네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

A worthy ambition p.279

Finalizing the European Research Area is still a vibrant and relevant goal.

doi: 10.1038/513279b

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Diversity challenge p.279

There is growing evidence that embracing diversity — in all its senses — is key to doing good science. But there is still work to be done to ensure that inclusivity is the default, not the exception.

doi: 10.1038/513279a

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Amped-up plants p.280

Bacterial enzyme supercharges photosynthesis, promising increased yields for crops.

doi: 10.1038/513280a

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News

News Features

Bounty hunters p.294

Destructive lionfish are invading coral reefs in the Americas, but fishing competitions can help to keep the problem species in check.

Hannah Hoag

doi: 10.1038/513294a

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Pride in science p.297

The sciences can be a sanctuary for gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender individuals, but biases may still discourage many from coming out.

M Mitchell Waldrop

doi: 10.1038/513297a

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News & Views

Radiating genomes p.318

Genome sequences and gene-expression data from representatives of five distinct lineages of African cichlid fish reveal signatures of the genomic changes that underlie the astounding cichlid diversity seen today. See Article p.375

Chris D. Jiggins

doi: 10.1038/nature13742

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Catching relativistic electrons p.319

Low-energy electrons have been found to mimic relativistic high-energy particles in cadmium arsenide. This defines the first stable '3D Dirac semimetal', which holds promise for fundamental-physics exploration and practical applications.

Zhihuai Zhu & Jennifer E. Hoffman

doi: 10.1038/513319a

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The evolutionary roots of lethal conflict p.321

A comprehensive analysis of lethal coalitionary aggression in chimpanzees convincingly demonstrates that such aggression is an adaptive behaviour, not one that has emerged in response to human impacts. See Letter p.414

Joan B. Silk

doi: 10.1038/513321a

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Giant black hole in a stripped galaxy p.322

An oversized, supermassive black hole has been discovered at the centre of a densely packed conglomeration of stars. The finding suggests that the system is the stripped nucleus of a once-larger galaxy. See Letter p.398

Amy E. Reines

doi: 10.1038/513322a

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Shedding light on a change of mind p.323

Sophisticated genetic tools that make brain cells responsive to light have now been used in mice to trigger a memory connected with a particular place, and to switch its association from negative to positive, or vice versa. See Letter p.426

Tomonori Takeuchi & Richard G. M. Morris

doi: 10.1038/nature13745

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Reactivity tamed one bond at a time p.324

A catalyst that couples together three reactants to form just one compound out of several possibilities, as a single mirror-image isomer, should simplify the synthesis of biologically relevant molecules. See Article p.367

Matthew T. Villaume & Phil S. Baran

doi: 10.1038/513324a

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Articles

Multifunctional organoboron compounds for scalable natural product synthesis p.367

A catalytic process is reported that begins with a highly selective copper–boron addition to a monosubstituted allene, and in which the resulting boron-substituted organocopper intermediate then participates in a chemoselective, site-selective and enantioselective allylic substitution; this approach is used in the enantioselective synthesis of gram quantities of two natural products.

Fanke Meng, Kevin P. McGrath & Amir H. Hoveyda

doi: 10.1038/nature13735

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The genomic substrate for adaptive radiation in African cichlid fish OPEN p.375

Genomes and transcriptomes of five distinct lineages of African cichlids, a textbook example of adaptive radiation, have been sequenced and analysed to reveal that many types of molecular changes contributed to rapid evolution, and that standing variation accumulated during periods of relaxed selection may have primed subsequent diversification.

David Brawand, Catherine E. Wagner, Yang I. Li, Milan Malinsky, Irene Keller, Shaohua Fan, Oleg Simakov, Alvin Y. Ng, Zhi Wei Lim, Etienne Bezault + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13726

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Proteogenomic characterization of human colon and rectal cancer p.382

Proteome analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) colorectal cancer specimens reveals that DNA- or RNA-level measurements cannot reliably predict protein abundance, colorectal tumours can be separated into distinct proteotypes, and that copy number alterations drive mRNA abundance changes but few extend to protein-level changes.

Bing Zhang, Jing Wang, Xiaojing Wang, Jing Zhu, Qi Liu, Zhiao Shi, Matthew C. Chambers, Lisa J. Zimmerman, Kent F. Shaddox, Sangtae Kim + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13438

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Molecular architecture and mechanism of the anaphase-promoting complex p.388

The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a large E3 ligase that mediates ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of cell cycle regulatory proteins; here the complete secondary structure architecture of human APC/C complexed with its coactivator CDH1 and substrate HSL1 is determined at 7.4 Å resolution, revealing allosteric changes induced by the coactivator that enhance affinity for UBCH10–ubiqutin.

Leifu Chang, Ziguo Zhang, Jing Yang, Stephen H. McLaughlin & David Barford

doi: 10.1038/nature13543

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Letters

A massive galaxy in its core formation phase three billion years after the Big Bang p.394

Hubble Space Telescope, Keck telescope and Spitzer satellite data reveal the formation of the dense stellar core of a massive galaxy occurring three billion years after the Big Bang.

Erica Nelson, Pieter van Dokkum, Marijn Franx, Gabriel Brammer, Ivelina Momcheva, Natascha Förster Schreiber, Elisabete da Cunha, Linda Tacconi, Rachel Bezanson, Allison Kirkpatrick + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13616

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A supermassive black hole in an ultra-compact dwarf galaxy p.398

Dynamical modelling of the ultra-compact dwarf galaxy M60-UCD1 reveals the presence of a supermassive black hole; this suggests the object is a stripped galaxy nucleus and implies the existence of supermassive black holes in many other ultra-compact dwarf galaxies.

Anil C. Seth, Remco van den Bosch, Steffen Mieske, Holger Baumgardt, Mark den Brok, Jay Strader, Nadine Neumayer, Igor Chilingarian, Michael Hilker, Richard McDermid + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13762

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Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics p.405

The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth’s interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

Patrice F. Rey, Nicolas Coltice & Nicolas Flament

doi: 10.1038/nature13728

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Lethal aggression in Pan is better explained by adaptive strategies than human impacts p.414

A meta-analysis of studies on chimpanzees and bonobos across Africa shows that their conspecific aggression is the normal and expected product of adaptive strategies to obtain resources or mates and has no connection with the impacts of human activities.

Michael L. Wilson, Christophe Boesch, Barbara Fruth, Takeshi Furuichi, Ian C. Gilby, Chie Hashimoto, Catherine L. Hobaiter, Gottfried Hohmann, Noriko Itoh, Kathelijne Koops + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13727

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Optimization of lag time underlies antibiotic tolerance in evolved bacterial populations p.418

Repeated exposure of the bacterium Escherichia coli to clinically relevant concentrations of ampicillin results in the evolution of tolerance—the ability to survive until the antibiotic concentration diminishes—through an extension of the lag phase, a finding that has implications for slowing the evolution of antibiotic resistance.

Ofer Fridman, Amir Goldberg, Irine Ronin, Noam Shoresh & Nathalie Q. Balaban

doi: 10.1038/nature13469

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Genome sequencing of normal cells reveals developmental lineages and mutational processes p.422

On the basis of whole-genome sequences of clonal lines derived from normal mouse tissues, variation in mutational patterns and load across different tissues are described and early embryonic cell divisions are reconstructed.

Sam Behjati, Meritxell Huch, Ruben van Boxtel, Wouter Karthaus, David C. Wedge, Asif U. Tamuri, Iñigo Martincorena, Mia Petljak, Ludmil B. Alexandrov, Gunes Gundem + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13448

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Bidirectional switch of the valence associated with a hippocampal contextual memory engram p.426

An optogenetic approach in mice was used to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying memory valence association; dentate gyrus, but not amygdala, memory engram cells exhibit plasticity in valence associations, suggesting that emotional memory associations can be changed at the circuit level.

Roger L. Redondo, Joshua Kim, Autumn L. Arons, Steve Ramirez, Xu Liu & Susumu Tonegawa

doi: 10.1038/nature13725

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Exonuclease-mediated degradation of nascent RNA silences genes linked to severe malaria p.431

A novel type of post-transcriptional regulation controls the expression of virulence genes in blood-stage malaria parasites.

Qingfeng Zhang, T. Nicolai Siegel, Rafael M. Martins, Fei Wang, Jun Cao, Qi Gao, Xiu Cheng, Lubin Jiang, Chung-Chau Hon, Christine Scheidig-Benatar + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13468

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Endocrinization of FGF1 produces a neomorphic and potent insulin sensitizer p.436

Pharmacological fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) normalizes blood glucose in diabetic mice by means of an FGF receptor signalling pathway that is independent of its mitogenic activity.

Jae Myoung Suh, Johan W. Jonker, Maryam Ahmadian, Regina Goetz, Denise Lackey, Olivia Osborn, Zhifeng Huang, Weilin Liu, Eiji Yoshihara, Theo H. van Dijk + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13540

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Coordinated regulation of protein synthesis and degradation by mTORC1 p.440

mTORC1 is known to stimulate protein synthesis; now, it is shown to also promote the synthesis of proteasomes, which degrade proteins into the amino acids needed to create new proteins.

Yinan Zhang, Justin Nicholatos, John R. Dreier, Stéphane J. H. Ricoult, Scott B. Widenmaier, Gökhan S. Hotamisligil, David J. Kwiatkowski & Brendan D. Manning

doi: 10.1038/nature13492

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