네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Good practice p.187

Standardized procedures and analyses should help to get stem-cell therapies to the clinic.

doi: 10.1038/510187b

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A growing problem p.187

Without careful stewardship, genetically engineered crops will do little to stop the spread of herbicide-resistant weeds.

doi: 10.1038/510187a

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Open goal p.188

International researchers can help to improve the scientific enterprise in South America.

doi: 10.1038/510188a

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News

Sound clue in hunt for MH370 p.199

Hydroacoustic signal caught by sensors in the Indian Ocean may be linked to crash of Malaysian airliner.

Declan Butler

doi: 10.1038/510199a

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News Features

Stars of South American science p.201

Growing resources for research and development are creating opportunities across the continent, but many countries still struggle to build their programmes.

doi: 10.1038/510201a

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South American science: Big players p.204

Despite myriad problems in many countries, pockets of excellence thrive in South American science.

Michele Catanzaro, Giuliana Miranda, Lisa Palmer & Aleszu Bajak

doi: 10.1038/510204a

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News & Views

Materials science: Diamond gets harder p.220

Composite materials that incorporate diamond are among the hardest in the world, but fail under extreme conditions. A nanostructured form of diamond, made from onion-like carbon precursors, might overcome this problem. See Letter p.250

James Boland

doi: 10.1038/510220a

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Plant biology: Pass the ammunition p.221

Tomato plants that have been damaged by herbivorous insects emit airborne chemicals that warn neighbours of an impending attack. It emerges that the receiving plants transform these signals into defensive weapons.

Mark C. Mescher & Consuelo M. De Moraes

doi: 10.1038/510221a

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Immunology: When lymphocytes run out of steam p.222

The finding that absence of the enzyme CTPS1 underlies a form of human immunodeficiency highlights the role of metabolism in immune responses and suggests avenues for treating diseases such as leukaemia. See Letter p.288

André Veillette & Dominique Davidson

doi: 10.1038/nature13346

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Particle physics: The hunt for Majorana neutrinos hots up p.224

Finding that neutrinos are their own antiparticles would revolutionize particle physics. A high-sensitivity technique accelerates the search for the nuclear-decay process that would enable such a discovery. See Article p.229

David Wark

doi: 10.1038/nature13501

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Cancer biology: Enzyme meets a surprise target p.225

An enzyme previously implicated in gene regulation has now been found to have a role in cancer progression, potentiating an intracellular signalling pathway that is driven by a mutated K-Ras protein. See Letter p.283

Marian M. Deuker & Martin McMahon

doi: 10.1038/nature13343

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Gene therapy: Repair and replace p.226

One approach to treating inherited diseases is repairing the defective genes, but this has proved challenging in stem cells. An optimized protocol has now been developed that allows gene repair in blood-cell precursors. See Article p.235

Alain Fischer

doi: 10.1038/nature13344

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Articles

Search for Majorana neutrinos with the first two years of EXO-200 data p.229

The EXO-200 Collaboration Neutrinos are known to have mass, in contradiction to the predictions of the standard model, and one explanation of this mass is that they are Majorana fermions; this conjecture could be proved by observation of the neutrinoless double-β decay process, but new experiments with 136Xe find no statistically significant evidence for this process.

doi: 10.1038/nature13432

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Targeted genome editing in human repopulating haematopoietic stem cells p.235

Pietro Genovese, Giulia Schiroli, Giulia Escobar, Tiziano Di Tomaso, Claudia Firrito+ et al. The feasibility of targeted genome editing in human haematopoietic stem cells is demonstrated; the study overcomes previously existing barriers by tailoring delivery platforms and culture conditions.

Pietro Genovese, Giulia Schiroli, Giulia Escobar, Tiziano Di Tomaso, Claudia Firrito, Andrea Calabria, Davide Moi, Roberta Mazzieri, Chiara Bonini, Michael C. Holmes + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13420

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Homologue engagement controls meiotic DNA break number and distribution p.241

Drew Thacker, Neeman Mohibullah, Xuan Zhu & Scott Keeney DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) are shown to form in greater numbers in yeast cells lacking ZMM proteins, which are traditionally regarded as acting strictly downstream of DSB formation; these findings shed light on how cells balance the beneficial and deleterious outcomes of DSB formation.

Drew Thacker, Neeman Mohibullah, Xuan Zhu & Scott Keeney

doi: 10.1038/nature13120

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Letters

Two γ-ray bursts from dusty regions with little molecular gas p.247

Emission spectra from the host galaxies of two γ-ray bursts reveal that the regions where the bursts occur are rich in dust but not in molecular gas, which is unexpected because γ-ray bursts are associated with the explosions of massive stars that require molecular gas as fuel.

B. Hatsukade, K. Ohta, A. Endo, K. Nakanishi, Y. Tamura, T. Hashimoto & K. Kohno

doi: 10.1038/nature13325

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Increased frequency of extreme Indian Ocean Dipole events due to greenhouse warming p.254

Extreme positive-Indian-Ocean-dipole events cause devastating floods in eastern tropical Africa and severe droughts in Asia; increasing greenhouse gas emissions will make these dipole events about three times more frequent in the twenty-first century.

Wenju Cai, Agus Santoso, Guojian Wang, Evan Weller, Lixin Wu, Karumuri Ashok, Yukio Masumoto & Toshio Yamagata

doi: 10.1038/nature13327

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Elevated CO2 further lengthens growing season under warming conditions p.259

A grassland warming and CO2 enrichment experiment shows that temperature increase brings forward the growing season of early leafing species, but does not affect or delays senescence in late species, the latter enhanced by elevated CO2.

Melissa Reyes-Fox, Heidi Steltzer, M. J. Trlica, Gregory S. McMaster, Allan A. Andales, Dan R. LeCain & Jack A. Morgan

doi: 10.1038/nature13207

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Emergence of reproducible spatiotemporal activity during motor learning p.263

Inhibitory neuron activity is found to be relatively stable during motor learning whereas excitatory neuron activity is much more dynamic — the results indicate that a large number of neurons exhibit activity changes early on during motor learning, but this population is refined with subsequent practice.

Andrew J. Peters, Simon X. Chen & Takaki Komiyama

doi: 10.1038/nature13235

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The unfolded protein response governs integrity of the haematopoietic stem-cell pool during stress p.268

Molecular, pharmacological and functional data show that haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are predisposed to ER-stress-mediated apoptosis compared to closely related progenitors; a framework for understanding how stress signalling is coordinated within the hematopoietic hierarchy and integrated with stemness is provided, and may have implications for the improvement of clinical transplantation of HSCs.

Peter van Galen, Antonija Kreso, Nathan Mbong, David G. Kent, Timothy Fitzmaurice, Joseph E. Chambers, Stephanie Xie, Elisa Laurenti, Karin Hermans, Kolja Eppert + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13228

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Human embryonic-stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes regenerate non-human primate hearts p.273

Regeneration of the heart muscle after myocardial infarction with cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells is demonstrated in non-human primates, with the grafts showing evidence of electromechanical coupling, although they were also associated with non-fatal arrhythmias.

James J. H. Chong, Xiulan Yang, Creighton W. Don, Elina Minami, Yen-Wen Liu, Jill J. Weyers, William M. Mahoney, Benjamin Van Biber, Savannah M. Cook, Nathan J. Palpant + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13233

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Therapeutic targeting of BET bromodomain proteins in castration-resistant prostate cancer p.278

Small-molecule compounds that target the BET domain in proteins such as BRD4 have recently been identified as potential anticancer agents; here, the efficacy of the BRD4-targeting compound JQ1 is demonstrated in castration-resistant prostate cancer driven by deregulated androgen receptor action.

Marcin Cieslik, Rendong Yang, June Escara-Wilke, Kari Wilder-Romans, Sudheer Dhanireddy, Carl Engelke, Mathew K. Iyer, Xiaojun Jing, Yi-Mi Wu, Xuhong Cao + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13229

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SMYD3 links lysine methylation of MAP3K2 to Ras-driven cancer p.283

SMYD3 is a methyltransferase overexpressed in several human tumours; here methylation of the MAP3K2 kinase by SMYD3 is shown to be critical for Ras-induced tumour development in mouse models and human tumour cells, showing an unexpected role for methylation in a kinase signalling pathway and revealing a candidate therapeutic target.

Pawel K. Mazur, Nicolas Reynoird, Purvesh Khatri, Pascal W. T. C. Jansen, Alex W. Wilkinson, Shichong Liu, Olena Barbash, Glenn S. Van Aller, Michael Huddleston, Dashyant Dhanak + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13320

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CTP synthase 1 deficiency in humans reveals its central role in lymphocyte proliferation p.288

Loss-of-function mutations in the human CTP synthase 1 gene cause an immunodeficiency disease with impaired T cell proliferation after antigen stimulation, revealing a potential new target for immunosuppressive drugs.

Emmanuel Martin, Noé Palmic, Sylvia Sanquer, Christelle Lenoir, Fabian Hauck, Cédric Mongellaz, Sylvie Fabrega, Patrick Nitschké, Mauro Degli Esposti, Jeremy Schwartzentruber + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13386

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A Ctf4 trimer couples the CMG helicase to DNA polymerase α in the eukaryotic replisome p.293

This study shows how the yeast Ctf4 protein couples the DNA helicase, Cdc45–MCM–GINS, to DNA polymerase α — the GINS subunit of the helicase and the polymerase use a similar interaction to bind Ctf4, suggesting that, as Ctf4 is a trimer, two polymerases could be simultaneously coupled to a single helicase during lagging-strand synthesis.

Aline C. Simon, Jin C. Zhou, Rajika L. Perera, Frederick van Deursen, Cecile Evrin, Marina E. Ivanova, Mairi L. Kilkenny, Ludovic Renault, Svend Kjaer, Dijana Matak-Vinković + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13234

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Quantitative flux analysis reveals folate-dependent NADPH production p.298

A metabolomics quantification of NADPH production and consumption fluxes in proliferating mammalian cells reveals that, in addition to canonical pathways such as the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, NADPH can also be produced by a folate metabolism pathway, a discovery providing new insights into the metabolism of cell growth.

Jing Fan, Jiangbin Ye, Jurre J. Kamphorst, Tomer Shlomi, Craig B. Thompson & Joshua D. Rabinowitz

doi: 10.1038/nature13236

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