Volume 512 Number 7513

Editorials

Future computing p.113

Pushing the boundaries of current computing technologies will show the way to new ones.

doi: 10.1038/512113b

Save the children p.113

Infants and young people are being traumatized by armed conflict in their countries. Their resulting mental illnesses must be addressed, for the good of both the individuals and their society.

doi: 10.1038/512113a

News

News Features

Scientists and the social network p.126

Giant academic social networks have taken off to a degree that no one expected even a few years ago. A Nature survey explores why.

doi: 10.1038/512126a

News & Views

What females really want p.138

The identification of neural subcircuits used by female fruit flies to make a choice about whether to copulate with a potential mate provides a template for understanding how the brain integrates complex information to reach decisions.

doi: 10.1038/512138a

Sandcastles in space p.139

Analysis of a kilometre-sized, near-Earth asteroid shows that forces weaker than the weight of a penny can keep it from falling apart. This has implications for understanding the evolution of the Solar System. See Letter p.174

doi: 10.1038/512139a

Old blood stem cells feel the stress p.140

Ageing is accompanied by deterioration in the haematopoietic stem cells that are responsible for regenerating the blood system. Cellular stress in the aged stem cells could be a cause of this decline. See Letter p.198

doi: 10.1038/nature13652

Glasses made from pure metals p.142

The experimental realization of amorphous pure metals sets the stage for studies of the fundamental processes of glass formation, and suggests that amorphous structures are the most ubiquitous forms of condensed matter. See Letter P.177

doi: 10.1038/nature13653

One cell at a time p.143

Single-cell DNA sequencing of two breast-cancer types has shown extensive mutational variation in individual tumours, confirming that generation of genetic diversity may be inherent in how tumours evolve. See Article p.155

doi: 10.1038/nature13650

Atmospheric blurring has a new enemy p.144

A fully automated optics system that corrects atmospheric blurring of celestial objects has imaged 715 star systems thought to harbour planets, completing each observation in less time than it takes to read this article.

doi: 10.1038/512144a

Corralling a protein-degradation regulator p.145

The crystal structure of the COP9 signalosome, a large protein complex that regulates intracellular protein degradation, reveals how the complex achieves exquisite specificity for its substrates. See Article p.161

doi: 10.1038/nature13644

Review

Limits on fundamental limits to computation p.147

To evaluate the promise of potential computing technologies, this review examines a wide range of fundamental limits, such as to performance, power consumption, size and cost, from the device level to the system level.

doi: 10.1038/nature13570

Articles

Clonal evolution in breast cancer revealed by single nucleus genome sequencing p.155

To investigate genomic diversity within tumours, a new type of whole-genome and exome single cell sequencing has been developed using G2/M nuclei; the technique was used to sequence single nuclei from an oestrogen-positive breast cancer and a triple-negative ductal carcinoma—aneuploidy rearrangements emerged as early events in tumour formation and then point mutations evolved gradually over time.

doi: 10.1038/nature13600

Crystal structure of the human COP9 signalosome p.161

The COP9 signalosome (CSN) complex regulates cullin–RING E3 ubiquitin ligases—the largest class of ubiquitin ligase enzymes, which are involved in a multitude of regulatory processes; here, the crystal structure of the entire human CSN holoenzyme is presented.

doi: 10.1038/nature13566

Three-dimensional structure of human γ-secretase p.166

The three-dimensional structure of intact human γ-secretase complex at 4.5 Å resolution is revealed by cryo-electron-microscopy single-particle analysis; the complex comprises a horseshoe-shaped transmembrane domain containing 19 transmembrane segments, and a large extracellular domain from nicastrin, which sits immediately above the hollow space formed by the horseshoe.

doi: 10.1038/nature13567

Letters

Cohesive forces prevent the rotational breakup of rubble-pile asteroid (29075) 1950 DA p.174

Space missions and ground-based observations have shown that some asteroids are loose collections of rubble rather than solid bodies. The physical behaviour of such ‘rubble-pile’ asteroids has been traditionally described using only gravitational and frictional forces within a granular material. Cohesive forces in the form of small van der Waals forces between constituent grains have recently been predicted to be important for small rubble piles (ten kilometres across or less), and could potentially explain fast rotation rates in the small-asteroid population. The strongest evidence so far has come from an analysis of the rotational breakup of the main-belt comet P/2013 R3 (ref. 7), although that was indirect and poorly constrained by observations. Here we report that the kilometre-sized asteroid (29075) 1950 DA (ref. 8) is a rubble pile that is rotating faster than is allowed by gravity and friction. We find that cohesive forces are required to prevent surface mass shedding and structural failure, and that the strengths of the forces are comparable to, though somewhat less than, the forces found between the grains of lunar regolith.

doi: 10.1038/nature13632

Formation of monatomic metallic glasses through ultrafast liquid quenching p.177

Metallic liquids of single elements have been successfully vitrified to their glassy states by achieving an ultrafast quenching rate in a new experimental design, of which the process has been monitored and studied by a combination of in situ transmission electron microscopy and atoms-to-continuum computer modelling.

doi: 10.1038/nature13617

Neuropsychosocial profiles of current and future adolescent alcohol misusers p.185

Many factors have been proposed as contributors to risk of alcohol abuse, but quantifying their influence has been difficult; here a longitudinal study of a large sample of adolescents and machine learning are used to generate models of predictors of current and future alcohol abuse, assessing the relative contribution of many factors, including life history, individual personality differences, brain structure and genotype.

doi: 10.1038/nature13402

A common Greenlandic TBC1D4 variant confers muscle insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes p.190

An association mapping study of type-2-diabetes-related quantitative traits in the Greenlandic population identified a common variant in TBC1D4 that increases plasma glucose levels and serum insulin levels after an oral glucose load and type 2 diabetes risk, with effect sizes several times larger than any previous findings of large-scale genome-wide association studies for these traits.

doi: 10.1038/nature13425

Altitude adaptation in Tibetans caused by introgression of Denisovan-like DNA p.194

Admixture with other hominin species helped humans to adapt to high-altitude environments; the EPAS1 gene in Tibetan individuals has an unusual haplotype structure that probably resulted from introgression of DNA from Denisovan or Denisovan-related individuals into humans, and this haplotype is only found in Denisovans and Tibetans, and at low frequency among Han Chinese.

doi: 10.1038/nature13408