네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Eyes and ears p.281

Two explosions last week demonstrated the importance of global monitoring.

doi: 10.1038/494281b

전문

Vital statistics p.281

That robust data are not collected on births, deaths and causes of death is a scandal. A new drive and greater investment are needed to grow the field of health metrics.

doi: 10.1038/494281a

전문

Net gains p.282

Estimating the scale of the problem may allow us to arrest dangerous levels of overfishing.

doi: 10.1038/494282a

전문

News

Dark-matter hunt gets deep p.291

China launches world’s deepest particle-physics experiment — but it joins a crowded field.

Eugenie Samuel Reich

doi: 10.1038/494291a

전문

News Features

Neuroscience: As the worm turns p.296

With the help of a tiny worm, Cornelia Bargmann is unpicking the neural circuits that drive eating, socializing and sex.

Stephen S. Hall

doi: 10.1038/494296a

전문

Green cement: Concrete Solutions p.300

Cement manufacturing is a major source of greenhouse gases. But cutting emissions means mastering one of the most complex materials known.

Ivan Amato

doi: 10.1038/494300a

전문

News & Views

Palaeoanthropology: Of humans, dogs and tiny tools p.316

Genomic data hint at the possibility of human migration from India to Australia 4,230 years ago. However, the inference that these humans took along their dogs and tools is difficult to reconcile with previous reports.

Peter Brown

doi: 10.1038/494316a

전문

Ageing: Stem cells on a stress-busting diet p.317

Knowing how an organism's tissues handle stress throughout life is key to understanding ageing and disease. Stems cells of the blood system seem to tackle metabolic stress by means of a process called autophagy. See Article p.323

Teresa V. Bowman & Leonard I. Zon

doi: 10.1038/nature11948

전문

Climate science: Global warming and tropical carbon p.319

An innovative use of measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide constrains the possible range of carbon–cycle responses to climate change during the twenty-first century, lowering expectations of tropical-forest dieback. See Letter p.341

James T. Randerson

doi: 10.1038/nature11949

전문

Microbial oceanography: Killers of the winners p.320

Viruses that infect the SAR11 group of oceanic bacteria have finally been found and sequenced. Because SAR11 is ubiquitous, these viruses may be the most abundant in the oceans — and perhaps in the entire biosphere. See Letter p.357

David L. Kirchman

doi: 10.1038/nature11951

전문

Infection biology: Cheats never prosper p.321

Fast-growing 'defector mutants' can threaten the success of a bacterial infection. But one bacterial species prevails over these cheats by forming a subpopulation that has shut down expression of virulence genes. See Letter p.353

David T. Mulder & Brian K. Coombes

doi: 10.1038/494321a

전문

Article

FOXO3A directs a protective autophagy program in haematopoietic stem cells p.323

Blood production is ensured by rare, self-renewing haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). How HSCs accommodate the diverse cellular stresses associated with their life-long activity remains elusive. Here we identify autophagy as an essential mechanism protecting HSCs from metabolic stress. We show that mouse HSCs, in contrast to their short-lived myeloid progeny, robustly induce autophagy after ex vivo cytokine withdrawal and in vivo calorie restriction. We demonstrate that FOXO3A is critical to maintain a gene expression program that poises HSCs for rapid induction of autophagy upon starvation. Notably, we find that old HSCs retain an intact FOXO3A-driven pro-autophagy gene program, and that ongoing autophagy is needed to mitigate an energy crisis and allow their survival. Our results demonstrate that autophagy is essential for the life-long maintenance of the HSC compartment and for supporting an old, failing blood system.

Matthew R. Warr, Mikhail Binnewies, Johanna Flach, Damien Reynaud, Trit Garg, Ritu Malhotra, Jayanta Debnath & Emmanuelle Passegué

doi: 10.1038/nature11895

전문 |PDF

Letters

A black-hole mass measurement from molecular gas kinematics in NGC4526 p.328

In this study a supermassive black-hole mass is measured by tracing the motions of molecular gas clouds swirling around it, a technique that promises to allow measurements of black-hole mass in many more galaxies of all types than previously possible.

Timothy A. Davis, Martin Bureau, Michele Cappellari, Marc Sarzi & Leo Blitz

doi: 10.1038/nature11819

전문 |PDF

Generation of electron Airy beams p.331

The diffraction of electrons through a nanoscale hologram that imprints a certain phase modulation on the electrons’ wavefunction produces a non-spreading electron Airy beam that follows a parabolic trajectory and can reconstruct its original shape after passing an obstacle.

Noa Voloch-Bloch, Yossi Lereah, Yigal Lilach, Avraham Gover & Ady Arie

doi: 10.1038/nature11840

전문 |PDF

Sensitivity of tropical carbon to climate change constrained by carbon dioxide variability p.341

A linear relationship between the sensitivity of tropical land carbon storage to warming and the sensitivity of the annual growth rate of atmospheric CO2 to tropical temperature anomalies provides a tight constraint on the sensitivity of tropical land carbon to climate change.

Peter M. Cox, David Pearson, Ben B. Booth, Pierre Friedlingstein, Chris Huntingford, Chris D. Jones & Catherine M. Luke

doi: 10.1038/nature11882

전문 |PDF

Behavioural and genetic analyses of Nasonia shed light on the evolution of sex pheromones p.345

A genetic and behavioural study in related species of Nasonia wasps reveals how pheromone changes relevant to speciation could evolve through genes creating a new pheromone component by changing the stereochemistry of an existing pheromone molecule.

Oliver Niehuis, Jan Buellesbach, Joshua D. Gibson, Daniela Pothmann, Christian Hanner, Navdeep S. Mutti, Andrea K. Judson, Jürgen Gadau, Joachim Ruther & Thomas Schmitt

doi: 10.1038/nature11838

전문 |PDF

Ecosystem resilience despite large-scale altered hydroclimatic conditions p.349

The resilience of a global sample of ecosystems to an increase in drought conditions is assessed, comparing data from the early twenty-first with the late twentieth century; results indicate a cross-ecosystem capacity for tolerating low precipitation and responding to high precipitation during recent warm drought and yet suggest a threshold to resilience with prolonged warm drought.

Guillermo E. Ponce Campos, M. Susan Moran, Alfredo Huete, Yongguang Zhang, Cynthia Bresloff, Travis E. Huxman, Derek Eamus, David D. Bosch, Anthony R. Buda, Stacey A. Gunter + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature11836

전문 |PDF

Abundant SAR11 viruses in the ocean p.357

Viruses are isolated from the SAR11 bacterial clade, the most abundant group of bacteria in the ocean, that were thought to be resistant to viral infection; because of the essential role of SAR11 in carbon cycling these viruses are also an important factor in biogeochemical cycling.

Yanlin Zhao, Ben Temperton, J. Cameron Thrash, Michael S. Schwalbach, Kevin L. Vergin, Zachary C. Landry, Mark Ellisman, Tom Deerinck, Matthew B. Sullivan & Stephen J. Giovannoni

doi: 10.1038/nature11921

전문 |PDF

T-helper-1-cell cytokines drive cancer into senescence p.361

T-helper-1-cell cytokines tumour necrosis factor and interferon-γ are shown to drive tumour cells into senescence in a mouse model of β-cell carcinoma and human carcinoma cells.

Heidi Braumüller, Thomas Wieder, Ellen Brenner, Sonja Aßmann, Matthias Hahn, Mohammed Alkhaled, Karin Schilbach, Frank Essmann, Manfred Kneilling, Christoph Griessinger + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature11824

전문 |PDF

APOBEC3B is an enzymatic source of mutation in breast cancer p.366

The DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B is shown to be overexpressed and highly active in most breast cancers; deamination by APOBEC3B could serve as an endogenous, continual source of DNA damage leading to mutations, including C-to-T transitions and other aberrations seen in many breast tumours.

Michael B. Burns, Lela Lackey, Michael A. Carpenter, Anurag Rathore, Allison M. Land, Brandon Leonard, Eric W. Refsland, Delshanee Kotandeniya, Natalia Tretyakova, Jason B. Nikas + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature11881

전문 |PDF

Central role of E3 ubiquitin ligase MG53 in insulin resistance and metabolic disorders p.375

MG53 acts as an E3 ligase that targets the insulin receptor and IRS1 for ubiquitin-dependent degradation; when MG53 is upregulated, metabolic syndrome ensues.

Ruisheng Song, Wei Peng, Yan Zhang, Fengxiang Lv, Hong-Kun Wu, Jiaojiao Guo, Yongxing Cao, Yanbin Pi, Xin Zhang, Li Jin + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature11834

전문 |PDF

Control of substrate access to the active site in methane monooxygenase p.380

The crystal structure of the complex between the hydroxylase and regulatory component of soluble methane monooxygenase is presented, revealing how the latter component controls substrate access to the hydroxylase active site.

Seung Jae Lee, Michael S. McCormick, Stephen J. Lippard & Uhn-Soo Cho

doi: 10.1038/nature11880

전문 |PDF

High-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Trypanosoma brucei ribosome p.385

High-resolution cryo-electron microscopy shows that the Trypanosoma brucei kinetoplastid ribosome is characterized by the presence of large expansion segments, ribosomal-protein extensions and additional rRNA insertions, which may have implications for the protein-translation regulation process.

Yaser Hashem, Amedee des Georges, Jie Fu, Sarah N. Buss, Fabrice Jossinet, Amy Jobe, Qin Zhang, Hstau Y. Liao, Robert A. Grassucci, Chandrajit Bajaj + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature11872

전문 |PDF