네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

First response, revisited p.459

The Ebola outbreak in West Africa has starkly exposed major gaps in plans to tackle emerging infectious diseases. Lessons must be learned.

doi: 10.1038/513459a

전문

Staff support p.459

German research organizations need to help their workers to defend animal research.

doi: 10.1038/513459b

전문

Special interest p.460

As the Scottish referendum showed, scientists’ views can influence political debate.

doi: 10.1038/513460a

전문

News

News Features

Ebola’s lost ward p.474

A hospital in Sierra Leone has struggled to continue its research amid the worst Ebola outbreak in history.

Erika Check Hayden

doi: 10.1038/513474a

전문

Wind power tests the waters p.478

The United States has plenty of strong winds offshore, but it has struggled to harness them for energy.

Gene Russo

doi: 10.1038/513478a

전문

News & Views

A fresh look at river flow p.490

A detailed survey of the Fraser River in Canada challenges preconceptions about how river water flows. The results call for a re-evaluation of how waterways carve through bedrock to form canyons. See Letter p.534

Nicole M. Gasparini

doi: 10.1038/513490a

전문

Ribosome revelations p.491

Proteins are synthesized in cells by the ribosome apparatus. A report of 16 yeast ribosome structures, each bound by a different inhibitor, broadens our understanding of how drugs affect ribosome activity.

Nelson B. Olivier

doi: 10.1038/nature13747

전문

Window on a watery world p.493

The first definitive signs of water have been seen in the atmosphere of a Neptune-sized exoplanet, paving the way towards the search for water on smaller Earth-like planets. See Letter p.526

Eliza M. R. Kempton

doi: 10.1038/513493a

전문

Statins give bone growth a boost p.494

The development of stem-cell-based models of two diseases that cause dwarfism reveals that statins — drugs that are used to treat high levels of blood cholesterol — may also promote cartilage formation and bone growth.

Bjorn R. Olsen

doi: 10.1038/nature13750

전문

How calcium affects oxygen formation p.495

Calcium is an essential component of the catalyst that forms oxygen from water during photosynthesis. It seems that part of calcium's job is to enable the release of oxygen from this catalyst.

Davide Lionetti & Theodor Agapie

doi: 10.1038/nature13753

전문

Towards turbocharged photosynthesis p.497

The development of tobacco plants that are genetically engineered to produce a more efficient form of Rubisco, an enzyme involved in photosynthesis, marks a step towards increasing crop yields.

G. Dean Price & Susan M. Howitt

doi: 10.1038/nature13749

전문

A compass for stem-cell differentiation p.498

The development of CellNet — network-biology software that determines how cell types generated in vitro relate to their naturally occurring counterparts — could improve our ability to produce desirable cells in culture.

Franz-Josef Müller & Jeanne F. Loring

doi: 10.1038/513498a

전문

Articles

Asian monsoons in a late Eocene greenhouse world p.501

Asian monsoons were strongly active 40 million years ago and were enhanced by high atmospheric CO2 content. They were significantly weakened when CO2 levels decreased 34 million years ago and then reinitiated several million years later.

A. Licht, M. van Cappelle, H. A. Abels, J.-B. Ladant, J. Trabucho-Alexandre, C. France-Lanord, Y. Donnadieu, J. Vandenberghe, T. Rigaudier, C. Lécuyer + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13704

전문 |PDF

Statin treatment rescues FGFR3 skeletal dysplasia phenotypes p.507

This study reprograms fibroblasts from thanatophoric dysplasia type I (TD1) and achondroplasia (ACH) patients into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), finding that chondrogenic differentiation results in the formation of degraded cartilage; statin treatment led to significant recovery of bone growth in a mouse model of ACH.

Akihiro Yamashita, Miho Morioka, Hiromi Kishi, Takeshi Kimura, Yasuhito Yahara, Minoru Okada, Kaori Fujita, Hideaki Sawai, Shiro Ikegawa & Noriyuki Tsumaki

doi: 10.1038/nature13775

전문 |PDF

Loss of oncogenic Notch1 with resistance to a PI3K inhibitor in T-cell leukaemia p.512

Mutations that dysregulate Notch1 and Ras/PI3K signalling are common in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia; here, treatment with a PI3K inhibitor is shown to induce drug resistance that is associated with downregulation of activated Notch1 signalling, suggesting that inhibition of both Notch1 and PI3K could promote drug resistance.

Monique Dail, Jason Wong, Jessica Lawrence, Daniel O’Connor, Joy Nakitandwe, Shann-Ching Chen, Jin Xu, Leslie B. Lee, Keiko Akagi, Qing Li + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13495

전문 |PDF

Structural basis for the inhibition of the eukaryotic ribosome p.517

Whereas previous structural investigation of ribosome inhibitors has been done using the prokaryotic ribosome, this work presents X-ray crystal structures of the yeast ribosome in complex with 16 inhibitors including eukaryotic-specific inhibitors; the inhibitors all bind the mRNA or tRNA binding sites, larger molecules appear to target specifically the first elongation cycle.

Nicolas Garreau de Loubresse, Irina Prokhorova, Wolf Holtkamp, Marina V. Rodnina, Gulnara Yusupova & Marat Yusupov

doi: 10.1038/nature13737

전문 |PDF

Letters

Early turbulent mixing as the origin of chemical homogeneity in open star clusters p.523

Simulations tracing the mixing of chemical elements as star-forming clouds assemble and collapse show that turbulent mixing during cloud assembly naturally produces a scatter of stellar abundance much smaller than that in the gas, explaining why stars in the same cluster appear to be nearly identical in their chemical abundances.

Yi Feng & Mark R. Krumholz

doi: 10.1038/nature13662

전문 |PDF

Water vapour absorption in the clear atmosphere of a Neptune-sized exoplanet p.526

Space telescope observations of the transmission spectrum of the extrasolar planet HAT-P-11b, which is about the same size as Neptune, reveal water vapour absorption at a wavelength of 1.4 micrometres and indicate that the planetary atmosphere is predominantly clear down to an altitude corresponding to about 1 millibar.

Jonathan Fraine, Drake Deming, Bjorn Benneke, Heather Knutson, Andrés Jordán, Néstor Espinoza, Nikku Madhusudhan, Ashlee Wilkins & Kamen Todorov

doi: 10.1038/nature13785

전문 |PDF

Flow in bedrock canyons p.534

A survey along the Fraser Canyon in Canada reveals complex flow dynamics involving velocity inversions and upwelling, which suggests ways to improve flow and bedrock incision modelling.

Jeremy G. Venditti, Colin D. Rennie, James Bomhof, Ryan W. Bradley, Malcolm Little & Michael Church

doi: 10.1038/nature13779

전문 |PDF

Brain structure resolves the segmental affinity of anomalocaridid appendages p.538

A contemporary test of the theory of island biogeography, in which species richness is determined by an island’s area and isolation, shows that geographic area is still a good positive predictor of species richness, but that geographic isolation as a negative predictor has been replaced by economic isolation.

Peiyun Cong, Xiaoya Ma, Xianguang Hou, Gregory D. Edgecombe & Nicholas J. Strausfeld

doi: 10.1038/nature13486

전문 |PDF

Island biogeography of the Anthropocene p.543

A contemporary test of the theory of island biogeography, in which species richness is determined by an island’s area and isolation, shows that geographic area is still a good positive predictor of species richness, but that geographic isolation as a negative predictor has been replaced by economic isolation.

Matthew R. Helmus, D. Luke Mahler & Jonathan B. Losos

doi: 10.1038/nature13739

전문 |PDF

A faster Rubisco with potential to increase photosynthesis in crops p.547

In photosynthetic organisms, d-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is the major enzyme assimilating atmospheric CO2 into the biosphere. Owing to the wasteful oxygenase activity and slow turnover of Rubisco, the enzyme is among the most important targets for improving the photosynthetic efficiency of vascular plants. It has been anticipated that introducing the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) from cyanobacteria into plants could enhance crop yield. However, the complex nature of Rubisco’s assembly has made manipulation of the enzyme extremely challenging, and attempts to replace it in plants with the enzymes from cyanobacteria and red algae have not been successful. Here we report two transplastomic tobacco lines with functional Rubisco from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942 (Se7942). We knocked out the native tobacco gene encoding the large subunit of Rubisco by inserting the large and small subunit genes of the Se7942 enzyme, in combination with either the corresponding Se7942 assembly chaperone, RbcX, or an internal carboxysomal protein, CcmM35, which incorporates three small subunit-like domains. Se7942 Rubisco and CcmM35 formed macromolecular complexes within the chloroplast stroma, mirroring an early step in the biogenesis of cyanobacterial β-carboxysomes. Both transformed lines were photosynthetically competent, supporting autotrophic growth, and their respective forms of Rubisco had higher rates of CO2 fixation per unit of enzyme than the tobacco control. These transplastomic tobacco lines represent an important step towards improved photosynthesis in plants and will be valuable hosts for future addition of the remaining components of the cyanobacterial CCM, such as inorganic carbon transporters and the β-carboxysome shell proteins.

Myat T. Lin, Alessandro Occhialini, P. John Andralojc, Martin A. J. Parry & Maureen R. Hanson

doi: 10.1038/nature13776

전문 |PDF

Glial origin of mesenchymal stem cells in a tooth model system p.551

In the mouse, nerve-associated peripheral glial cells give rise to mesenchymal stem cells that contribute to the development and growth of adult teeth.

Nina Kaukua, Maryam Khatibi Shahidi, Chrysoula Konstantinidou, Vyacheslav Dyachuk, Marketa Kaucka, Alessandro Furlan, Zhengwen An, Longlong Wang, Isabell Hultman, Lars Ährlund-Richter + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13536

전문 |PDF

Antifungal drug resistance evoked via RNAi-dependent epimutations p.555

The human fungal pathogen Mucor circinelloides develops spontaneous resistance to an antifungal drug both through mutation and through a newly identified epigenetic RNA-mediated pathway; RNA interference is spontaneously triggered to silence the fkbA gene, giving rise to drug-resistant epimutants that revert to being drug-sensitive once again when grown in the absence of drug.

Silvia Calo, Cecelia Shertz-Wall, Soo Chan Lee, Robert J. Bastidas, Francisco E. Nicolás, Joshua A. Granek, Piotr Mieczkowski, Santiago Torres-Martínez, Rosa M. Ruiz-Vázquez, Maria E. Cardenas + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13575

전문 |PDF

Functional polarization of tumour-associated macrophages by tumour-derived lactic acid p.559

The growth of tumours is supported by tumour production of lactic acid, which polarizes tumour-associated macrophages to an M2 phenotype through a pathway dependent on hypoxia-inducible factor 1α.

Oscar R. Colegio, Ngoc-Quynh Chu, Alison L. Szabo, Thach Chu, Anne Marie Rhebergen, Vikram Jairam, Nika Cyrus, Carolyn E. Brokowski, Stephanie C. Eisenbarth, Gillian M. Phillips + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13490

전문 |PDF

The alarmin IL-33 promotes regulatory T-cell function in the intestine p.564

The alarmin interleukin-33 is constitutively expressed at barrier sites and released in response to tissue damage; here, the IL-33 receptor ST2 is shown to be preferentially expressed on colonic regulatory T cells, where it promotes regulatory T-cell function and adaptation to the inflammatory tissue environment.

Chris Schiering, Thomas Krausgruber, Agnieszka Chomka, Anja Fröhlich, Krista Adelmann, Elizabeth A. Wohlfert, Johanna Pott, Thibault Griseri, Julia Bollrath, Ahmed N. Hegazy + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13577

전문 |PDF

Structural basis of PAM-dependent target DNA recognition by the Cas9 endonuclease p.569

The CRISPR-associated protein Cas9 is an RNA-guided endonuclease that cleaves double-stranded DNA bearing sequences complementary to a 20-nucleotide segment in the guide RNA. Cas9 has emerged as a versatile molecular tool for genome editing and gene expression control. RNA-guided DNA recognition and cleavage strictly require the presence of a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) in the target DNA. Here we report a crystal structure of Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 in complex with a single-molecule guide RNA and a target DNA containing a canonical 5′-NGG-3′ PAM. The structure reveals that the PAM motif resides in a base-paired DNA duplex. The non-complementary strand GG dinucleotide is read out via major-groove interactions with conserved arginine residues from the carboxy-terminal domain of Cas9. Interactions with the minor groove of the PAM duplex and the phosphodiester group at the +1 position in the target DNA strand contribute to local strand separation immediately upstream of the PAM. These observations suggest a mechanism for PAM-dependent target DNA melting and RNA–DNA hybrid formation. Furthermore, this study establishes a framework for the rational engineering of Cas9 enzymes with novel PAM specificities.

Carolin Anders, Ole Niewoehner, Alessia Duerst & Martin Jinek

doi: 10.1038/nature13579

전문 |PDF