네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Full support p.259

Germany should follow the United Kingdom’s lead and spell out the benefits of animal research.

doi: 10.1038/509259b

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An accident waiting to happen p.259

The release of radioactive material at a US nuclear-waste repository reveals an all-too-common picture of complacency over safety and a gradual downgrading of regulations.

doi: 10.1038/509259a

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Hard data p.260

It has been no small feat for the Protein Data Bank to stay relevant for 100,000 structures.

doi: 10.1038/509260a

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News

News Features

Under siege p.274

A wave of anti-gay laws and homophobia in Africa is hampering efforts to study and curb the spread of HIV.

Linda Nordling

doi: 10.1038/509274a

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First light p.276

The left-over radiation from the Big Bang has given up what may be its last great secret about the early Universe, but astronomers are determined to mine more from this primordial prize.

Joanne Baker

doi: 10.1038/509276a

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News & Views

Shifting storms p.290

An analysis of historical storm data reveals that the average latitude at which tropical cyclones attain their maximum intensity has undergone a pronounced shift towards the poles over the past three decades. See Letter p.349

Hamish Ramsay

doi: 10.1038/509290a

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New letters for life's alphabet p.291

The five bases found in nucleic acids define the 'alphabet' used to encode life on Earth. The construction of an organism that stably propagates an unnatural DNA base pair redefines this fundamental feature of life. See Letter p.385

Ross Thyer & Jared Ellefson

doi: 10.1038/nature13335

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Collaborative synthesis p.293

A chemical synthesis has led to the reassignment of the molecular structure of the naturally occurring compound citrinalin B. This, in turn, helps to untangle the biochemical origins of an intriguing family of natural products. See Article p.318

John L. Wood

doi: 10.1038/509293a

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To care or not to care p.294

The behaviour of adult mice towards pups varies depending on gender and sexual experience. The activity of a population of neurons in the hypothalamus of the brain has now been found to regulate these differing responses. See Article p.325

Ivan Rodriguez

doi: 10.1038/509294a

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Radio waves zap the biomagnetic compass p.296

Weak radio waves in the medium-wave band are sufficient to disrupt geomagnetic orientation in migratory birds, according to a particularly well-controlled study. But the underlying biophysics remains a puzzle. See Letter p.353

Joseph L. Kirschvink

doi: 10.1038/nature13334

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Geology and climate drive diversification p.297

Data from the Galapagos Islands exemplify how geology and climate can interact to cause episodes of isolation and fusion of the biota across a landscape. Different scales of such cycles dictate varying mechanisms of species generation.

Rosemary G. Gillespie & George K. Roderick

doi: 10.1038/509297a

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Reviews

Recent advances in homogeneous nickel catalysis p.299

Some of the most recent and significant developments in homogeneous nickel catalysis are reviewed, including nickel-mediated cross-coupling reactions and carbon–hydrogen bond activation reactions.

Sarah Z. Tasker, Eric A. Standley & Timothy F. Jamison

doi: 10.1038/nature13274

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Nucleotide signalling during inflammation p.310

Extracellular ATP released from cells during inflammatory responses predominantly functions as a signalling molecule through the activation of purinergic P2 receptors and contributes to both beneficial and detrimental inflammatory responses; this review examines P2 receptor signalling via ATP and its effect on the outcome of inflammatory and infectious diseases.

Marco Idzko, Davide Ferrari & Holger K. Eltzschig

doi: 10.1038/nature13085

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Articles

Total synthesis and isolation of citrinalin and cyclopiamine congeners p.318

Natural products citrinalin B and cyclopiamine B, which contain basic nitrogen atoms that are susceptible to oxidation during synthesis, can be synthesized by the selective introduction and removal of functional groups.

Eduardo V. Mercado-Marin, Pablo Garcia-Reynaga, Stelamar Romminger, Eli. F. Pimenta, David K. Romney, Michael W. Lodewyk, David E. Williams, Raymond J. Andersen, Scott J. Miller, Dean J. Tantillo + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13273

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Galanin neurons in the medial preoptic area govern parental behaviour p.325

Sexual experience brings radical changes in how male mice behave with pups—virgin males attack them whereas mature fathers display parental care; here the authors identify a subset of hypothalamic neurons whose ablation leads to parental deficits in both males and females, and whose activation in virgin males suppresses aggression and induces pup grooming.

Zheng Wu, Anita E. Autry, Joseph F. Bergan, Mitsuko Watabe-Uchida & Catherine G. Dulac

doi: 10.1038/nature13307

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Space–time wiring specificity supports direction selectivity in the retina p.331

Motion detection by the retina is thought to rely largely on the biophysics of starburst amacrine cell dendrites; here machine learning is used with gamified crowdsourcing to draw the wiring diagram involving amacrine and bipolar cells to identify a plausible circuit mechanism for direction selectivity; the model suggests similarities between mammalian and insect vision.

Jinseop S. Kim, Matthew J. Greene, Aleksandar Zlateski, Kisuk Lee, Mark Richardson, Srinivas C. Turaga, Michael Purcaro, Matthew Balkam, Amy Robinson, Bardia F. Behabadi + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13240

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c-kit+ cells minimally contribute cardiomyocytes to the heart p.337

Whether or not endogenous c-kit+ cells residing within the heart contribute cardiomyocytes during physiological ageing or after injury remains unknown; here, using an inducible lineage tracing system, the c-kit+ lineage is shown to generate cardiomyocytes at very low levels, and, by contrast, contributes substantially to cardiac endothelial cell generation.

Jop H. van Berlo, Onur Kanisicak, Marjorie Maillet, Ronald J. Vagnozzi, Jason Karch, Suh-Chin J. Lin, Ryan C. Middleton, Eduardo Marbán & Jeffery D. Molkentin

doi: 10.1038/nature13309

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Letters

Cepheid variables in the flared outer disk of our galaxy p.342

Five classical Cepheids have been detected in the outer parts of our Galaxy beyond the Galactic bulge; they are probably associated with the gas in the flared disk and, if so, they are the first stars to be identified in the flare.

Michael W. Feast, John W. Menzies, Noriyuki Matsunaga & Patricia A. Whitelock

doi: 10.1038/nature13246

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Tracking excited-state charge and spin dynamics in iron coordination complexes p.345

Femtosecond resolution X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is shown to track the charge and spin dynamics triggered when an iron coordination complex is excited by light, and establishes the critical role of intermediate spin states in the de-excitation process.

Wenkai Zhang, Roberto Alonso-Mori, Uwe Bergmann, Christian Bressler, Matthieu Chollet, Andreas Galler, Wojciech Gawelda, Ryan G. Hadt, Robert W. Hartsock, Thomas Kroll + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13252

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The poleward migration of the location of tropical cyclone maximum intensity p.349

Analysis of global historical data in the Northern and Southern hemispheres reveals a statistically significant, poleward migration of 1° per decade in the average latitude at which tropical cyclones have achieved their lifetime-maximum intensity over the past 30 years.

James P. Kossin, Kerry A. Emanuel & Gabriel A. Vecchi

doi: 10.1038/nature13278

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Anthropogenic electromagnetic noise disrupts magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird p.353

For the first time under reproducible and fully double-blinded conditions, it is shown that anthropogenic electromagnetic noise below the WHO limits affects a biological system: night-migrating birds lose the ability to use the Earth’s magnetic field for orientation when exposed to anthropogenic electromagnetic noise at strengths routinely produced by commonly used electronic devices.

Svenja Engels, Nils-Lasse Schneider, Nele Lefeldt, Christine Maira Hein, Manuela Zapka, Andreas Michalik, Dana Elbers, Achim Kittel, P. J. Hore & Henrik Mouritsen

doi: 10.1038/nature13290

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Dynamics and associations of microbial community types across the human body p.357

The microbiome composition of 300 individuals sampled over 12–18 months was partitioned into microbial community types, which could be associated with the type found at other body sites, as well as with whether individuals were breastfed as an infant, their gender and their level of education.

Tao Ding & Patrick D. Schloss

doi: 10.1038/nature13178

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T-cell activation by transitory neo-antigens derived from distinct microbial pathways p.361

T cells discriminate between foreign and host molecules by recognizing distinct microbial molecules, predominantly peptides and lipids. Riboflavin precursors found in many bacteria and yeast also selectively activate mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, an abundant population of innate-like T cells in humans. However, the genesis of these small organic molecules and their mode of presentation to MAIT cells by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-related protein MR1 (ref. 8) are not well understood. Here we show that MAIT-cell activation requires key genes encoding enzymes that form 5-amino-6-d-ribitylaminouracil (5-A-RU), an early intermediate in bacterial riboflavin synthesis. Although 5-A-RU does not bind MR1 or activate MAIT cells directly, it does form potent MAIT-activating antigens via non-enzymatic reactions with small molecules, such as glyoxal and methylglyoxal, which are derived from other metabolic pathways. The MAIT antigens formed by the reactions between 5-A-RU and glyoxal/methylglyoxal were simple adducts, 5-(2-oxoethylideneamino)-6-d-ribitylaminouracil (5-OE-RU) and 5-(2-oxopropylideneamino)-6-d-ribitylaminouracil (5-OP-RU), respectively, which bound to MR1 as shown by crystal structures of MAIT TCR ternary complexes. Although 5-OP-RU and 5-OE-RU are unstable intermediates, they became trapped by MR1 as reversible covalent Schiff base complexes. Mass spectra supported the capture by MR1 of 5-OP-RU and 5-OE-RU from bacterial cultures that activate MAIT cells, but not from non-activating bacteria, indicating that these MAIT antigens are present in a range of microbes. Thus, MR1 is able to capture, stabilize and present chemically unstable pyrimidine intermediates, which otherwise convert to lumazines, as potent antigens to MAIT cells. These pyrimidine adducts are microbial signatures for MAIT-cell immunosurveillance.

Alexandra J. Corbett, Sidonia B. G. Eckle, Richard W. Birkinshaw, Ligong Liu, Onisha Patel, Jennifer Mahony, Zhenjun Chen, Rangsima Reantragoon, Bronwyn Meehan, Hanwei Cao + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13160

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Caspase-11 activation requires lysis of pathogen-containing vacuoles by IFN-induced GTPases p.366

Interferon-inducible GTPases are required for the release of vacuolar Gram-negative bacteria into the cytoplasm and subsequent inflammasome-mediated caspase-11 activation.

Etienne Meunier, Mathias S. Dick, Roland F. Dreier, Nura Schürmann, Daniela Kenzelmann Broz, Søren Warming, Merone Roose-Girma, Dirk Bumann, Nobuhiko Kayagaki, Kiyoshi Takeda + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13157

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Reconstructing lineage hierarchies of the distal lung epithelium using single-cell RNA-seq p.371

Single-cell transcriptome analysis enables the direct measurement of cell types and lineage hierarchies of the developing distal lung epithelium and identifies a population of bipotential alveolar progenitor cells.

Barbara Treutlein, Doug G. Brownfield, Angela R. Wu, Norma F. Neff, Gary L. Mantalas, F. Hernan Espinoza, Tushar J. Desai, Mark A. Krasnow & Stephen R. Quake

doi: 10.1038/nature13173

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Disruption of Mediator rescues the stunted growth of a lignin-deficient Arabidopsis mutant p.376

Disruption of lignin biosynthesis has been proposed as a way to improve forage and bioenergy crops, but it can result in stunted growth and developmental abnormalities; here, the undesirable features of one such manipulation are shown to depend on the transcriptional co-regulatory complex Mediator.

Nicholas D. Bonawitz, Jeong Im Kim, Yuki Tobimatsu, Peter N. Ciesielski, Nickolas A. Anderson, Eduardo Ximenes, Junko Maeda, John Ralph, Bryon S. Donohoe, Michael Ladisch + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13084

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Structure of the core ectodomain of the hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein 2 p.381

The crystal structure of the core domain of the hepatitis C virus surface glycoprotein E2 has been solved; the structure shows that, contrary to expectation, E2 is unlikely to be the viral fusion protein.

Abdul Ghafoor Khan, Jillian Whidby, Matthew T. Miller, Hannah Scarborough, Alexandra V. Zatorski, Alicja Cygan, Aryn A. Price, Samantha A. Yost, Caitlin D. Bohannon, Joshy Jacob + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13117

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A semi-synthetic organism with an expanded genetic alphabet p.385

Triphosphates of hydrophobic nucleotides d5SICS and dNaM are imported into Escherichia coli by an exogenous algal nucleotide triphosphate transporter and then used by an endogenous polymerase to replicate, and faithfully maintain over many generations of growth, a plasmid containing the d5SICS–dNaM unnatural base pair.

Denis A. Malyshev, Kirandeep Dhami, Thomas Lavergne, Tingjian Chen, Nan Dai, Jeremy M. Foster, Ivan R. Corrêa & Floyd E. Romesberg

doi: 10.1038/nature13314

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