네이처 컨텐츠

Editorials

Culture shock p.133

Health-benefit claims for Europe’s foods must at last be substantiated by science.

doi: 10.1038/493133b

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No easy answer p.133

Demands to analyse Connecticut school shooter’s DNA are misguided and could lead to dangerous stigmatization, or worse.

doi: 10.1038/493133a

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Realities of risk p.134

We should focus on dangers that we can control, and particularly on those of our own creation.

doi: 10.1038/493134a

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News

Europe’s untamed carbon p.141

Funding and politics hobble CCS technology, seen as the best hope for cleaning up coal.

Richard Van Noorden

doi: 10.1038/493141a

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News Features

Dyscalculia: Number games p.150

Brian Butterworth is on a crusade to understand the number deficit called dyscalculia — and to help those who have it.

Ewen Callaway

doi: 10.1038/493150a

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News & Views

Quantum physicsTime crystals p.166

Physicists have come up with the mind-boggling concept of a time crystal. This intriguing proposal, which is based on the notion of broken time-translation symmetry, might open up a whole new field of research.

Piers Coleman

doi: 10.1038/493166a

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Animal behaviourOlder but less wise p.167

Most fish living in marine reserves are older, bigger and more fecund than those outside their borders, but they are also slower to flee a threat. The potential for 'spillover' of such fish into fisheries may boost support for reserves.

Peter F. Sale

doi: 10.1038/493167a

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Developmental biologyLed by the nose p.169

Hagfish embryos show developmental features that contradict the idea that these jawless fish are the most primitive living vertebrates. The findings also help to trace the evolution of vertebrate cranial structure. See Article p.175

Philippe Janvier

doi: 10.1038/nature11766

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PhotonicsPhased array on a fingertip p.170

An array of more than 4,000 optical antennas working in unison has been demonstrated on a millimetre-scale silicon chip. The result highlights the remarkable capabilities of optical integration in silicon. See Letter p.195

Thomas F. Krauss

doi: 10.1038/493170a

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Structural biologyInsulin meets its receptor p.171

The hormone insulin has a central role in human physiology, yet the answer to a fundamental biochemical question — how it binds to its cell-surface receptor — has remained elusive, until now. See Letter p.241

Stevan R. Hubbard

doi: 10.1038/493171a

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Polymer chemistryWasted loops quantified p.172

A method for dissecting the polymeric networks of gels enables the number of loops — strands that connect to themselves — within them to be counted. This allows network morphologies to be correlated with gel properties.

Anna C. Balazs

doi: 10.1038/493172a

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Earth scienceHow glaciers grow p.173

A state-of-the-art numerical model shows that the advance of glaciers in a cooling climate depends strongly on the pre-existing landscape, and that glacial erosion paves the way for greater glacial extent in the future. See Letter p.206

Simon H. Brocklehurst

doi: 10.1038/493173a

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Articles

Craniofacial development of hagfishes and the evolution of vertebrates p.175

Cyclostomes, the living jawless vertebrates including hagfishes and lampreys, represent the most basal lineage of vertebrates. Although the monophyly of cyclostomes has been supported by recent molecular analyses, the phenotypic traits of hagfishes, especially the lack of some vertebrate-defining features and the reported endodermal origin of the adenohypophysis, have been interpreted as hagfishes exhibiting a more ancestral state than those of all other vertebrates. Furthermore, the adult anatomy of hagfishes cannot be compared easily with that of lampreys. Here we describe the craniofacial development of a series of staged hagfish embryos, which shows that their adenohypophysis arises ectodermally, consistent with the molecular phylogenetic data. This finding also allowed us to identify a pan-cyclostome pattern, one not shared by jawed vertebrates. Comparative analyses indicated that many of the hagfish-specific traits can be explained by changes secondarily introduced into the hagfish lineage. We also propose a possibility that the pan-cyclostome pattern may reflect the ancestral programme for the craniofacial development of all living vertebrates.

Yasuhiro Oisi, Kinya G. Ota, Shigehiro Kuraku, Satoko Fujimoto & Shigeru Kuratani

doi: 10.1038/nature11794

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Crystallographic snapshot of cellulose synthesis and membrane translocation p.181

Cellulose, the most abundant biological macromolecule, is an extracellular, linear polymer of glucose molecules. It represents an essential component of plant cell walls but is also found in algae and bacteria. In bacteria, cellulose production frequently correlates with the formation of biofilms, a sessile, multicellular growth form. Cellulose synthesis and transport across the inner bacterial membrane is mediated by a complex of the membrane-integrated catalytic BcsA subunit and the membrane-anchored, periplasmic BcsB protein. Here we present the crystal structure of a complex of BcsA and BcsB from Rhodobacter sphaeroides containing a translocating polysaccharide. The structure of the BcsA–BcsB translocation intermediate reveals the architecture of the cellulose synthase, demonstrates how BcsA forms a cellulose-conducting channel, and suggests a model for the coupling of cellulose synthesis and translocation in which the nascent polysaccharide is extended by one glucose molecule at a time.

Jacob L. W. Morgan, Joanna Strumillo & Jochen Zimmer

doi: 10.1038/nature11744

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Letters

Bright radio emission from an ultraluminous stellar-mass microquasar in M 31 p.187

A new ultraluminous X-ray source has been discovered in M 31, whose variability and associated bright, compact radio emission identify it as a stellar-mass black hole accreting close to the Eddington limit.

Matthew J. Middleton, James C. A. Miller-Jones, Sera Markoff, Rob Fender, Martin Henze, Natasha Hurley-Walker, Anna M. M. Scaife, Timothy P. Roberts, Dominic Walton, John Carpenter + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature11697

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Flows of gas through a protoplanetary gap p.191

Observations of the young star HD 142527, whose disk is separated into inner and outer regions by a gap suggestive of the formation of a gaseous giant planet, show that accretion onto the star is maintained by a flow of gas across the gap, in agreement with dynamical models of planet formation.

Simon Casassus, Gerrit van der Plas, Sebastian Perez M, William R. F. Dent, Ed Fomalont, Janis Hagelberg, Antonio Hales, Andrés Jordán, Dimitri Mawet, Francois Ménard + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature11769

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Large-scale nanophotonic phased array p.195

A large-scale silicon nanophotonic phased array with more than 4,000 antennas is demonstrated using a state-of-the-art complementary metal-oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) process, enabling arbitrary holograms with tunability, which brings phased arrays to many new technological territories.

Jie Sun, Erman Timurdogan, Ami Yaacobi, Ehsan Shah Hosseini & Michael R. Watts

doi: 10.1038/nature11727

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Topological colloids p.200

Topologically distinct colloidal particles introduced into a nematic liquid crystal align and generate topology-constrained three-dimensional director fields and defects in the liquid crystal fluid that can be manipulated with a variety of methods, opening up a new area of exploration in the field of soft matter.

Bohdan Senyuk, Qingkun Liu, Sailing He, Randall D. Kamien, Robert B. Kusner, Tom C. Lubensky & Ivan I. Smalyukh

doi: 10.1038/nature11710

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Carbon-dioxide-rich silicate melt in the Earth’s upper mantle p.211

Carbon-dioxide-rich kimberlitic melt explains the low velocity and high electrical conductivity of the mantle asthenosphere and controls the flux of incompatible elements at oceanic ridges.

Rajdeep Dasgupta, Ananya Mallik, Kyusei Tsuno, Anthony C. Withers, Greg Hirth & Marc M. Hirschmann

doi: 10.1038/nature11731

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Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants p.216

Resequencing of genes from individuals of European and African American ancestry indicates that approximately 73% of all protein-coding SNVs and approximately 86% of SNVs predicted to be deleterious arose in the past 5,000–10,000 years, and that European Americans carry an excess of deleterious variants in essential and Mendelian disease genes compared to African Americans.

Wenqing Fu, Timothy D. O’Connor, Goo Jun, Hyun Min Kang, Goncalo Abecasis, Suzanne M. Leal, Stacey Gabriel, David Altshuler, Jay Shendure, Deborah A. Nickerson + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature11690

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Drosophila NOMPC is a mechanotransduction channel subunit for gentle-touch sensation p.221

Mechanotransduction channels studied to date are mainly involved with sensing noxious mechanical stimuli; here NOMPC, a member of the TRP ion channel family, is identified as a pore-forming subunit of an ion channel essential to the sensation of gentle touch in Drosophila.

Zhiqiang Yan, Wei Zhang, Ye He, David Gorczyca, Yang Xiang, Li E. Cheng, Shan Meltzer, Lily Yeh Jan & Yuh Nung Jan

doi: 10.1038/nature11685

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Metabolic control of adult neural stem cell activity by Fasn-dependent lipogenesis p.226

Adult neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) show high levels of fatty acid synthase (Fasn)-dependent de novo lipogenesis, a process that is controlled by Spot14 to regulate the rate of proliferation; this indicates a functional coupling between the regulation of lipid metabolism and adult NSPC proliferation.

Marlen Knobloch, Simon M. G. Braun, Luis Zurkirchen, Carolin von Schoultz, Nicola Zamboni, Marcos J. Araúzo-Bravo, Werner J. Kovacs, Özlem Karalay, Ueli Suter, Raquel A. C. Machado + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature11689

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Control of somatic tissue differentiation by the long non-coding RNA TINCR p.231

The human long non-coding RNA TINCR binds to STAU1 and controls epidermal differentiation by stabilizing key differentiation mRNAs, by means of a TINCR-binding motif found enriched in epidermal differentiation genes.

Markus Kretz, Zurab Siprashvili, Ci Chu, Dan E. Webster, Ashley Zehnder, Kun Qu, Carolyn S. Lee, Ross J. Flockhart, Abigail F. Groff, Jennifer Chow + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature11661

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COUP-TFII inhibits TGF-β-induced growth barrier to promote prostate tumorigenesis p.236

A cell-autonomous role for the COUP-TFII transcription factor in prostate cancer cells is identified, in which COUP-TFII inhibits TGF-β signalling by binding to SMAD4; COUP-TFII promotes prostate tumorigenesis and metastasis in a mouse model, and is associated with more aggressive disease in human prostate cancers.

Jun Qin, San-Pin Wu, Chad J. Creighton, Fangyan Dai, Xin Xie, Chiang-Min Cheng, Anna Frolov, Gustavo Ayala, Xia Lin, Xin-Hua Feng + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature11674

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How insulin engages its primary binding site on the insulin receptor p.241

The three-dimensional structure of the insulin–insulin receptor complex has proved elusive, confounded by the complexity of producing the receptor protein; here is the first glimpse of the interaction between insulin and its primary binding site on the insulin receptor, a view based on four crystal structures of insulin bound to truncated insulin receptor complexes.

John G. Menting, Jonathan Whittaker, Mai B. Margetts, Linda J. Whittaker, Geoffrey K.-W. Kong, Brian J. Smith, Christopher J. Watson, Lenka Žáková, Emília Kletvíková, Jiří Jiráček + et al.

doi: 10.1038/nature11781

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Recombination-restarted replication makes inverted chromosome fusions at inverted repeats p.246

A new mechanism of chromosomal rearrangement is identified through the observation that broken or collapsed DNA replication forks restarted by homologous recombination have a high propensity for U-turns at short inverted repeats; the error-prone nature of this mechanism is suggested to contribute to gross chromosomal rearrangements and copy-number variations present in cancer and other genomic disorders.

Ken’Ichi Mizuno, Izumi Miyabe, Stephanie A. Schalbetter, Antony M. Carr & Johanne M. Murray

doi: 10.1038/nature11676

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Structure of the proton-gated urea channel from the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori p.255

The crystal structure of the inner-membrane urea channel HpUreI from Helicobacter pylori, the causative organism of peptic ulcers, reveals how the channel selectively transports urea across the membrane and buffers the pathogen’s periplasmic pH against the acidic gastric environment.

David Strugatsky, Reginald McNulty, Keith Munson, Chiung-Kuang Chen, S. Michael Soltis, George Sachs & Hartmut Luecke

doi: 10.1038/nature11684

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