed RNA are recognized in a complex network of interactions, suggesting the basis for target specificity.

Christopher R. Faehnle, Jack Walleshauser & Leemor Joshua-Tor

doi: 10.1038/nature13553

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Required enhancer–matrin-3 network interactions for a homeodomain transcription program p.257

The POU homeodomain transcription factor Pit1 is required for pituitary development; here Pit1-occupied enhancers are shown to interact with the nuclear architecture components matrin-3 and Satb1, and this association is required for activation of Pit1-regulated enhancers and coding target genes.

Dorota Skowronska-Krawczyk, Qi Ma, Michal Schwartz, Kathleen Scully, Wenbo Li, Zhijie Liu, Havilah Taylor, Jessica Tollkuhn, Kenneth A. Ohgi, Dimple Notani + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13573

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