네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Warming up p.5

Prospects for international agreement on combating climate change look brighter.

doi: 10.1038/514005b

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BRAIN gain p.6

A mixture of focus and innovation is the way forward for big neuroscience.

doi: 10.1038/514006a

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News

Data bounty spurs debate p.18

Small institutions fear exclusion from Large Synoptic Survey Telescope's benefits.

Mark Zastrow

doi: 10.1038/514018a

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News Features

To catch a cosmic ray p.20

The Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina has spent almost ten years looking for the source of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays — but to no avail. Now the observatory faces an uncertain future.

Katia Moskvitch

doi: 10.1038/514020a

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Extreme living p.24

After humans arrived in South America, they quickly spread into some of its most remote corners.

Barbara Fraser

doi: 10.1038/514024a

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News & Views

The plumbing of Greenland's ice p.38

Observations of the water pressure in drilled boreholes and natural moulins on the Greenland Ice Sheet show how its underlying plumbing system controls ice motion during the course of the summer melt season. See Letter p.80

Peter Nienow

doi: 10.1038/514038a

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Making the cut p.39

Analysis of the first step in repairing double-stranded-DNA breaks reveals that the Mre11 enzyme makes a DNA nick at a point separate from the break ends, creating an entry site for further processing by exonuclease enzymes. See Letter p.122

Lorraine S. Symington

doi: 10.1038/nature13751

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Not just a storm in a teacup p.40

The cloud that emerged above the south pole of Saturn's moon Titan in 2012 has been found to consist of hydrogen cyanide particles. This unexpected result prompts fresh thinking about the atmosphere of this satellite. See Letter p.65

Caitlin A. Griffith

doi: 10.1038/514040a

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Ebola therapy protects severely ill monkeys p.41

A blend of three monoclonal antibodies has completely protected monkeys against a lethal dose of Ebola virus. Unlike other post-infection therapies, the treatment works even at advanced stages of the disease. See Article p.47

Thomas W. Geisbert

doi: 10.1038/nature13746

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The age of the quasars p.43

An infrared census of accreting supermassive black holes across a wide range of cosmic times indicates that the canonical understanding of how these luminous objects form and evolve may need to be adjusted.

Daniel Mortlock

doi: 10.1038/514043a

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An integrated view of the skin microbiome p.44

An analysis of the combined genomes of microorganisms inhabiting human skin demonstrates how these communities vary between individuals and across body sites, and paves the way to understanding their functions. See Article p.59

Patrick D. Schloss

doi: 10.1038/514044a

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Articles

Reversion of advanced Ebola virus disease in nonhuman primates with ZMapp p.47

A new treatment, containing an optimized cocktail of three monoclonal antibodies against Ebola virus, provided full protection and disease reversal in rhesus monkeys when given under conditions in which controls succumbed by day 8; this new therapy may be a good candidate for treating Ebola virus infection in human patients.

Xiangguo Qiu, Gary Wong, Jonathan Audet, Alexander Bello, Lisa Fernando, Judie B. Alimonti, Hugues Fausther-Bovendo, Haiyan Wei, Jenna Aviles, Ernie Hiatt + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13777

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Non-cell-autonomous driving of tumour growth supports sub-clonal heterogeneity p.54

To investigate the role of sub-clonal tumour heterogeneity in cancer progression, a mouse xenograft model was used which revealed that tumour growth can be driven by a minor cell subpopulation by a non-cell-autonomous mechanism, although this minor subpopulation can be outcompeted by faster proliferating competitors.

Andriy Marusyk, Doris P. Tabassum, Philipp M. Altrock, Vanessa Almendro, Franziska Michor & Kornelia Polyak

doi: 10.1038/nature13556

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Biogeography and individuality shape function in the human skin metagenome p.59

Previous work has shown that human skin is home to a rich and varied microbiota; here a metagenomic approach for samples from physiologically diverse body sites illuminates that the skin microbiota, including bacterial, fungal and viral members, is shaped by the local biogeography and yet marked by strong individuality.

Julia Oh, Allyson L. Byrd, Clay Deming, Sean Conlan, Heidi H. Kong & Julia A. Segre

doi: 10.1038/nature13786

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Letters

HCN ice in Titan’s high-altitude southern polar cloud p.65

The cloud that appeared above the south pole of Saturn’s satellite Titan in early 2012 is found to be composed of micrometre-sized particles of frozen hydrogen cyanide, indicating a dramatic cooling of Titan’s atmosphere to temperatures about 100 degrees less than predicted by atmospheric circulation models.

Remco J. de Kok, Nicholas A. Teanby, Luca Maltagliati, Patrick G. J. Irwin & Sandrine Vinatier

doi: 10.1038/nature13789

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Structure and evolution of the lunar Procellarum region as revealed by GRAIL gravity data p.68

Gravity data show a rectangular pattern of narrow linear anomalies bordering the lunar Procellarum region that are interpreted to be the frozen remnants of lava-filled rifts and underlying feeder dykes.

Jeffrey C. Andrews-Hanna, Jonathan Besserer, James W. Head III, Carly J. A. Howett, Walter S. Kiefer, Paul J. Lucey, Patrick J. McGovern, H. Jay Melosh, Gregory A. Neumann, Roger J. Phillips + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13697

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Experimental realization of universal geometric quantum gates with solid-state spins p.72

The manipulation of spins in a solid-state system — nitrogen–vacancy defects in diamond — allows the experimental realization of a universal set of geometric quantum gates using holonomies, that is, non-Abelian generalizations of the Berry phase, and offers a scalable platform with the potential for room-temperature quantum computing.

C. Zu, W.-B. Wang, L. He, W.-G. Zhang, C.-Y. Dai, F. Wang & L.-M. Duan

doi: 10.1038/nature13729

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Evanescent-wave and ambient chiral sensing by signal-reversing cavity ringdown polarimetry p.76

By passing light through a chiral sample — here vapours and solutions — in a specially designed ring cavity, the resulting chiral signals can be isolated from the achiral backgrounds and enhanced by a factor of more than 1,000, making them detectable in situations where conventional means of measurement fail.

Dimitris Sofikitis, Lykourgos Bougas, Georgios E. Katsoprinakis, Alexandros K. Spiliotis, Benoit Loppinet & T. Peter Rakitzis

doi: 10.1038/nature13680

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Direct observations of evolving subglacial drainage beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet p.80

Simultaneous observations of moulins and boreholes in western Greenland show that water delivery to the base of the ice sheet via moulins affects short-term ice velocity fluctuations, but not late-season ice velocity decelerations.

Lauren C. Andrews, Ginny A. Catania, Matthew J. Hoffman, Jason D. Gulley, Martin P. Lüthi, Claudia Ryser, Robert L. Hawley & Thomas A. Neumann

doi: 10.1038/nature13796

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Prevalence of viscoelastic relaxation after the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake p.84

Seafloor Global Positioning System observations immediately after the great 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake provide unambiguous evidence for the dominant role of viscoelastic relaxation in short-term postseismic deformation, rather than just afterslip on the fault as is commonly assumed.

Tianhaozhe Sun, Kelin Wang, Takeshi Iinuma, Ryota Hino, Jiangheng He, Hiromi Fujimoto, Motoyuki Kido, Yukihito Osada, Satoshi Miura, Yusaku Ohta + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13778

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Parent-of-origin-specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche p.92

Here 106 genomic loci associated with age at menarche, a marker of puberty timing in females, are identified; these loci show enrichment for genes involved in nuclear hormone receptor function, body mass index, and rare disorders of puberty, and for genes located in imprinted regions, with parent-of-origin specific effects at several loci.

John R. B. Perry, Felix Day, Cathy E. Elks, Patrick Sulem, Deborah J. Thompson, Teresa Ferreira, Chunyan He, Daniel I. Chasman, Tõnu Esko, Gudmar Thorleifsson + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13545

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The neurotrophic factor receptor RET drives haematopoietic stem cell survival and function p.98

Haematopoietic stem cells are direct targets for neurotrophic factors, indicating that haematopoietic stem cells and neurons are regulated by similar signals.

Diogo Fonseca-Pereira, Sílvia Arroz-Madeira, Mariana Rodrigues-Campos, Inês A. M. Barbosa, Rita G. Domingues, Teresa Bento, Afonso R. M. Almeida, Hélder Ribeiro, Alexandre J. Potocnik, Hideki Enomoto + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13498

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A long noncoding RNA protects the heart from pathological hypertrophy p.102

Here, a long noncoding RNA, termed Mhrt, is identified in the loci of myosin heavy chain (Myh) genes in mice and shown to be capable of suppressing cardiomyopathy in the animals, as well as being repressed in diseased human hearts.

Pei Han, Wei Li, Chiou-Hong Lin, Jin Yang, Ching Shang, Sylvia T. Nurnberg, Kevin Kai Jin, Weihong Xu, Chieh-Yu Lin, Chien-Jung Lin + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13596

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DNA-damage-induced differentiation of leukaemic cells as an anti-cancer barrier p.107

Histone methyl-transferase MLL4 is required for stem-cell activity and an aggressive form of acute myeloid leukaemia harbouring the MLL–AF9 oncogene.

Margarida A. Santos, Robert B. Faryabi, Aysegul V. Ergen, Amanda M. Day, Amy Malhowski, Andres Canela, Masahiro Onozawa, Ji-Eun Lee, Elsa Callen, Paula Gutierrez-Martinez + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13483

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Endothelial-cell FAK targeting sensitizes tumours to DNA-damaging therapy p.112

The tumour microenvironment can influence its response to anticancer therapies; here, the enzyme FAK in endothelial cells is shown to have a role in the induction of a number of cytokines during chemotherapy or irradiation, which in turn protect tumours from DNA-damaging agents.

Bernardo Tavora, Louise E. Reynolds, Silvia Batista, Fevzi Demircioglu, Isabelle Fernandez, Tanguy Lechertier, Delphine M. Lees, Ping-Pui Wong, Annika Alexopoulou, George Elia + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13541

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Promoter sequences direct cytoplasmic localization and translation of mRNAs during starvation in yeast p.117

Transcription and translation are generally thought of as disconnected processes in eukaryotes; however, under starvation conditions in yeast, the promoter sequence influences not only messenger RNA levels but also several processes downstream of transcription, including the localization of mRNA within the cytoplasm and the translation rate of mRNA.

Brian M. Zid & Erin K. O’Shea

doi: 10.1038/nature13578

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Sae2 promotes dsDNA endonuclease activity within Mre11–Rad50–Xrs2 to resect DNA breaks p.122

The MRX complex, required for double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination, has 3′ to 5′ exonuclease activity, but homologous recombination at a DSB uses a 3′-tailed molecule, which requires resection of the 5′ strand; here it is shown that in yeast, Sae2 nuclease promotes MRX to make an initial endonucleolytic cut on the 5′ strand that may allow MRX to digest the 5′ strand back to the end in a 3′ to 5′ fashion.

Elda Cannavo & Petr Cejka

doi: 10.1038/nature13771

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