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Editorials

科学者たちは、世界経済フォーラムで提案された「研究者のための倫理規定」に積極的に関わるべきだ。

A code of ethics to get scientists talking p.5

A set of guidelines could trigger positive action.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02516-x

石油・ガス産業からのエタンやプロパンの排出量は現在の想定を大きく上回っている恐れがあり、各国政府は対策を取る必要がある。

Oil and gas emissions could far exceed current estimates p.5

Ethane and propane rises have been traced to the global fossil-fuel industry. Now governments need to act.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02581-2

NatureおよびNature関連誌では、生命科学分野に続いて、行動・社会科学、進化・生態・環境科学分野でも、論文の透明性を高めるためのレポートの添付を求める。

Nature journals announce two steps to improve transparency p.6

Reporting summaries help authors to provide important details before review.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02563-4

News

中国では、トラの密猟の摘発を受けて他の大型ネコ科動物の牙の需要が高まっており、南米のジャガーまでもが標的に。

China’s lust for jaguar fangs imperils big cats p.13

Wildlife traffickers seek body parts from protected species to satisfy consumers in China.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02314-5

英国の大学で、年金制度の改訂問題をめぐって教職員・研究者が大規模なストライキを。

UK scientists brace for disruption from huge academic strike p.14

Pension changes spur more than 40,000 university academics to walk out on research activities, conferences and lectures.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02350-1

米国フロリダ州で、住民が地域の学校教育の内容に多大な影響を及ぼせるようになる法案が。

Florida residents could soon get the power to alter science classes p.15

Education bills would allow people who live in the state to review and recommend instructional materials to be used in schools.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02434-y

インドで、著名な科学者の解雇を契機にセクハラ問題への認識が高まり、研究機関の対応も改善へ。

Indian scientist's sacking spotlights sexual harassment p.16

Researchers in India hope that institute's finding will motivate other academic organizations to confront harassment.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02249-x

HIVのワクチンや治療法開発に、優先順位と戦略を求める声が。

Promising HIV vaccines could stall without coordinated research p.17

Therapies to prevent infection are advancing in a crowded field.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02538-5

論文の画像の複製・使い回しを素早く検出できる、機械学習アルゴリズムが。

Researchers have finally created a tool to spot duplicated images across thousands of papers p.18

Publishers would need to join forces to apply image-checking software across the literature.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02421-3

News Features

神経科学:「波」を使って治療する

How flashing lights and pink noise might banish Alzheimer’s, improve memory and more p.20

点滅光やピンクノイズなどを使った非侵襲的な方法による脳波の操作が、神経変性疾患の治療法になるかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02391-6

News & Views

国際保健学:公衆衛生の精密なマップ

Global health: Precision maps for public health p.32

今回、公衆衛生の進展を評価し、政策決定の指針を得るために、アフリカ全土の小児の成長障害と教育達成の2000~2015年の変化について、分解能の高いマップが作られた。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02096-w

量子コンピューティング:音速の壁を破ったキュービット

Quantum computing: Qubits break the sound barrier p.33

捕捉イオンを用いた量子論理ゲートは、固体デバイスより正確に演算を実行するが、速度が遅かった。今回、量子コンピューターの実現に必要な、捕捉イオンゲートを高速化する方法が、実験によって示された。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02402-6

幹細胞:腸が細胞運命を感知する

Stem cells: A gut feeling for cellular fate p.34

今回、ショウジョウバエの中腸の前駆細胞集団が、機械的な力に応答して分化することが分かった。こうした現象がin vivoで報告されたのは、この知見が初めてである。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01460-0

物性物理学:量子の「アップサイドダウンケーキ」

Condensed-matter physics: Quantum upside-down cake p.36

トポロジカル超伝導体と呼ばれる新奇な物質状態には、量子コンピューティングに応用できる可能性があるが、二次元以上で生成するのは難しかった。今回、この限界を克服する方法が見つかった。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02329-y

生物物理学:無秩序なタンパク質が作る密な複合体

Biophysics: Tight complexes from disordered proteins p.37

タンパク質表面の荷電基は、分子間相互作用に関与することが多い。秩序立った構造を持たない2つのタンパク質が電荷相補性を使って、生物学的に有用な力学的特性を持つ密な複合体を形成することが、今回分かった。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-01694-y

宇宙論:意外と低温だった宇宙の夜明け前

Cosmology: A surprising chill before the cosmic dawn p.38

今回、宇宙において星が形成され始めた時期を見積もる試みから、星が出現する直前のガスの温度が予測された下限をはるかに下回っており、暗黒物質が考えられているほど暗くなかったことが示唆された。

doi: 10.1038/d41586-018-02310-9

Articles

国際保健学:2000~2015年のアフリカにおける小児の成長障害のマッピング

Mapping child growth failure in Africa between 2000 and 2015 OPEN p.41

Geospatial estimates of child growth failure in Africa provide a baseline for measuring progress and a precision public health platform to target interventions to those populations with the greatest need.

doi: 10.1038/nature25760

教育不均等:アフリカ全土における教育達成の地域的変動のマッピング

Mapping local variation in educational attainment across Africa OPEN p.48

Local-level analyses show that, despite marked progress in educational attainment from 2000 to 2015 across Africa, substantial differences persist between locations and sexes that have widened in many countries.

doi: 10.1038/nature25761

発生生物学:細胞集団のスナップショットから初期の造血系および赤血球系の階層を予測する

Population snapshots predict early haematopoietic and erythroid hierarchies p.54

Single-cell transcriptomics, fate assays and a computational theory enable prediction of cell fates during haematopoiesis, discovery of regulators of erythropoiesis and reveal coupling between the erythroid, basophil and mast cell fates.

doi: 10.1038/nature25741

生物物理学:超高親和性タンパク質複合体で見られる極端な無秩序性

Extreme disorder in an ultrahigh-affinity protein complex p.61

A high-affinity complex of histone H1 and prothymosin-α reveals an unexpected interaction mechanism, where the large opposite net charge enables the two proteins to remain highly disordered even in the complex.

doi: 10.1038/nature25762

Letters

天文学:全天平均スペクトルにおける78 MHzを中心とする吸収プロファイル

An absorption profile centred at 78 megahertz in the sky-averaged spectrum p.67

The 21-cm absorption profile is detected in the sky-averaged radio spectrum, but is much stronger than predicted, suggesting that the primordial gas might have been cooler than predicted.

doi: 10.1038/nature25792

天文学:第一世代星によって明らかになった、バリオンと暗黒物質粒子との間の考えられる相互作用

Possible interaction between baryons and dark-matter particles revealed by the first stars p.71

The large absorption of the 21-centimetre transition of hydrogen around redshift 20 is explained by radiation from the first stars, combined with excess cooling of the cosmic gas caused by baryon–dark matter scattering.

doi: 10.1038/nature25791

量子コンピューティング:捕捉イオンキュービットによる高速量子論理ゲート

Fast quantum logic gates with trapped-ion qubits p.75

Fast and high-fidelity two-qubit logic gates are demonstrated by using amplitude-shaped laser pulses to ensure that the gate operation is insensitive to the optical phase of the pulses.

doi: 10.1038/nature25737

光物理学:高強度場非線形フォノニクスで固体の原子間ポテンシャルをプローブする

Probing the interatomic potential of solids with strong-field nonlinear phononics p.79

Ultrashort mid-infrared laser pulses can drive atoms far from their equilibrium positions in LiNbO3, exciting high phonon harmonics and providing a way to map the interatomic potential.

doi: 10.1038/nature25484

材料科学:本質的に伸縮可能なトランジスターアレイのスケーラブルな作製による皮膚貼付型電子デバイス

Skin electronics from scalable fabrication of an intrinsically stretchable transistor array p.83

A scalable process is described for fabricating skin-like electronic circuitry that can be bent and stretched while retaining desirable electronic functionality.

doi: 10.1038/nature25494

地球科学:レユニオン・ホットスポットの供給源の異常な142Nd/144Nd比に保存された冥王代のケイ酸塩分化

Hadean silicate differentiation preserved by anomalous 142Nd/144Nd ratios in the Réunion hotspot source p.89

Active volcanic hotspots can tap into domains in Earth’s deep interior that were formed more than two billion years ago. High-precision data on variability in tungsten isotopes have shown that some of these domains resulted from differentiation events that occurred within the first fifty million years of Earth history. However, it has not proved easy to resolve analogous variability in neodymium isotope compositions that would track regions of Earth’s interior whose composition was established by events occurring within roughly the first five hundred million years of Earth history. Here we report 142Nd/144Nd ratios for Réunion Island igneous rocks, some of which are resolvably either higher or lower than the ratios in modern upper-mantle domains. We also find that Réunion 142Nd/144Nd ratios correlate with helium-isotope ratios (3He/4He), suggesting parallel behaviour of these isotopic systems during very early silicate differentiation, perhaps as early as 4.39 billion years ago. The range of 142Nd/144Nd ratios in Réunion basalts is inconsistent with a single-stage differentiation process, and instead requires mixing of a conjugate melt and residue formed in at least one melting event during the Hadean eon, 4.56 billion to 4 billion years ago. Efficient post-Hadean mixing nearly erased the ancient, anomalous 142Nd/144Nd signatures, and produced the relatively homogeneous 143Nd/144Nd composition that is characteristic of Réunion basalts. Our results show that Réunion magmas tap into a particularly ancient, primitive source compared with other volcanic hotspots, offering insight into the formation and preservation of ancient heterogeneities in Earth’s interior.

doi: 10.1038/nature25754

生態学:進化史が明らかにする根の機能形質の全球的な組織化

Evolutionary history resolves global organization of root functional traits p.94

Analyses of a global dataset of plant root traits identify an ancestral conservative strategy based on thick roots and mycorrhizal symbiosis, and an evolutionarily more-recent opportunistic strategy of thin roots that efficiently use photosynthetic carbon for soil exploration.

doi: 10.1038/nature25783

神経生理学:概日時計ニューロンは絶えず環境温度を監視して睡眠のタイミングを決めている

Circadian clock neurons constantly monitor environmental temperature to set sleep timing p.98

Circadian clocks coordinate behaviour, physiology and metabolism with Earth’s diurnal cycle. These clocks entrain to both light and temperature cycles, and daily environmental temperature oscillations probably contribute to human sleep patterns. However, the neural mechanisms through which circadian clocks monitor environmental temperature and modulate behaviour remain poorly understood. Here we elucidate how the circadian clock neuron network of Drosophila melanogaster processes changes in environmental temperature. In vivo calcium-imaging techniques demonstrate that the posterior dorsal neurons 1 (DN1ps), which are a discrete subset of sleep-promoting clock neurons, constantly monitor modest changes in environmental temperature. We find that these neurons are acutely inhibited by heating and excited by cooling; this is an unexpected result when considering the strong correlation between temperature and light, and the fact that light excites clock neurons. We demonstrate that the DN1ps rely on peripheral thermoreceptors located in the chordotonal organs and the aristae. We also show that the DN1ps and their thermosensory inputs are required for the normal timing of sleep in the presence of naturalistic temperature cycles. These results identify the DN1ps as a major gateway for temperature sensation into the circadian neural network, which continuously integrates temperature changes to coordinate the timing of sleep and activity.

doi: 10.1038/nature25740

幹細胞:伸展によって活性化されるピエゾチャネルによる幹細胞分化の機械的調節

Mechanical regulation of stem-cell differentiation by the stretch-activated Piezo channel p.103

Somatic stem cells constantly adjust their self-renewal and lineage commitment by integrating various environmental cues to maintain tissue homeostasis. Although numerous chemical and biological signals have been identified that regulate stem-cell behaviour, whether stem cells can directly sense mechanical signals in vivo remains unclear. Here we show that mechanical stress regulates stem-cell differentiation in the adult Drosophila midgut through the stretch-activated ion channel Piezo. We find that Piezo is specifically expressed in previously unidentified enteroendocrine precursor cells, which have reduced proliferation ability and are destined to become enteroendocrine cells. Loss of Piezo activity reduces the generation of enteroendocrine cells in the adult midgut. In addition, ectopic expression of Piezo in all stem cells triggers both cell proliferation and enteroendocrine cell differentiation. Both the Piezo mutant and overexpression phenotypes can be rescued by manipulation of cytosolic Ca2+ levels, and increases in cytosolic Ca2+ resemble the Piezo overexpression phenotype, suggesting that Piezo functions through Ca2+ signalling. Further studies suggest that Ca2+ signalling promotes stem-cell proliferation and differentiation through separate pathways. Finally, Piezo is required for both mechanical activation of stem cells in a gut expansion assay and the increase of cytosolic Ca2+ in response to direct mechanical stimulus in a gut compression assay. Thus, our study demonstrates the existence of a specific group of stem cells in the fly midgut that can directly sense mechanical signals through Piezo.

doi: 10.1038/nature25744

分子生物学:Alu反復配列に豊富に存在する塩基配列がヒト細胞において長鎖RNAの核局在を引き起こす

Sequences enriched in Alu repeats drive nuclear localization of long RNAs in human cells p.107

A sequence that is frequently found in Alu elements drives the localization of some long RNAs to the nucleus in human cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature25757

分子生物学:短いG1期による遺伝子内の複製起点が、がん遺伝子誘導性のDNA複製ストレスを引き起こす

Intragenic origins due to short G1 phases underlie oncogene-induced DNA replication stress p.112

Oncogene activation results in firing of ectopic origins of replication within transcribed genes, resulting in replication stress and genome instability.

doi: 10.1038/nature25507

分子神経科学:ハンチンチンのクライオ電子顕微鏡構造

The cryo-electron microscopy structure of huntingtin p.117

The structure of huntingtin in complex with an interactor is determined to an overall resolution of 4 Å, paving the way for improved understanding of the cellular functions of this protein.

doi: 10.1038/nature25502

構造生物学:バイアス型アゴニストが結合したヒトGLP-1受容体–Gs複合体の位相板クライオ電子顕微鏡構造

Phase-plate cryo-EM structure of a biased agonist-bound human GLP-1 receptor–Gs complex p.121

The class B glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) G protein-coupled receptor is a major target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Endogenous and mimetic GLP-1 peptides exhibit biased agonism—a difference in functional selectivity—that may provide improved therapeutic outcomes. Here we describe the structure of the human GLP-1 receptor in complex with the G protein-biased peptide exendin-P5 and a Gαs heterotrimer, determined at a global resolution of 3.3 Å. At the extracellular surface, the organization of extracellular loop 3 and proximal transmembrane segments differs between our exendin-P5-bound structure and previous GLP-1-bound GLP-1 receptor structure. At the intracellular face, there was a six-degree difference in the angle of the Gαs–α5 helix engagement between structures, which was propagated across the G protein heterotrimer. In addition, the structures differed in the rate and extent of conformational reorganization of the Gαs protein. Our structure provides insights into the molecular basis of biased agonism.

doi: 10.1038/nature25773

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