네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

A toxic legacy p.431

Illegal dumping of toxic waste in the Italian Campania has been blamed for high rates of ill health in the region. The suspected link needs to be investigated using the most modern methods.

doi: 10.1038/508431a

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A question of trust p.432

NASA’s decision to renege on SOFIA project casts doubts over its reliability as a partner.

doi: 10.1038/508432a

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Take care p.432

The United States must tread carefully when building a health-data system.

doi: 10.1038/508432b

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News

Chile quake defies expectations p.440

Smaller-than-expected tremor has scientists scrambling to redefine rules for areas of extreme seismic stress.

Alexandra Witze

doi: 10.1038/508440a

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RNA interference rebooted p.443

Gene-silencing technique yields promising treatments for liver-linked disorders.

Erika Check Hayden

doi: 10.1038/508443a

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News Features

Designer reefs p.444

Biologists are directing the evolution of corals to prepare them to fight climate change.

Amanda Mascarelli

doi: 10.1038/508444a

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Biofuels heat up p.448

A new generation of industrial plants can make liquid fuels from almost any organic scraps — from corn stalks and wood chips to urban rubbish.

Kim Krieger

doi: 10.1038/508448a

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News & Views

Catalysis at the boundaries p.460

Copper-based materials have been found that efficiently convert carbon monoxide and water to ethanol using electricity. The discovery is a major advance towards storing renewable energy in the form of a liquid fuel. See Letter p.504

Aaron M. Appel

doi: 10.1038/nature13226

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Do you hear what I see? p.461

Researchers have found evidence that the representation of auditory and tactile information in the brains of blind people shows strong similarities to the way in which visual information is represented in sighted people.

Ione Fine

doi: 10.1038/508461a

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Nibbled to death p.462

Trogocytosis, a process in which one cell 'takes a bite' out of another, had previously been seen only in immune cells. But the phenomenon has now been found in Entamoeba histolytica, as a way for this parasite to kill host cells. See Letter p.526

Nancy Guillén

doi: 10.1038/nature13223

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The vital Y chromosome p.463

Comparisons of Y-chromosome sequences in various mammals reveal abundant gene loss early in the chromosome's evolution but remarkable gene stability across the Y chromosomes of extant species. See Articles p.488 & p.494

Andrew G. Clark

doi: 10.1038/508463a

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Sea levels from ancient seashells p.465

The isotopic composition of oxygen in sea water correlates with changes in global mean sea level. Microfossils carrying oxygen-isotope signals have been used to extend sea-level records as far back as 5 million years ago. See Article p.477

Ralph Schneider

doi: 10.1038/nature13328

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Sperm protein finds its mate p.466

Knowledge of the sperm-specific protein that is required for the attachment of sperm to eggs during fertilization in mammals has led to the identification of the protein's receptor on the egg's plasma membrane. See Article p.483

Paul M. Wassarman

doi: 10.1038/nature13227

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Perspective

Guidelines for investigating causality of sequence variants in human disease OPEN p.469

Acceleration in discovery of rare genetic variants possibly linked with disease may mean an increased risk of false-positive reports of causality; this Perspective proposes guidelines to distinguish disease-causing sequence variants from the many potentially functional variants in a human genome, and to assess confidence in their pathogenicity, and highlights priority areas for development.

D. G. MacArthur, T. A. Manolio, D. P. Dimmock, H. L. Rehm, J. Shendure, G. R. Abecasis, D. R. Adams, R. B. Altman, S. E. Antonarakis, E. A. Ashley + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13127

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Articles

Sea-level and deep-sea-temperature variability over the past 5.3 million years p.477

A novel approach to the estimation of sea level and deep-sea temperature has been used to determine these quantities over the past 5.3 million years; this approach, based on oxygen isotope records from the eastern Mediterranean, shows that temperature and sea-level histories are broadly correlated but also show intriguing temporal offsets.

E. J. Rohling, G. L. Foster, K. M. Grant, G. Marino, A. P. Roberts, M. E. Tamisiea & F. Williams

doi: 10.1038/nature13230

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Juno is the egg Izumo receptor and is essential for mammalian fertilization p.483

The egg receptor for Izumo, a sperm cell-surface protein required for male fertility, is identified here and renamed Juno; these findings show that the Izumo–Juno interaction is conserved within mammals, and open new opportunities for the development of fertility treatments and contraceptives.

Enrica Bianchi, Brendan Doe, David Goulding & Gavin J. Wright

doi: 10.1038/nature13203

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Origins and functional evolution of Y chromosomes across mammals p.488

Using high-throughput genome and transcriptome sequencing, Y chromosome evolution across 15 representative mammals is explored, with results providing evidence for three independent sex chromosome originations in mammals and birds.

Diego Cortez, Ray Marin, Deborah Toledo-Flores, Laure Froidevaux, Angélica Liechti, Paul D. Waters, Frank Grützner & Henrik Kaessmann

doi: 10.1038/nature13151

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Mammalian Y chromosomes retain widely expressed dosage-sensitive regulators p.494

A study comparing the Y chromosome across mammalian species reveals that selection to maintain the ancestral dosage of homologous X–Y gene pairs preserved a handful of genes on the Y chromosome while the rest were lost; the survival of broadly expressed dosage-sensitive regulators of gene expression suggest that the human Y chromosome is essential for male viability.

Daniel W. Bellott, Jennifer F. Hughes, Helen Skaletsky, Laura G. Brown, Tatyana Pyntikova, Ting-Jan Cho, Natalia Koutseva, Sara Zaghlul, Tina Graves, Susie Rock + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13206

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Letters

Superconducting quantum circuits at the surface code threshold for fault tolerance p.500

A universal set of logic gates in a superconducting quantum circuit is shown to have gate fidelities at the threshold for fault-tolerant quantum computing by the surface code approach, in which the quantum bits are distributed in an array of planar topology and have only nearest-neighbour couplings.

R. Barends, J. Kelly, A. Megrant, A. Veitia, D. Sank, E. Jeffrey, T. C. White, J. Mutus, A. G. Fowler, B. Campbell + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13171

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Hybrid shallow on-axis and deep off-axis hydrothermal circulation at fast-spreading ridges p.508

High-resolution three-dimensional simulations of hydrothermal flow beneath fast-spreading ridges predict two interacting flow components — shallow on-axis flow and deeper off-axis flow — that merge to feed axial vent sites, reconciling previously incompatible models favouring only one flow component.

Jörg Hasenclever, Sonja Theissen-Krah, Lars H. Rüpke, Jason P. Morgan, Karthik Iyer, Sven Petersen & Colin W. Devey

doi: 10.1038/nature13174

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Plate tectonics, damage and inheritance p.513

Lithospheric damage, combined with transient mantle flow and migrating proto-subduction, is proposed to explain the apparent emergence of plate tectonics three billion years ago; modelling confirms that tectonic plate boundaries and fully formed tectonic plates can arise under conditions characteristic of Earth but not of Venus.

David Bercovici & Yanick Ricard

doi: 10.1038/nature13072

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Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation p.517

Experimental data collected from 40 grasslands on 6 continents show that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity; nutrient addition reduces local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescues diversity at sites where it alleviates light limitation.

Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Daniel S. Gruner, W. Stanley Harpole, Helmut Hillebrand, Eric M. Lind, Peter B. Adler, Juan Alberti, T. Michael Anderson, Jonathan D. Bakker + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13144

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Eutrophication weakens stabilizing effects of diversity in natural grasslands p.521

Experimental eutrophication weakens the stabilizing effects of plant diversity on the productivity of natural grasslands.

Yann Hautier, Eric W. Seabloom, Elizabeth T. Borer, Peter B. Adler, W. Stanley Harpole, Helmut Hillebrand, Eric M. Lind, Andrew S. MacDougall, Carly J. Stevens, Jonathan D. Bakker + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13014

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Trogocytosis by Entamoeba histolytica contributes to cell killing and tissue invasion p.526

Entamoeba histolytic, the causative agent of fatal diarrhoeal disease in children in the developing world, is shown here to kill human cells by biting off and ingesting pieces of cells, in a process reminiscent of the trogocytosis seen between immune cells; ingestion of bites is required for killing and this mechanism is used both in tissue culture and during invasion of intestinal explants.

Katherine S. Ralston, Michael D. Solga & Nicole M. Mackey-Lawrence

doi: 10.1038/nature13242

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Inhibition of miR-25 improves cardiac contractility in the failing heart p.531

Reduced activity of the calcium-transporting ATPase SERCA2a is a hallmark of heart failure; here, microRNAs that downregulate SERCA2a function are identified, and antagonism of one, miR-25, is shown to halt heart failure in mice.

Christine Wahlquist, Dongtak Jeong, Agustin Rojas-Muñoz, Changwon Kho, Ahyoung Lee, Shinichi Mitsuyama, Alain van Mil, Woo Jin Park, Joost P. G. Sluijter, Pieter A. F. Doevendans + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13073

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Cell-cycle-regulated activation of Akt kinase by phosphorylation at its carboxyl terminus p.541

Phosphorylation of Akt at its carboxy-terminal tail is an essential layer of Akt activation to regulate its physiological functions.

Pengda Liu, Michael Begley, Wojciech Michowski, Hiroyuki Inuzuka, Miriam Ginzberg, Daming Gao, Peiling Tsou, Wenjian Gan, Antonella Papa, Byeong Mo Kim + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13079

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Nectar secretion requires sucrose phosphate synthases and the sugar transporter SWEET9 p.546

Although nectar is known to be important, for example in plant–insect interactions, little has been known about the mechanism of its secretion; sucrose phosphate synthases are now reported to be essential for the synthesis of the sucrose component of nectar and the transporter protein SWEET9 is shown to mediate sucrose export into the extracellular space of the nectary.

I Winnie Lin, Davide Sosso, Li-Qing Chen, Klaus Gase, Sang-Gyu Kim, Danny Kessler, Peter M. Klinkenberg, Molly K. Gorder, Bi-Huei Hou, Xiao-Qing Qu + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13082

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Structure of a type IV secretion system p.550

The three-dimensional structure of the type IV secretion system encoded by the Escherichia coli R388 conjugative plasmid.

Harry H. Low, Francesca Gubellini, Angel Rivera-Calzada, Nathalie Braun, Sarah Connery, Annick Dujeancourt, Fang Lu, Adam Redzej, Rémi Fronzes, Elena V. Orlova + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature13081

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