Two explosions last week demonstrated the importance of global monitoring.
That robust data are not collected on births, deaths and causes of death is a scandal. A new drive and greater investment are needed to grow the field of health metrics.
Estimating the scale of the problem may allow us to arrest dangerous levels of overfishing.
Loss of patent control could rekindle ‘terminator’ technology.
Maturing technology speeds medical diagnoses.
China launches world’s deepest particle-physics experiment — but it joins a crowded field.
Italy’s researchers want change they can believe in.
Geology and infrastructure could impede development.
Venerable government adviser will fund grants with half-billion-dollar windfall.
With the help of a tiny worm, Cornelia Bargmann is unpicking the neural circuits that drive eating, socializing and sex.
Cement manufacturing is a major source of greenhouse gases. But cutting emissions means mastering one of the most complex materials known.
News & Views
Genomic data hint at the possibility of human migration from India to Australia 4,230 years ago. However, the inference that these humans took along their dogs and tools is difficult to reconcile with previous reports.
Knowing how an organism's tissues handle stress throughout life is key to understanding ageing and disease. Stems cells of the blood system seem to tackle metabolic stress by means of a process called autophagy. See Article p.323
An innovative use of measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide constrains the possible range of carbon–cycle responses to climate change during the twenty-first century, lowering expectations of tropical-forest dieback. See Letter p.341
Viruses that infect the SAR11 group of oceanic bacteria have finally been found and sequenced. Because SAR11 is ubiquitous, these viruses may be the most abundant in the oceans — and perhaps in the entire biosphere. See Letter p.357
Fast-growing 'defector mutants' can threaten the success of a bacterial infection. But one bacterial species prevails over these cheats by forming a subpopulation that has shut down expression of virulence genes. See Letter p.353
Blood production is ensured by rare, self-renewing haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). How HSCs accommodate the diverse cellular stresses associated with their life-long activity remains elusive. Here we identify autophagy as an essential mechanism protecting HSCs from metabolic stress. We show that mouse HSCs, in contrast to their short-lived myeloid progeny, robustly induce autophagy after ex vivo cytokine withdrawal and in vivo calorie restriction. We demonstrate that FOXO3A is critical to maintain a gene expression program that poises HSCs for rapid induction of autophagy upon starvation. Notably, we find that old HSCs retain an intact FOXO3A-driven pro-autophagy gene program, and that ongoing autophagy is needed to mitigate an energy crisis and allow their survival. Our results demonstrate that autophagy is essential for the life-long maintenance of the HSC compartment and for supporting an old, failing blood system.
In this study a supermassive black-hole mass is measured by tracing the motions of molecular gas clouds swirling around it, a technique that promises to allow measurements of black-hole mass in many more galaxies of all types than previously possible.
The diffraction of electrons through a nanoscale hologram that imprints a certain phase modulation on the electrons’ wavefunction produces a non-spreading electron Airy beam that follows a parabolic trajectory and can reconstruct its original shape after passing an obstacle.
The ionic crystal Ca2N is shown to be an electride in terms of [Ca2N]+·e−, with diffusive two-dimensional transport in dense electron layers.
A linear relationship between the sensitivity of tropical land carbon storage to warming and the sensitivity of the annual growth rate of atmospheric CO2 to tropical temperature anomalies provides a tight constraint on the sensitivity of tropical land carbon to climate change.
A genetic and behavioural study in related species of Nasonia wasps reveals how pheromone changes relevant to speciation could evolve through genes creating a new pheromone component by changing the stereochemistry of an existing pheromone molecule.
The resilience of a global sample of ecosystems to an increase in drought conditions is assessed, comparing data from the early twenty-first with the late twentieth century; results indicate a cross-ecosystem capacity for tolerating low precipitation and responding to high precipitation during recent warm drought and yet suggest a threshold to resilience with prolonged warm drought.
A phenotypically avirulent subpopulation of the intestinal pathogen Salmonella typhimurium promotes evolutionary stability of virulence.
Viruses are isolated from the SAR11 bacterial clade, the most abundant group of bacteria in the ocean, that were thought to be resistant to viral infection; because of the essential role of SAR11 in carbon cycling these viruses are also an important factor in biogeochemical cycling.
T-helper-1-cell cytokines tumour necrosis factor and interferon-γ are shown to drive tumour cells into senescence in a mouse model of β-cell carcinoma and human carcinoma cells.
The DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B is shown to be overexpressed and highly active in most breast cancers; deamination by APOBEC3B could serve as an endogenous, continual source of DNA damage leading to mutations, including C-to-T transitions and other aberrations seen in many breast tumours.
The deubiquitinase OTUD7B is shown to regulate the non-canonical NF-κB pathway by inhibiting TRAF3 proteolysis.
MG53 acts as an E3 ligase that targets the insulin receptor and IRS1 for ubiquitin-dependent degradation; when MG53 is upregulated, metabolic syndrome ensues.
The crystal structure of the complex between the hydroxylase and regulatory component of soluble methane monooxygenase is presented, revealing how the latter component controls substrate access to the hydroxylase active site.
High-resolution cryo-electron microscopy shows that the Trypanosoma brucei kinetoplastid ribosome is characterized by the presence of large expansion segments, ribosomal-protein extensions and additional rRNA insertions, which may have implications for the protein-translation regulation process.