Oil and gas emissions could far exceed current estimates p.5

Ethane and propane rises have been traced to the global fossil-fuel industry. Now governments need to act.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02581-2

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A code of ethics to get scientists talking p.5

A set of guidelines could trigger positive action.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02516-x

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Nature journals announce two steps to improve transparency p.6

Reporting summaries help authors to provide important details before review.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02563-4

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China’s lust for jaguar fangs imperils big cats p.13

Wildlife traffickers seek body parts from protected species to satisfy consumers in China.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02314-5

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UK scientists brace for disruption from huge academic strike p.14

Pension changes spur more than 40,000 university academics to walk out on research activities, conferences and lectures.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02350-1

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Florida residents could soon get the power to alter science classes p.15

Education bills would allow people who live in the state to review and recommend instructional materials to be used in schools.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02434-y

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Indian scientist's sacking spotlights sexual harassment p.16

Researchers in India hope that institute's finding will motivate other academic organizations to confront harassment.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02249-x

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Promising HIV vaccines could stall without coordinated research p.17

Therapies to prevent infection are advancing in a crowded field.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02538-5

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Researchers have finally created a tool to spot duplicated images across thousands of papers p.18

Publishers would need to join forces to apply image-checking software across the literature.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02421-3

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News Features


How flashing lights and pink noise might banish Alzheimer’s, improve memory and more p.20


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02391-6

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News & Views


Global health: Precision maps for public health p.32


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02096-w

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Quantum computing: Qubits break the sound barrier p.33


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02402-6

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Stem cells: A gut feeling for cellular fate p.34

今回、ショウジョウバエの中腸の前駆細胞集団が、機械的な力に応答して分化することが分かった。こうした現象がin vivoで報告されたのは、この知見が初めてである。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01460-0

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Condensed-matter physics: Quantum upside-down cake p.36


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02329-y

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Biophysics: Tight complexes from disordered proteins p.37


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01694-y

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Cosmology: A surprising chill before the cosmic dawn p.38


doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02310-9

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Mapping child growth failure in Africa between 2000 and 2015 OPEN p.41

Geospatial estimates of child growth failure in Africa provide a baseline for measuring progress and a precision public health platform to target interventions to those populations with the greatest need.

doi: 10.1038/nature25760

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Mapping local variation in educational attainment across Africa OPEN p.48

Local-level analyses show that, despite marked progress in educational attainment from 2000 to 2015 across Africa, substantial differences persist between locations and sexes that have widened in many countries.

doi: 10.1038/nature25761

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Population snapshots predict early haematopoietic and erythroid hierarchies p.54

Single-cell transcriptomics, fate assays and a computational theory enable prediction of cell fates during haematopoiesis, discovery of regulators of erythropoiesis and reveal coupling between the erythroid, basophil and mast cell fates.

doi: 10.1038/nature25741

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Extreme disorder in an ultrahigh-affinity protein complex p.61

A high-affinity complex of histone H1 and prothymosin-α reveals an unexpected interaction mechanism, where the large opposite net charge enables the two proteins to remain highly disordered even in the complex.

doi: 10.1038/nature25762

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天文学:全天平均スペクトルにおける78 MHzを中心とする吸収プロファイル

An absorption profile centred at 78 megahertz in the sky-averaged spectrum p.67

The 21-cm absorption profile is detected in the sky-averaged radio spectrum, but is much stronger than predicted, suggesting that the primordial gas might have been cooler than predicted.

doi: 10.1038/nature25792

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Possible interaction between baryons and dark-matter particles revealed by the first stars p.71

The large absorption of the 21-centimetre transition of hydrogen around redshift 20 is explained by radiation from the first stars, combined with excess cooling of the cosmic gas caused by baryon–dark matter scattering.

doi: 10.1038/nature25791

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Fast quantum logic gates with trapped-ion qubits p.75

Fast and high-fidelity two-qubit logic gates are demonstrated by using amplitude-shaped laser pulses to ensure that the gate operation is insensitive to the optical phase of the pulses.

doi: 10.1038/nature25737

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Probing the interatomic potential of solids with strong-field nonlinear phononics p.79

Ultrashort mid-infrared laser pulses can drive atoms far from their equilibrium positions in LiNbO3, exciting high phonon harmonics and providing a way to map the interatomic potential.

doi: 10.1038/nature25484

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Skin electronics from scalable fabrication of an intrinsically stretchable transistor array p.83

A scalable process is described for fabricating skin-like electronic circuitry that can be bent and stretched while retaining desirable electronic functionality.

doi: 10.1038/nature25494

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Hadean silicate differentiation preserved by anomalous 142Nd/144Nd ratios in the Réunion hotspot source p.89

Active volcanic hotspots can tap into domains in Earth’s deep interior that were formed more than two billion years ago. High-precision data on variability in tungsten isotopes have shown that some of these domains resulted from differentiation events that occurred within the first fifty million years of Earth history. However, it has not proved easy to resolve analogous variability in neodymium isotope compositions that would track regions of Earth’s interior whose composition was established by events occurring within roughly the first five hundred million years of Earth history. Here we report 142Nd/144Nd ratios for Réunion Island igneous rocks, some of which are resolvably either higher or lower than the ratios in modern upper-mantle domains. We also find that Réunion 142Nd/144Nd ratios correlate with helium-isotope ratios (3He/4He), suggesting parallel behaviour of these isotopic systems during very early silicate differentiation, perhaps as early as 4.39 billion years ago. The range of 142Nd/144Nd ratios in Réunion basalts is inconsistent with a single-stage differentiation process, and instead requires mixing of a conjugate melt and residue formed in at least one melting event during the Hadean eon, 4.56 billion to 4 billion years ago. Efficient post-Hadean mixing nearly erased the ancient, anomalous 142Nd/144Nd signatures, and produced the relatively homogeneous 143Nd/144Nd composition that is characteristic of Réunion basalts. Our results show that Réunion magmas tap into a particularly ancient, primitive source compared with other volcanic hotspots, offering insight into the formation and preservation of ancient heterogeneities in Earth’s interior.

doi: 10.1038/nature25754

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Evolutionary history resolves global organization of root functional traits p.94

Analyses of a global dataset of plant root traits identify an ancestral conservative strategy based on thick roots and mycorrhizal symbiosis, and an evolutionarily more-recent opportunistic strategy of thin roots that efficiently use photosynthetic carbon for soil exploration.

doi: 10.1038/nature25783

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Circadian clock neurons constantly monitor environmental temperature to set sleep timing p.98

Circadian clocks coordinate behaviour, physiology and metabolism with Earth’s diurnal cycle. These clocks entrain to both light and temperature cycles, and daily environmental temperature oscillations probably contribute to human sleep patterns. However, the neural mechanisms through which circadian clocks monitor environmental temperature and modulate behaviour remain poorly understood. Here we elucidate how the circadian clock neuron network of Drosophila melanogaster processes changes in environmental temperature. In vivo calcium-imaging techniques demonstrate that the posterior dorsal neurons 1 (DN1ps), which are a discrete subset of sleep-promoting clock neurons, constantly monitor modest changes in environmental temperature. We find that these neurons are acutely inhibited by heating and excited by cooling; this is an unexpected result when considering the strong correlation between temperature and light, and the fact that light excites clock neurons. We demonstrate that the DN1ps rely on peripheral thermoreceptors located in the chordotonal organs and the aristae. We also show that the DN1ps and their thermosensory inputs are required for the normal timing of sleep in the presence of naturalistic temperature cycles. These results identify the DN1ps as a major gateway for temperature sensation into the circadian neural network, which continuously integrates temperature changes to coordinate the timing of sleep and activity.

doi: 10.1038/nature25740

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Mechanical regulation of stem-cell differentiation by the stretch-activated Piezo channel p.103

Somatic stem cells constantly adjust their self-renewal and lineage commitment by integrating various environmental cues to maintain tissue homeostasis. Although numerous chemical and biological signals have been identified that regulate stem-cell behaviour, whether stem cells can directly sense mechanical signals in vivo remains unclear. Here we show that mechanical stress regulates stem-cell differentiation in the adult Drosophila midgut through the stretch-activated ion channel Piezo. We find that Piezo is specifically expressed in previously unidentified enteroendocrine precursor cells, which have reduced proliferation ability and are destined to become enteroendocrine cells. Loss of Piezo activity reduces the generation of enteroendocrine cells in the adult midgut. In addition, ectopic expression of Piezo in all stem cells triggers both cell proliferation and enteroendocrine cell differentiation. Both the Piezo mutant and overexpression phenotypes can be rescued by manipulation of cytosolic Ca2+ levels, and increases in cytosolic Ca2+ resemble the Piezo overexpression phenotype, suggesting that Piezo functions through Ca2+ signalling. Further studies suggest that Ca2+ signalling promotes stem-cell proliferation and differentiation through separate pathways. Finally, Piezo is required for both mechanical activation of stem cells in a gut expansion assay and the increase of cytosolic Ca2+ in response to direct mechanical stimulus in a gut compression assay. Thus, our study demonstrates the existence of a specific group of stem cells in the fly midgut that can directly sense mechanical signals through Piezo.

doi: 10.1038/nature25744

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Sequences enriched in Alu repeats drive nuclear localization of long RNAs in human cells p.107

A sequence that is frequently found in Alu elements drives the localization of some long RNAs to the nucleus in human cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature25757

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Intragenic origins due to short G1 phases underlie oncogene-induced DNA replication stress p.112

Oncogene activation results in firing of ectopic origins of replication within transcribed genes, resulting in replication stress and genome instability.

doi: 10.1038/nature25507

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The cryo-electron microscopy structure of huntingtin p.117

The structure of huntingtin in complex with an interactor is determined to an overall resolution of 4 Å, paving the way for improved understanding of the cellular functions of this protein.

doi: 10.1038/nature25502

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Phase-plate cryo-EM structure of a biased agonist-bound human GLP-1 receptor–Gs complex p.121

The class B glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) G protein-coupled receptor is a major target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Endogenous and mimetic GLP-1 peptides exhibit biased agonism—a difference in functional selectivity—that may provide improved therapeutic outcomes. Here we describe the structure of the human GLP-1 receptor in complex with the G protein-biased peptide exendin-P5 and a Gαs heterotrimer, determined at a global resolution of 3.3 Å. At the extracellular surface, the organization of extracellular loop 3 and proximal transmembrane segments differs between our exendin-P5-bound structure and previous GLP-1-bound GLP-1 receptor structure. At the intracellular face, there was a six-degree difference in the angle of the Gαs–α5 helix engagement between structures, which was propagated across the G protein heterotrimer. In addition, the structures differed in the rate and extent of conformational reorganization of the Gαs protein. Our structure provides insights into the molecular basis of biased agonism.

doi: 10.1038/nature25773

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