네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Still much to learn about mice p.399

A project that aims to mutate every gene in the mouse genome to improve our knowledge of mouse biology should help to avoid irreproducible results and costly failures in drug development.

doi: 10.1038/509399a

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Not on the label p.399

A US push to flag foods as genetically engineered is hard to swallow.

doi: 10.1038/509399b

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Out with a bang p.400

The discovery of a Wolf-Rayet supernova rebuts the idea that the biggest stars go quietly.

doi: 10.1038/509400a

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News

Pluto-bound probe faces crisis p.407

NASA scientists scramble to find an object in the outer Solar System’s Kuiper belt in time for a close-up visit.

Alexandra Witze

doi: 10.1038/509407a

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Submersible loss hits research p.408

But scientists remain positive about the future of deep-sea exploration despite disintegration of unique US Nereus craft.

Daniel Cressey

doi: 10.1038/509408a

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Jelly genome mystery p.411

Publication of the draft genetic sequence of a comb jelly reveals a nervous system like no other.

Ewen Callaway

doi: 10.1038/509411a

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News Features

The power of three p.414

Techniques that transfer DNA from diseased human eggs to healthy ones — creating offspring with three biological parents — are on the verge of clinical use.

Ewen Callaway

doi: 10.1038/509414a

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Carving up the Amazon p.418

A rash of road construction is causing widespread change in the world's largest tropical forest — with potentially global consequences.

Barbara Fraser

doi: 10.1038/509418a

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News & Views

Keeping one's sex p.430

Progeny of the protist Paramecium tetraurelia always retain the parental mating type. This inheritance is revealed to result from an RNA-guided DNA-deletion pathway that protects the genome from foreign DNA sequences. See Article p.447

Douglas L. Chalker

doi: 10.1038/nature13333

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Windy stars that go with a bang p.431

The probable signature of an ageing massive star's stellar wind has been detected shortly after the star underwent a supernova explosion. The finding suggests that such windy stars can have bright, observable deaths. See Letter p.471

John J. Eldridge

doi: 10.1038/509431a

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Double function at the blood–brain barrier p.432

Two aspects of the blood–brain barrier — the transport of lipids to the brain and the transport of molecules across cells lining blood vessels — have been shown to be regulated by the same protein, Mfsd2a. See Letters p.503 & p.507

Christer Betsholtz

doi: 10.1038/nature13339

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Selectivity from flexibility p.434

Porous materials called metal–organic frameworks hold promise for many applications, including molecular separations. One such material has been discovered that shape-shifts to amplify its selectivity for a target molecule.

Ryotaro Matsuda

doi: 10.1038/509434a

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Darwinian tumour suppression p.435

Competition for access to a survival factor has been found to explain why incoming cells from the bone marrow replace resident cells in the thymus. Reducing this competition can cause tumours to form. See Article p.465

Eduardo Moreno

doi: 10.1038/nature13337

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Fertile fields for seismicity p.436

An analysis of crustal uplift around California's San Joaquin Valley, caused by groundwater extraction, reveals that such removal leads to both seasonal and long-term unclamping of the nearby San Andreas Fault system. See Letter p.483

Paul Lundgren

doi: 10.1038/nature13338

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Review

The role of senescent cells in ageing p.439

Cellular senescence has recently been shown to have roles in complex biological processes other than protection against cancer, and to represent a series of progressive and diverse cellular states after initial growth arrest; better understanding of mechanisms underlying its progression and of acute and chronic senescent cells may lead to new therapeutic strategies for age-related pathologies.

Jan M. van Deursen

doi: 10.1038/nature13193

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Articles

Genome-defence small RNAs exapted for epigenetic mating-type inheritance p.447

The molecular basis for mating-type determination in the ciliate Paramecium has been elucidated, revealing a novel function for a class of small RNAs — these scnRNAs are typically involved in reprogramming the Paramecium genome during sexual reproduction by recognizing and excising transposable elements, but they are now found to be co-opted to switch off expression of the newly identified mating-type gene mtA by excising its promoter, and to mediate epigenetic inheritance of mating types across sexual generations.

Deepankar Pratap Singh, Baptiste Saudemont, Gérard Guglielmi, Olivier Arnaiz, Jean-François Goût, Malgorzata Prajer, Alexey Potekhin, Ewa Przybòs, Anne Aubusson-Fleury, Simran Bhullar + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13318

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Amygdala interneuron subtypes control fear learning through disinhibition p.453

Plasticity within neuronal microcircuits is believed to be the substrate of learning, and this study identifies two distinct disinhibitory mechanisms involving interactions between PV+ and SOM+ interneurons that dynamically regulate principal neuron activity in the amygdala and thereby control auditory fear learning.

Steffen B. E. Wolff, Jan Gründemann, Philip Tovote, Sabine Krabbe, Gilad A. Jacobson, Christian Müller, Cyril Herry, Ingrid Ehrlich, Rainer W. Friedrich, Johannes J. Letzkus + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13258

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Cell competition is a tumour suppressor mechanism in the thymus p.465

T cells develop from thymic precursor cells that are constantly replaced with newly arriving bone marrow progenitor cells, and the ‘old’ and ‘new’ cells are shown here to compete; in the absence of cell competition, when the influx of new bone marrow progenitor cells is blocked, the old cells acquire the ability to self-renew and eventually become transformed, leading to the development of a form of leukaemia.

Vera C. Martins, Katrin Busch, Dilafruz Juraeva, Carmen Blum, Carolin Ludwig, Volker Rasche, Felix Lasitschka, Sergey E. Mastitsky, Benedikt Brors, Thomas Hielscher + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13317

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Letters

A Wolf–Rayet-like progenitor of SN 2013cu from spectral observations of a stellar wind p.471

The explosive fate of massive Wolf–Rayet stars (WRSs) is a key open question in stellar physics. An appealing option is that hydrogen-deficient WRSs are the progenitors of some hydrogen-poor supernova explosions of types IIb, Ib and Ic (ref. 2). A blue object, having luminosity and colours consistent with those of some WRSs, has recently been identified in pre-explosion images at the location of a supernova of type Ib (ref. 3), but has not yet been conclusively determined to have been the progenitor. Similar work has so far only resulted in non-detections. Comparison of early photometric observations of type Ic supernovae with theoretical models suggests that the progenitor stars had radii of less than 1012 centimetres, as expected for some WRSs. The signature of WRSs, their emission line spectra, cannot be probed by such studies. Here we report the detection of strong emission lines in a spectrum of type IIb supernova 2013cu (iPTF13ast) obtained approximately 15.5 hours after explosion (by ‘flash spectroscopy’, which captures the effects of the supernova explosion shock breakout flash on material surrounding the progenitor star). We identify Wolf–Rayet-like wind signatures, suggesting a progenitor of the WN(h) subclass (those WRSs with winds dominated by helium and nitrogen, with traces of hydrogen). The extent of this dense wind may indicate increased mass loss from the progenitor shortly before its explosion, consistent with recent theoretical predictions.

Avishay Gal-Yam, I. Arcavi, E. O. Ofek, S. Ben-Ami, S. B. Cenko, M. M. Kasliwal, Y. Cao, O. Yaron, D. Tal, J. M. Silverman + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13304

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Practical quantum key distribution protocol without monitoring signal disturbance p.475

Conventional quantum cryptography relies on monitoring signal disturbance to make sure that information leakage is negligible; here a new quantum method of achieving security is described, in which little information is leaked to the eavesdropper regardless of the signal disturbance.

Toshihiko Sasaki, Yoshihisa Yamamoto & Masato Koashi

doi: 10.1038/nature13303

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Copper is required for oncogenic BRAF signalling and tumorigenesis p.492

Tumorigenesis driven by the oncogene BRAFV600E is shown both to depend on the BRAF substrates MEK1/2 associating with copper, and to be sensitive to copper-chelating drugs, suggesting merit in testing such drugs for the treatment of BRAF mutation-positive cancers.

Donita C. Brady, Matthew S. Crowe, Michelle L. Turski, G. Aaron Hobbs, Xiaojie Yao, Apirat Chaikuad, Stefan Knapp, Kunhong Xiao, Sharon L. Campbell, Dennis J. Thiele + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13180

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Protective mucosal immunity mediated by epithelial CD1d and IL-10 p.497

Here, the presentation of lipid antigens by CD1d is shown to induce retrograde anti-inflammatory signalling in intestinal epithelial cells, resulting in the production of IL-10.

Torsten Olszak, Joana F. Neves, C. Marie Dowds, Kristi Baker, Jonathan Glickman, Nicholas O. Davidson, Chyuan-Sheng Lin, Christian Jobin, Stephan Brand, Karl Sotlar + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13150

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Mfsd2a is a transporter for the essential omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid p.503

Mfsd2a is the major transporter of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) into brain, with Mfsd2a-knockout mice showing reduced DHA in brain, neuronal cell loss in hippocampus and cerebellum, behavioural disorders and reduced brain size; DHA is transported in a sodium-dependent manner, in the form of lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) carrying long-chain fatty acids.

Long N. Nguyen, Dongliang Ma, Guanghou Shui, Peiyan Wong, Amaury Cazenave-Gassiot, Xiaodong Zhang, Markus R. Wenk, Eyleen L. K. Goh & David L. Silver

doi: 10.1038/nature13241

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Mfsd2a is critical for the formation and function of the blood–brain barrier p.507

Mfsd2a is a key regulator of blood–brain barrier (BBB) formation and function in mice: Mfsd2a is selectively expressed in BBB-containing blood vessels in the CNS; Mfsd2a−/− mice have a leaky BBB and increased vesicular transcytosis in CNS endothelial cells; and Mfsd2a endothelial expression is regulated by pericytes to facilitate BBB integrity.

Ayal Ben-Zvi, Baptiste Lacoste, Esther Kur, Benjamin J. Andreone, Yoav Mayshar, Han Yan & Chenghua Gu

doi: 10.1038/nature13324

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Structure of the AcrAB–TolC multidrug efflux pump p.512

Many bacteria are able to survive in the presence of antibiotics in part because they possess pumps that can remove a broad range of small molecules; here, the structure of one such pump, AcrAB–TolC, is determined using X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy.

Dijun Du, Zhao Wang, Nathan R. James, Jarrod E. Voss, Ewa Klimont, Thelma Ohene-Agyei, Henrietta Venter, Wah Chiu & Ben F. Luisi

doi: 10.1038/nature13205

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Structural basis of Sec-independent membrane protein insertion by YidC p.516

The crystal structure of the bacterial protein YidC is reported, together with a structure-based functional analysis, providing insight into the role of YidC in inserting single-spanning membrane proteins into the membrane.

Kaoru Kumazaki, Shinobu Chiba, Mizuki Takemoto, Arata Furukawa, Ken-ichi Nishiyama, Yasunori Sugano, Takaharu Mori, Naoshi Dohmae, Kunio Hirata, Yoshiko Nakada-Nakura + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13167

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