네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Vigilance needed p.451

Experiments that make deadly pathogens more dangerous demand the utmost scrutiny.

doi: 10.1038/493451b

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Genetic privacy p.451

The ability to identify an individual from their anonymous genome sequence, using a clever algorithm and data from public databases, threatens the principle of subject confidentiality.

doi: 10.1038/493451a

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Science stakes p.452

With the Royal Institution in trouble, Britain’s crowded public-science scene must evolve.

doi: 10.1038/493452a

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News

News Features

Social evolution: The ritual animal p.470

Praying, fighting, dancing, chanting — human rituals could illuminate the growth of community and the origins of civilization.

Daniel Jones

doi: 10.1038/493470a

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News & Views

Neuroscience: Strength in numbers p.482

A process called long-term potentiation mediates information storage — learning and memory — at the level of neurons. An in vitro study turns the molecular understanding of this process on its head. But researchers' opinions differ as to what can be inferred from these data. See Article p.495

Morgan Sheng, Roberto Malinow & Richard Huganir

doi: 10.1038/493482a

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Bioenergy: Biofuel production on the margins p.483

An analysis shows that fuel made from wild, herbaceous vegetation grown on land currently unsuitable for cultivating field crops could contribute substantially to the United States' targets for biofuel production. See Letter p.514

Klaus Butterbach-Bahl & Ralf Kiese

doi: 10.1038/nature11853

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Solar physics: Towards ever smaller length scales p.485

Determining the real scale of structures in the Sun's corona has proved difficult because of limited spatial resolution. Now high-resolution imaging has allowed dynamic structures on scales of 150 kilometres to be observed. See Letter p.501

Peter Cargill

doi: 10.1038/493485a

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Palaeontology: Gritting their teeth p.486

A comparison of the wearing effect of plant-derived silica and desert dust on tooth enamel suggests that extreme wear on teeth might not be caused by food. The findings may change some thoughts about the diets of human ancestors.

Bernard Wood

doi: 10.1038/493486a

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Cancer: The to and fro of tumour spread p.487

Two studies shed light on the role of cellular transitions between the epithelial and mesenchymal states during cancer metastasis, and provide food for thought as to which cellular processes should be targeted in cancer treatment.

Bryce J. W. van Denderen & Erik W. Thompson

doi: 10.1038/493487a

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Articles

LTP requires a reserve pool of glutamate receptors independent of subunit type p.495

Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission is thought to be an important cellular mechanism underlying memory formation. A widely accepted model posits that LTP requires the cytoplasmic carboxyl tail (C-tail) of the AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) receptor subunit GluA1. To find the minimum necessary requirement of the GluA1 C-tail for LTP in mouse CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons, we used a single-cell molecular replacement strategy to replace all endogenous AMPA receptors with transfected subunits. In contrast to the prevailing model, we found no requirement of the GluA1 C-tail for LTP. In fact, replacement with the GluA2 subunit showed normal LTP, as did an artificially expressed kainate receptor not normally found at these synapses. The only conditions under which LTP was impaired were those with markedly decreased AMPA receptor surface expression, indicating a requirement for a reserve pool of receptors. These results demonstrate the synapse’s remarkable flexibility to potentiate with a variety of glutamate receptor subtypes, requiring a fundamental change in our thinking with regard to the core molecular events underlying synaptic plasticity.

Adam J. Granger, Yun Shi, Wei Lu, Manuel Cerpas & Roger A. Nicoll

doi: 10.1038/nature11775

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Letters

Energy release in the solar corona from spatially resolved magnetic braids p.501

Solar observations at a resolution of 0.2 arc seconds show the reconnection and relaxation of magnetic braids in a coronal active region, leading to the dissipation of sufficient energy to heat the structures to about 4,000,000 K.

J. W. Cirtain, L. Golub, A. R. Winebarger, B. De Pontieu, K. Kobayashi, R. L. Moore, R. W. Walsh, K. E. Korreck, M. Weber, P. McCauley + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature11772

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Laser cooling of a semiconductor by 40 kelvin p.504

Net laser cooling from 290 kelvin to about 250 kelvin is achieved in semiconductor cadmium sulphide ‘nanobelts’ and attributed to strong coupling between excitons and longitudinal optical phonons.

Jun Zhang, Dehui Li, Renjie Chen & Qihua Xiong

doi: 10.1038/nature11721

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Interface-engineered templates for molecular spin memory devices p.509

When molecules of a phenalenyl derivative, which has no net spin, are deposited on a ferromagnet, they develop into a magnetic supramolecular layer with spin-filtering properties; this could be the basis for a new approach to building molecular magnetic devices.

Karthik V. Raman, Alexander M. Kamerbeek, Arup Mukherjee, Nicolae Atodiresei, Tamal K. Sen, Predrag Lazić, Vasile Caciuc, Reent Michel, Dietmar Stalke, Swadhin K. Mandal + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature11719

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Sustainable bioenergy production from marginal lands in the US Midwest p.514

A comparative assessment of six alternative cropping systems over 20 years shows that, once well established, successional herbaceous vegetation grown on marginal lands has a direct greenhouse gas emissions mitigation capacity that rivals that of purpose-grown crops.

Ilya Gelfand, Ritvik Sahajpal, Xuesong Zhang, R. César Izaurralde, Katherine L. Gross & G. Philip Robertson

doi: 10.1038/nature11811

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Stable creeping fault segments can become destructive as a result of dynamic weakening p.518

An earthquake source model in which stable, rate-strengthening behaviour at low slip rates is combined with coseismic weakening due to rapid shear heating of pore fluids, allowing unstable slip to occur in segments that can creep between events, explains a number of both long-term and coseismic observations of faults that hosted the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake.

Hiroyuki Noda & Nadia Lapusta

doi: 10.1038/nature11703

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Earliest evidence for cheese making in the sixth millennium bc in northern Europe p.522

Biomarker and stable isotopic analysis of lipid residues from perforated pottery vessels from sixth millennium bc Europe are consistent with these vessels having been used for making cheese, a low-lactose dairy product with digestion and storage advantages for the prehistoric lactose-intolerant farming communities.

Mélanie Salque, Peter I. Bogucki, Joanna Pyzel, Iwona Sobkowiak-Tabaka, Ryszard Grygiel, Marzena Szmyt & Richard P. Evershed

doi: 10.1038/nature11698

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Insights into bilaterian evolution from three spiralian genomes OPEN p.526

Comparative analysis of the genomes of one mollusc (Lottia gigantea) and two annelids (Capitella teleta and Helobdella robusta) enable a more complete reconstruction of genomic features of the last common ancestors of protostomes, bilaterians and metazoans; against this conserved background they provide the first glimpse into lineage-specific evolution and diversity of the lophotrochozoans.

doi: 10.1038/nature11696

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Rapid regulation of depression-related behaviours by control of midbrain dopamine neurons p.532

Optogenetic induction of phasic, but not tonic, firing in VTA dopamine neurons induces susceptibility to stress in mice undergoing a subthreshold social-defeat paradigm and in previously resilient mice that have been subjected to repeated social-defeat stress, and this effect is projection-pathway specific.

Dipesh Chaudhury, Jessica J. Walsh, Allyson K. Friedman, Barbara Juarez, Stacy M. Ku, Ja Wook Koo, Deveroux Ferguson, Hsing-Chen Tsai, Lisa Pomeranz, Daniel J. Christoffel + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature11713

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Dopamine neurons modulate neural encoding and expression of depression-related behaviour p.537

Specific manipulation of midbrain dopamine neurons in freely moving rodents shows that their inhibition or excitation immediately modulates depression-like phenotypes that are induced by chronic mild stress, and that their activation alters the neural encoding of depression-related behaviours in the nucleus accumbens.

Kay M. Tye, Julie J. Mirzabekov, Melissa R. Warden, Emily A. Ferenczi, Hsing-Chen Tsai, Joel Finkelstein, Sung-Yon Kim, Avishek Adhikari, Kimberly R. Thompson, Aaron S. Andalman + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature11740

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Functional and evolutionary insight from the crystal structure of rubella virus protein E1 p.552

The crystal structure of rubella virus E1 glycoprotein in its post-fusion form reveals a class II fusion protein with distinct features so far unseen in any other crystallized fusion protein; the location of an antibody-neutralization epitope also suggests that rubella-specific antibodies may function through prevention of E1 glycoprotein trimer formation during cell entry.

Rebecca M. DuBois, Marie-Christine Vaney, M. Alejandra Tortorici, Rana Al Kurdi, Giovanna Barba-Spaeth, Thomas Krey & Félix A. Rey

doi: 10.1038/nature11741

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RNAi triggered by specialized machinery silences developmental genes and retrotransposons p.557

In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe RNA interference (RNAi) machinery promotes heterochromatin assembly and silencing of centromeric repeats; here it is shown that RNAi participates in silencing other genomic regions, such as sexual differentiation genes and retrotransposons, and this process is regulated by developmental and environmental signals.

Soichiro Yamanaka, Sameet Mehta, Francisca E. Reyes-Turcu, Fanglei Zhuang, Ryan T. Fuchs, Yikang Rong, Gregory B. Robb & Shiv I. S. Grewal

doi: 10.1038/nature11716

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TET2 promotes histone O-GlcNAcylation during gene transcription p.561

TET2 is shown to associate with OGT, which catalyses O-GlcNAcylation, and the two enzymes are found together at transcription start sites; TET2 facilitates the activity of OGT in O-GlcNAcylation of histone 2B, and epigenetic modifications to both DNA and histones by TET2 and OGT may be important in gene transcription regulation.

Qiang Chen, Yibin Chen, Chunjing Bian, Ryoji Fujiki & Xiaochun Yu

doi: 10.1038/nature11742

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