네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Tribal gathering p.133

Success in synthetic biology will depend on better collaboration.

doi: 10.1038/509133a

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The game is on p.134

Amoeba races demonstrate a fun way to promote interest in science.

doi: 10.1038/509134b

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A cosmic history p.134

Millions of hours of processing time yield the best picture so far of how the Universe evolved.

doi: 10.1038/509134a

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News

Avalanche hotspot revealed p.142

Study of disaster-prone Russian islands underscores perils of colonizing unfamiliar terrains.

Jane Qiu

doi: 10.1038/509142a

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News Features

Cancer caught in the act p.148

Methods for monitoring tumour cells in living animals are transforming our view of cancer.

Corie Lok

doi: 10.1038/509148a

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Beyond divisions p.151

Since the birth of synthetic biology nearly 15 years ago, the field has splintered into diverse tribes of scientists, all attempting to bestow cells with new abilities.

doi: 10.1038/509151a

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Cultural divide p.152

Synthetic biology is facing a tug of war over whether to patent its discoveries or embrace open-source innovation.

Bryn Nelson

doi: 10.1038/509152a

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News & Views

Engineering explored p.166

Synthetic biology involves the creation of biological systems for new applications by modifying and reassembling biological components. Two views are presented here on the best way to engineer these components so that they reliably generate organisms with desired traits.

Pamela A. Silver, Jeffrey C. Way, Frances H. Arnold & Joseph T. Meyerowitz

doi: 10.1038/509166a

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The origin of regional Arctic warming p.167

Observational data and modelling show that the rapid warming of the northeastern Canada and Greenland sector of the Arctic over the past three decades has been strongly driven by cooling in the tropical Pacific Ocean. See Letter p.209

Jürgen Bader

doi: 10.1038/509167a

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Construction of a yeast chromosome p.168

One aim of synthetic biology is to generate complex synthetic organisms. Now, a stage in this process has been achieved in yeast cells — an entire yeast chromosome has been converted to a synthetic sequence in a stepwise manner.

Daniel G. Gibson & J. Craig Venter

doi: 10.1038/509168a

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A virtual Universe p.170

A numerical simulation of cosmic structure formation reproduces both large- and smaller-scale features of a representative volume of the Universe from early in its history to the present day. See Article p.177

Michael Boylan-Kolchin

doi: 10.1038/509170a

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Supply and demand p.171

Data from Himalayan songbirds suggest that the rate-limiting step in biodiversity production may not be the speed of speciation, but rather the speed at which new niches are created. See Letter p.222

Arne O. Mooers

doi: 10.1038/nature13332

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Diversity in the afterlife p.173

Field experiments that varied the composition of both plant litter and the organisms that break it down have revealed that, across ecosystems, lower biodiversity slows the rate of litter decomposition. See Letter p.218

Jennie R. McLaren

doi: 10.1038/509173a

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Action at a distance in a light receptor p.174

A tour de force of X-ray scattering has yielded structures of a phytochrome photoreceptor in its dark and illuminated states, showing how localized protein refolding magnifies a light signal to form a cellular message. See Letter p.245

Anna W. Baker & Katrina T. Forest

doi: 10.1038/nature13331

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Articles

Properties of galaxies reproduced by a hydrodynamic simulation p.177

A simulation that starts 12 million years after the Big Bang and traces 13 billion years of cosmic evolution yields a reasonable population of elliptical and spiral galaxies, reproduces the observed distribution of galaxies in clusters and the characteristics of hydrogen on large scales, and at the same time matches the ‘metal’ and hydrogen content of galaxies on small scales.

M. Vogelsberger, S. Genel, V. Springel, P. Torrey, D. Sijacki, D. Xu, G. Snyder, S. Bird, D. Nelson & L. Hernquist

doi: 10.1038/nature13316

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FXR is a molecular target for the effects of vertical sleeve gastrectomy p.183

Bariatric surgical procedures, such as vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), are the most effective therapy for the treatment of obesity; now bile acids, and the presence of the nuclear bile acid receptor FXR, are shown to underpin the mechanism of VSG action, and the ability of VSG to reduce body weight and improve glucose tolerance is substantially reduced if FXR is absent.

Karen K. Ryan, Valentina Tremaroli, Christoffer Clemmensen, Petia Kovatcheva-Datchary, Andriy Myronovych, Rebekah Karns, Hilary E. Wilson-Pérez, Darleen A. Sandoval, Rohit Kohli, Fredrik Bäckhed + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13135

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Astrocyte-encoded positional cues maintain sensorimotor circuit integrity p.189

Populations of astrocytes in the spinal cord are shown to express region-specific genes, with ventral astrocyte-encoded Sema3a necessary for proper motor neuron circuit organization and typical sensory afferent projection patterns; these findings suggest that astrocytes provide a positional cue for maintaining proper circuit formation and refinement.

Anna V. Molofsky, Kevin W. Kelley, Hui-Hsin Tsai, Stephanie A. Redmond, Sandra M. Chang, Lohith Madireddy, Jonah R. Chan, Sergio E. Baranzini, Erik M. Ullian & David H. Rowitch

doi: 10.1038/nature13161

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Synapse elimination and learning rules co-regulated by MHC class I H2-Db p.195

This study reveals a role for the MHC class I molecule H2-Db in retinogeniculate synapse elimination; expression of this immune system molecule in neurons lacking it is sufficient to rescue proper synapse pruning, as well as the segregation of eye-specific circuits in mice.

Hanmi Lee, Barbara K. Brott, Lowry A. Kirkby, Jaimie D. Adelson, Sarah Cheng, Marla B. Feller, Akash Datwani & Carla J. Shatz

doi: 10.1038/nature13154

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Letters

Circular polarization in the optical afterglow of GRB 121024A p.201

Circularly polarized light is unexpectedly detected in the afterglow of γ-ray burst GRB 121024A measured 0.15 days after the burst, and is shown to be intrinsic to the afterglow and unlikely to be produced by dust scattering or plasma propagation effects.

K. Wiersema, S. Covino, K. Toma, A. J. van der Horst, K. Varela, M. Min, J. Greiner, R. L. C. Starling, N. R. Tanvir, R. A. M. J. Wijers + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13237

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Classical shear cracks drive the onset of dry frictional motion p.205

The transition between ‘static’ and ‘dynamic’ friction in a model system is found to be quantitatively captured by the same theoretical framework as is used to describe brittle fracture, but deviations from this correspondence are observed as the rupture velocity approaches the speed at which sound waves propagate along the interface.

Ilya Svetlizky & Jay Fineberg

doi: 10.1038/nature13202

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Tropical forcing of the recent rapid Arctic warming in northeastern Canada and Greenland p.209

Human-induced climate change is usually assumed to be responsible for the dramatic thawing of glaciers since the mid 1990s in Greenland and northeastern Canada; approximately half of the observed warming in this region during this period is now found to be attributable to atmospheric circulation changes that may be of natural origin.

Qinghua Ding, John M. Wallace, David S. Battisti, Eric J. Steig, Ailie J. E. Gallant, Hyung-Jin Kim & Lei Geng

doi: 10.1038/nature13260

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Consequences of biodiversity loss for litter decomposition across biomes p.218

Field experiments across aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems show that biodiversity positively affects carbon and nitrogen cycling in leaf litter decomposition, indicating that reduced decomposition caused by biodiversity loss would modify the global carbon cycle and limit the nitrogen supply to the organisms at the base of the food chain.

I. Tanya Handa, Rien Aerts, Frank Berendse, Matty P. Berg, Andreas Bruder, Olaf Butenschoen, Eric Chauvet, Mark O. Gessner, Jérémy Jabiol, Marika Makkonen + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13247

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Niche filling slows the diversification of Himalayan songbirds p.222

In Himalayan songbirds, the speciation rate is ultimately set by ecological competition, rather than by the rate of acquisition of reproductive isolation.

Trevor D. Price, Daniel M. Hooper, Caitlyn D. Buchanan, Ulf S. Johansson, D. Thomas Tietze, Per Alström, Urban Olsson, Mousumi Ghosh-Harihar, Farah Ishtiaq, Sandeep K. Gupta + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13272

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Sensory stimulation shifts visual cortex from synchronous to asynchronous states p.226

Intracellular recordings distinguish between mechanisms that can account for variability in primary visual cortex of alert primates, consistent with a scheme in which spiking is driven by infrequent synchronous events during fixation, with sensory stimulation shifting the cortex to an asynchronous state.

Andrew Y. Y. Tan, Yuzhi Chen, Benjamin Scholl, Eyal Seidemann & Nicholas J. Priebe

doi: 10.1038/nature13159

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Listeria monocytogenes exploits efferocytosis to promote cell-to-cell spread p.230

The intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is shown to exploit efferocytosis—the process by which dead or dying cells are removed by phagocytosis—to promote cell-to-cell spread during infection.

Mark A. Czuczman, Ramzi Fattouh, Jorik M. van Rijn, Veronica Canadien, Suzanne Osborne, Aleixo M. Muise, Vijay K. Kuchroo, Darren E. Higgins & John H. Brumell

doi: 10.1038/nature13168

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NRROS negatively regulates reactive oxygen species during host defence and autoimmunity p.235

The leucine-rich repeat protein NRROS which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum regulates phagocytic NADPH oxidase, minimizing collateral tissue damage caused by reactive oxygen species during inflammatory processes.

Rajkumar Noubade, Kit Wong, Naruhisa Ota, Sascha Rutz, Celine Eidenschenk, Patricia A. Valdez, Jiabing Ding, Ivan Peng, Andrew Sebrell, Patrick Caplazi + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13152

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Endosomes are specialized platforms for bacterial sensing and NOD2 signalling p.240

The endo-lysosomal transporters SLC15A3 and SLC15A4 provide a portal of entry for extracellular bacterial products that activate the cytoplasmic sensor NOD2; these results establish the importance of endosomes as signalling platforms specialized for triggering innate immune responses.

Norihiro Nakamura, Jennie R. Lill, Qui Phung, Zhaoshi Jiang, Corey Bakalarski, Ann de Mazière, Judith Klumperman, Megan Schlatter, Lélia Delamarre & Ira Mellman

doi: 10.1038/nature13133

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Signal amplification and transduction in phytochrome photosensors p.245

The solution and crystal structures of a bacterial phytochrome photosensory core in both its resting and activated states are determined; switching between closed (resting) and open (activated) forms is found to be mediated by a conserved ‘tongue’, and the structures indicate that smaller changes in the vicinity of the chromophore are amplified in scale as they are transmitted through the tongue and beyond.

Heikki Takala, Alexander Björling, Oskar Berntsson, Heli Lehtivuori, Stephan Niebling, Maria Hoernke, Irina Kosheleva, Robert Henning, Andreas Menzel, Janne A. Ihalainen + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13310

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