Volume 512 Number 7515

Editorials

People power p.347

Climate models must consider how humans are responding to a warming world.

doi: 10.1038/512347b

Diplomatic service p.347

Government science advisers are unlikely to be specialists on the subject of a crisis, but they are key to bringing together relevant experts and disseminating the information clearly and accurately.

doi: 10.1038/512347a

News

News Features

Crisis counsellors p.360

Volcanic eruptions, oil spills and bacterial outbreaks all land in the laps of government science advisers, and put them to the test.

doi: 10.1038/512360a

News & Views

Hiding in plain sight p.374

The latest releases from the ENCODE and modENCODE research consortia more than double the number of data sets on functional elements in the worm, fly and human genomes. See Articles p.393, p.400 & Letters p.445, p.449, p.453

doi: 10.1038/512374a

Supernova seen through γ-ray eyes p.375

Observations of γ-ray photons from a type Ia supernova indicate that stellar explosions of this kind get their energy from sudden thermonuclear fusion in the progenitor star. See Letter p.406

doi: 10.1038/512375a

Mammalian watchdog targets bacteria p.377

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor elicits protection against toxic environmental molecules. New data show that the receptor also supports the immune system by recognizing bacterially encoded virulence factors. See Article p.387

doi: 10.1038/nature13741

What makes the Sun shine p.378

Neutrinos produced in the nuclear reaction that triggers solar-energy generation have been detected. This milestone in the search for solar neutrinos required a deep underground detector of exceptional sensitivity. See Article p.383

doi: 10.1038/512378a

Hybrid sensors ring the changes p.380

An improved design for a class of magnetometer greatly increases the sensitivity of these devices — and might be the vanguard of a new generation of hybrid sensors that combine different types of signal to increase sensitivity.

doi: 10.1038/512380a

Love thy neighbour p.381

A theoretical model suggests that the cause of female-driven extra-pair mating lies in the spreading of male interests among neighbouring families, creating powerful incentives for male cooperation and concomitant benefits for females.

doi: 10.1038/512381a

Articles

AhR sensing of bacterial pigments regulates antibacterial defence p.387

The mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (known to sense environmental pollutants) is shown to also have a role as a pattern recognition receptor in sensing bacterial virulence factors, resulting in an antibacterial response and activation of innate and natural defences.

doi: 10.1038/nature13684

Diversity and dynamics of the Drosophila transcriptome OPEN p.393

A large-scale transcriptome analysis in Drosophila melanogaster, across tissues, cell types and conditions, provides insights into global patterns and diversity of transcription initiation, splicing, polyadenylation and non-coding RNA expression.

doi: 10.1038/nature12962

Regulatory analysis of the C. elegans genome with spatiotemporal resolution OPEN p.400

Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing across multiple stages of Caenorhabditis elegant development reveals the genomic distribution of binding sites for 92 transcription factors and regulatory proteins, and integration of these and cellular-resolution expression data produce a spatiotemporally resolved metazoan transcription factor binding map allowing exploration into the properties of developmental regulatory circuits.

doi: 10.1038/nature13497

Letters

Cobalt-56 γ-ray emission lines from the type Ia supernova 2014J p.406

A type Ia supernova is thought to be a thermonuclear explosion of either a single carbon–oxygen white dwarf or a pair of merging white dwarfs. The explosion fuses a large amount of radioactive 56Ni (refs 1–3). After the explosion, the decay chain from 56Ni to 56Co to 56Fe generates γ-ray photons, which are reprocessed in the expanding ejecta and give rise to powerful optical emission. Here we report the detection of 56Co lines at energies of 847 and 1,238 kiloelectronvolts and a γ-ray continuum in the 200–400 kiloelectronvolt band from the type Ia supernova 2014J in the nearby galaxy M82. The line fluxes suggest that about 0.6 ± 0.1 solar masses of radioactive 56Ni were synthesized during the explosion. The line broadening gives a characteristic mass-weighted ejecta expansion velocity of 10,000 ± 3,000 kilometres per second. The observed γ-ray properties are in broad agreement with the canonical model of an explosion of a white dwarf just massive enough to be unstable to gravitational collapse, but do not exclude merger scenarios that fuse comparable amounts of 56Ni.

doi: 10.1038/nature13672

Quantum imaging with undetected photons p.409

A new quantum imaging experiment demonstrates images made with light that does not encounter the object; one of a pair of photons created at two crystals illuminates the object but is never detected, and the other photon, which is in a joint quantum state with the first and does not interact with the object, forms an image of the object on a camera.

doi: 10.1038/nature13586

Neural constraints on learning p.423

During learning, the new patterns of neural population activity that develop are constrained by the existing network structure so that certain patterns can be generated more readily than others.

doi: 10.1038/nature13665

Comparative analysis of the transcriptome across distant species OPEN p.445

Uniform processing and detailed annotation of human, worm and fly RNA-sequencing data reveal ancient, conserved features of the transcriptome, shared co-expression modules (many enriched in developmental genes), matched expression patterns across development and similar extent of non-canonical, non-coding transcription; furthermore, the data are used to create a single, universal model to predict gene-expression levels for all three organisms from chromatin features at the promoter.

doi: 10.1038/nature13424

Comparative analysis of metazoan chromatin organization OPEN p.449

A large collection of new modENCODE and ENCODE genome-wide chromatin data sets from cell lines and developmental stages in worm, fly and human are analysed; this reveals many conserved features of chromatin organization among the three organisms, as well as notable differences in the composition and locations of repressive chromatin.

doi: 10.1038/nature13415

Comparative analysis of regulatory information and circuits across distant species OPEN p.453

A map of genome-wide binding locations of 165 human, 93 worm and 52 fly transcription-regulatory factors (almost 50% presented for the first time) from diverse cell types, developmental stages, or conditions reveals that gene-regulatory properties previously observed for individual factors may be general principles of metazoan regulation that are well preserved.

doi: 10.1038/nature13668