As climate talks end, it is time for action p.413

Worrying disconnect between emissions rhetoric and real-world trends highlights urgent need for nations to honour their pledges.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07273-x

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Research health needs a dedicated group p.413

A US Research Integrity Advisory Board is long overdue. Such a leadership body would mitigate bad practices and strengthen good research.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07330-5

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Rewarding negative results keeps science on track p.414

Creating a culture of replication takes prizes, grants and magnanimity — as well as publications.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07325-2

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Exoplanet hunters rethink search for alien life p.421

Astronomers expand ideas of how chemistry and geology could affect chances for life on other worlds.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.23023

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Online software spots genetic errors in cancer papers p.422

Tool to scrutinize research papers identifies mistakes in gene sequences.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.23003

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Giant telescope’s mobile-phone ‘dead zones’ rile South African residents p.423

Sensitive radio dishes of the Square Kilometre Array will affect phone reception — and could harm local economies, say farmers.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22998

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Improved diagnostics fail to halt the rise of tuberculosis p.424

TB remains a big killer despite the development of a better test for detecting the disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.23000

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Hungary rewards highly cited scientists with bonus grants p.425

Some top researchers prosper in Hungary as country tries to improve its international standing in science.

doi: 10.1038/551425a

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News Features


The most popular genes in the human genome p.427


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07291-9

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News & Views


Structural biology: Machinery that guides immunity p.442


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07268-8

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Atmospheric science: Thunderous nuclear reactions p.443


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07266-w

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Cancer immunotherapy: How T cells spot tumour cells p.444


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07267-9

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Microbiology: Crowdsourcing Earth's microbes p.446


doi: 10.1038/nature24756

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Organic chemistry: Super-reactive catalyst for bond cleavage p.447


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07270-0

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Epitranscriptomics: Layered-up regulation in the developing brain p.448


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-07269-7

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A Jurassic gliding euharamiyidan mammal with an ear of five auditory bones p.451

The fossil of a gliding mammal from the Jurassic period sheds light on both the evolution of gliding and the development of the middle ear, as it has a previously unseen five-ossicle auditory system.

doi: 10.1038/nature24483

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A communal catalogue reveals Earth’s multiscale microbial diversity OPEN p.457

As phase 1 of the Earth Microbiome Project, analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA sequences from more than 27,000 environmental samples delivers a global picture of the basic structure and drivers of microbial distribution.

doi: 10.1038/nature24621

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Programmable base editing of A•T to G•C in genomic DNA without DNA cleavage p.464

A new DNA ‘base editor’ can change targeted A•T base pairs to G•C, allowing disease-associated mutations to be corrected and disease-suppressing mutations to be introduced into cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature24644

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Visualization of chemical modifications in the human 80S ribosome structure p.472

A high-resolution structure of the human ribosome determined by cryo-electron microscopy visualizes numerous RNA modifications that are concentrated at functional sites with an extended shell, and suggests the possibility of designing more specific ribosome-targeting drugs.

doi: 10.1038/nature24482

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Solar abundance ratios of the iron-peak elements in the Perseus cluster p.478

High-resolution X-ray spectra show near-solar abundances of chromium, manganese and nickel with respect to iron in the Perseus cluster, suggesting that the progenitors of type Ia supernovae could be near- and sub-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs.

doi: 10.1038/nature24301

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Photonuclear reactions triggered by lightning discharge p.481

Ground-based observations during a thunderstorm provide conclusive evidence of positrons being produced after lightning, confirming that lightning can trigger photonuclear reactions.

doi: 10.1038/nature24630

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Photonic quantum state transfer between a cold atomic gas and a crystal p.485

In a step towards hybrid quantum networks, a quantum state can be transferred between two fundamentally different systems—a cold atomic ensemble and a solid-state crystal—by a single photon.

doi: 10.1038/nature24468

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Ligand-accelerated non-directed C–H functionalization of arenes p.489

Using a ligand as a promoter enhances the reactivity of the palladium catalyst in non-directed C–H functionalization of arenes, enabling the arene to be used as the limiting reagent.

doi: 10.1038/nature24632

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Hydrogen-bearing iron peroxide and the origin of ultralow-velocity zones p.494

A reaction between iron and water at the high pressure and temperature of the lowermost mantle is described that produces hydrogen-bearing iron peroxide, which has the properties expected of the ultralow-velocity zones at Earth’s core–mantle boundary.

doi: 10.1038/nature24461

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Genome sequence of the progenitor of the wheat D genome Aegilops tauschii OPEN p.498

Aegilops tauschii is the diploid progenitor of the D genome of hexaploid wheat1 (Triticum aestivum, genomes AABBDD) and an important genetic resource for wheat2–4. The large size and highly repetitive nature of the Ae. tauschii genome has until now precluded the development of a reference-quality genome sequence5. Here we use an array of advanced technologies, including orderedclone genome sequencing, whole-genome shotgun sequencing, and BioNano optical genome mapping, to generate a reference-quality genome sequence for Ae. tauschii ssp. strangulata accession AL8/78, which is closely related to the wheat D genome. We show that compared to other sequenced plant genomes, including a much larger conifer genome, the Ae. tauschii genome contains unprecedented amounts of very similar repeated sequences. Our genome comparisons reveal that the Ae. tauschii genome has a greater number of dispersed duplicated genes than other sequenced genomes and its chromosomes have been structurally evolving an order of magnitude faster than those of other grass genomes. The decay of colinearity with other grass genomes correlates with recombination rates along chromosomes. We propose that the vast amounts of very similar repeated sequences cause frequent errors in recombination and lead to gene duplications and structural chromosome changes that drive fast genome evolution.

doi: 10.1038/nature24486

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Synaptotagmin 7 confers frequency invariance onto specialized depressing synapses p.503

The calcium-sensing protein synaptotagmin 7 mediates facilitation that is masked by depression, but supports frequency-invariant transmission in mouse cerebellar and vestibular synapses.

doi: 10.1038/nature24474

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Quantitative microbiome profiling links gut community variation to microbial load p.507

Quantitive microbiome profiling reveals that total microbial load is an important determinant of enterotypes and may be a key driver of microbiota alterations in patients with Crohn’s disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature24460

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Identification of unique neoantigen qualities in long-term survivors of pancreatic cancer p.512

The analysis of T-cell antigens in long-term survivors of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma suggests that neoantigen immunogenicity and quality, not purely quantity, correlate with survival.

doi: 10.1038/nature24462

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A neoantigen fitness model predicts tumour response to checkpoint blockade immunotherapy p.517

An immune fitness model for tumours under checkpoint blockade immunotherapy is proposed, through which the authors show that the presentation and recognition properties of dominant neoantigens distributed over tumour subclones are predictive of response in melanoma and lung cancer cohorts.

doi: 10.1038/nature24473

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Structural basis of nucleotide sugar transport across the Golgi membrane p.521

Crystal structures of the nucleotide sugar transporter Vrg4 are reported in both the substrate-free and the bound states.

doi: 10.1038/nature24464

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構造生物学:ヒトMHC-I ペプチドローディング複合体の構造

Structure of the human MHC-I peptide-loading complex p.525

Electron cryo-microscopy structures of the human peptide-loading complex shed light on its operation and on the onset of adaptive immune responses.

doi: 10.1038/nature24627

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