Chemists get faster on the draw p.271

A Nature journals guide to drawing the structures of molecules should aid expert and casual chemists alike.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-05898-6

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Graduate students face alarming tax hike p.271

Adding to PhD students? woes will undermine US research and economy.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-05925-6

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How China could make the most of its beamlines p.272

More international collaboration could build capacity at big physics facilities especially in the south.

doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-05924-7

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Archaeologists say human-evolution study used stolen bone p.279

Bizarre tale of theft and suspicious packages casts doubt on claims for early-human occupation in northern Europe.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22984

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Lab mice's ancestral ‘Eve’ gets her genome sequenced p.281

Effort aims to help scientists understand how generations of inbreeding have altered the genetics of research rodents.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22974

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Puerto Rico struggles to assess hurricane's health effects p.282

While dealing with their own losses, public-health researchers are regrouping to study the aftermath of Hurricane Maria.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22973

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英国政府が、首席科学顧問にグラクソ・スミスクライン社R&D部門リーダーのPatrick Vallance氏を。

UK government appoints next chief scientific adviser p.282

A former pharmaceutical boss will help navigate the UK's exit from the European Union.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22956

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World's carbon emissions set to spike by 2% in 2017 p.283

Increased coal use in China appears to be driving the first increase in global greenhouse-gas output since 2014.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22995

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China fires up next-generation neutron-science facility p.284

Beam generator puts country in elite company for doing experiments in materials science and other fields.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22976

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News Features


Biology's beloved amphibian — the axolotl — is racing towards extinction p.286


doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-05921-w

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News & Views


Planetary science: Haze cools Pluto's atmosphere p.302


doi: 10.1038/551302a

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Microbiology: Bacteria disarm host-defence proteins p.303

フレクスナー赤痢菌(Shigella flexneri)の感染は、乳児死亡の主な原因である。今回、フレクスナー赤痢菌は、重要な宿主酵素群の一部の分解を誘発するタンパク質を放出することによって、細胞内防御を回避していることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature24157

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Biogeochemistry: Ocean hotspots of nitrogen loss p.305


doi: 10.1038/551305a

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Gene therapy: Transgenic stem cells replace skin p.306


doi: 10.1038/nature24753

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Geophysics: The buoyancy of Earth's deep mantle p.308


doi: 10.1038/551308a

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Ecology: The effect of conservation spending p.309


doi: 10.1038/nature24158

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Influenza: A broadly protective antibody p.310


doi: 10.1038/551310a

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Progress in and promise of bacterial quorum sensing research p.313

A Review of the genetics, biochemistry, ecology and evolution of bacterial quorum sensing.

doi: 10.1038/nature24624

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Tidal tomography constrains Earth’s deep-mantle buoyancy p.321

An estimate of Earth’s deep-mantle buoyancy is derived from GPS-based measurements of body tide deformation and shown to be dominated by dense material possibly related to subducted oceanic plates or primordial rock.

doi: 10.1038/nature24452

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Regeneration of the entire human epidermis using transgenic stem cells p.327

Autologous transgenic epidermal stem cell cultures are used to reconstitute almost the entire epidermis of a patient with severe junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

doi: 10.1038/nature24487

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A single-cell survey of the small intestinal epithelium p.333

Profiling of 53,193 individual epithelial cells from the mouse small intestine identifies previously unknown cell subtypes and corresponding gene markers, providing insight into gut homeostasis and response to pathogens.

doi: 10.1038/nature24489

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Inflammation-induced IgA+ cells dismantle anti-liver cancer immunity p.340

IgA+ B cells expressing programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and interleukin 10 accumulate in the inflamed livers of humans and mice with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease where they promote the progression to hepatocellular carcinoma by limiting the local activation of PD-1-expressing CD8+ T cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature24302

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Dynamics of P-type ATPase transport revealed by single-molecule FRET p.346

Single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer is used to identify the rate-limiting step and new intermediates in the conformational cycle of the Listeria monocytogenes calcium transporter LMCA1.

doi: 10.1038/nature24296

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Haze heats Pluto’s atmosphere yet explains its cold temperature p.352

Modelling results find that the temperature of Pluto’s atmosphere is regulated by haze particles rather than gas molecules, suggesting that Pluto should be brighter than previously thought at mid-infrared wavelengths.

doi: 10.1038/nature24465

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Collective emission of matter-wave jets from driven Bose–Einstein condensates p.356

Sufficiently strong modulation of the interaction strength in a Bose–Einstein condensate induces inelastic atom–atom scattering and causes collective emission of matter-wave jets from the condensate.

doi: 10.1038/nature24272

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Granular materials flow like complex fluids p.360

The relaxation dynamics of granular materials is more like that of complex fluids than that of thermal glass-forming systems, owing to the absence of the ‘cage effect’.

doi: 10.1038/nature24062

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Reductions in global biodiversity loss predicted from conservation spending p.364

Empirical two-part models describe the relationship between conservation spending, human development pressures and biodiversity loss and can inform sustainable development strategies by predicting the effects of financing decisions on future biodiversity losses.

doi: 10.1038/nature24295

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Parallel palaeogenomic transects reveal complex genetic history of early European farmers p.368

In European Neolithic populations, the arrival of farmers prompted admixture with local hunter-gatherers over many centuries, resulting in distinct signatures in each region due to a complex series of interactions.

doi: 10.1038/nature24476

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Locomotor speed control circuits in the caudal brainstem p.373

In the mouse caudal brainstem, functionally distinct neuronal subpopulations, which are distinguishable by neurotransmitter identity, connectivity and location, regulate locomotion parameters.

doi: 10.1038/nature24064

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Ubiquitination and degradation of GBPs by a Shigella effector to suppress host defence p.378

A Shigella flexneri type III secretion system effector targets cellular proteins for degradation via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway, suggesting that such effectors help to overcome defences against bacterial infection.

doi: 10.1038/nature24467

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BCAT1 restricts αKG levels in AML stem cells leading to IDHmut-like DNA hypermethylation p.384

The branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) pathway and high levels of BCAA transaminase 1 (BCAT1) have recently been associated with aggressiveness in several cancer entities. However, the mechanistic role of BCAT1 in this process remains largely uncertain. Here, by performing high-resolution proteomic analysis of human acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) stem-cell and non-stem-cell populations, we find the BCAA pathway enriched and BCAT1 protein and transcripts overexpressed in leukaemia stem cells. We show that BCAT1, which transfers α-amino groups from BCAAs to α-ketoglutarate (αKG), is a critical regulator of intracellular αKG homeostasis. Further to its role in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, αKG is an essential cofactor for αKG-dependent dioxygenases such as Egl-9 family hypoxia inducible factor 1 (EGLN1) and the ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of DNA demethylases. Knockdown of BCAT1 in leukaemia cells caused accumulation of αKG, leading to EGLN1-mediated HIF1α protein degradation. This resulted in a growth and survival defect and abrogated leukaemia-initiating potential. By contrast, overexpression of BCAT1 in leukaemia cells decreased intracellular αKG levels and caused DNA hypermethylation through altered TET activity. AML with high levels of BCAT1 (BCAT1high) displayed a DNA hypermethylation phenotype similar to cases carrying a mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDHmut), in which TET2 is inhibited by the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate. High levels of BCAT1 strongly correlate with shorter overall survival in IDHWTTET2WT, but not IDHmut or TET2mut AML. Gene sets characteristic for IDHmut AML were enriched in samples from patients with an IDHWTTET2WTBCAT1high status. BCAT1high AML showed robust enrichment for leukaemia stem-cell signatures, and paired sample analysis showed a significant increase in BCAT1 levels upon disease relapse. In summary, by limiting intracellular αKG, BCAT1 links BCAA catabolism to HIF1α stability and regulation of the epigenomic landscape, mimicking the effects of IDH mutations. Our results suggest the BCAA–BCAT1–αKG pathway as a therapeutic target to compromise leukaemia stem-cell function in patients with IDHWTTET2WT AML.

doi: 10.1038/nature24294

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A ubiquitin-dependent signalling axis specific for ALKBH-mediated DNA dealkylation repair p.389

A signalling mechanism in human cells for sensing DNA damage induced by alkylation involves ubiquitin-dependent recruitment of the alkylation repair complex ASCC to the vicinity of the damage and co-localization with transcription and splicing factors.

doi: 10.1038/nature24484

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Structure and assembly of the Ebola virus nucleocapsid p.394

Application of cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging to determine the structure of the Ebola virus nucleocapsid within intact viruses and recombinant nucleocapsid-like assemblies.

doi: 10.1038/nature24490

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