Discoveries have awkward first dates p.7

Fuzzy timings over a plate-tectonics anniversary highlight the rolling nature of scientific discovery.

doi: 10.1038/550007a

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http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/550007b p.7

International mobility and collaboration are linked to stronger research.

doi: 10.1038/550007b

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Europe’s Joint Research Centre, although improving, must think bigger p.8

External report criticizes lack of exploratory research.

doi: 10.1038/550008a

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Chinese scientists fix genetic disorder in cloned human embryos p.15

A method for precisely editing genes in human embryos hints at a cure for a blood disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22694

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Ethics of Internet research trigger scrutiny p.16

Concern over the use of public data spurs guideline update.

doi: 10.1038/550016a

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How the latest US travel ban could affect science p.17

Short-term travel and meeting attendance could become harder for researchers from eight countries, including Iran.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22686

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Medicine Nobel awarded for work on circadian clocks p.18

Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael Young unpicked molecular workings of cells' daily rhythms.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22736

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Gravitational wave detection wins physics Nobel p.19

Rainer Weiss, Barry Barish and Kip Thorne share the 2017 prize for their work at LIGO to detect ripples in space-time.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22737

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Controversial Thirty Meter Telescope gets go-ahead to build in Hawaii p.20

State board issues construction permit for project, but legal fight over telescope continues.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22731

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News Features


Why fake islands might be a real boon for science p.22


doi: 10.1038/550022a

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How fracking is upending the chemical industry p.26


doi: 10.1038/550026a

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News & Views


Evolution: Zapping viral RNAs p.46


doi: 10.1038/nature24140

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Medical imaging: Material change for X-ray detectors p.47


doi: 10.1038/550047a

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Ecology: A global plan for nature conservation p.48


doi: 10.1038/nature24144

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Engineering: Computational design hits record resolution p.50


doi: 10.1038/550050a

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Ecology: A matter of time for tropical diversity p.51


doi: 10.1038/nature24142

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Expanding and reprogramming the genetic code p.53

A review of the recent developments in reprogramming the genetic code of cells and organisms to include non-canonical amino acids in precisely engineered proteins.

doi: 10.1038/nature24031

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Strains, functions and dynamics in the expanded Human Microbiome Project p.61

Updates from the Human Microbiome Project analyse the largest known body-wide metagenomic profile of human microbiome personalization.

doi: 10.1038/nature23889

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Genome editing reveals a role for OCT4 in human embryogenesis p.67

Genome editing in human zygotes shows that OCT4 is required for normal development at an earlier stage in humans than in mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature24033

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タンパク質設計:標的治療のための大規模で並行的なde novoタンパク質設計法

Massively parallel de novo protein design for targeted therapeutics p.74

A massively parallel computational and experimental approach for de novo designing and screening small hyperstable proteins targeting influenza haemagglutinin and botulinum neurotoxin B identifies new therapeutic candidates more robust than traditional antibody therapies.

doi: 10.1038/nature23912

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A hybrid type Ia supernova with an early flash triggered by helium-shell detonation p.80

The detection and simulation of a type Ia supernova with an early, red flash suggests that it formed through detonation of the helium shell of a white dwarf, rather than by collision of the ejecta with a companion star or by merging with another white dwarf.

doi: 10.1038/nature23908

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Giga-voxel computational morphogenesis for structural design p.84

Giga-voxel-resolution computational morphogenesis is used to optimize the internal structure of a full-scale aeroplane wing, yielding light-weight designs with more similarities to animal bone structures than to current aeroplane wing designs.

doi: 10.1038/nature23911

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Printable organometallic perovskite enables large-area, low-dose X-ray imaging p.87

Highly sensitive all-solution-based detectors based on printable polycrystalline organometallic perovskite thick films enable X-ray imaging at low radiation doses and over large areas.

doi: 10.1038/nature24032

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A solvent- and vacuum-free route to large-area perovskite films for efficient solar modules p.92

A new deposition method for solar-panel polycrystalline perovskite thin films enables the production of large-area uniform films and avoids the need for common solvents or vacuum.

doi: 10.1038/nature23877

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A spin transition mechanism for cooperative adsorption in metal–organic frameworks p.96

Metal–organic frameworks that undergo a cooperative spin transition at neighbouring metal centres upon coordination to CO exhibit large CO separation capacities with only small changes in temperature.

doi: 10.1038/nature23674

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Delta progradation in Greenland driven by increasing glacial mass loss p.101

Climate change has the potential to erode coastlines, but a rediscovered archive of aerial photographs from the Second World War shows that in southern Greenland, deltas have recently extended seaward.

doi: 10.1038/nature23873

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Temporal coexistence mechanisms contribute to the latitudinal gradient in forest diversity p.105

High tree species diversity in tropical forests is driven by reduced interspecific competition relative to intraspecific competition, as a result of the asynchronous timing of tree recruitment permitted by long and stable growing seasons.

doi: 10.1038/nature24038

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Retrograde semaphorin–plexin signalling drives homeostatic synaptic plasticity p.109

Homeostatic signalling systems ensure stable but flexible neural activity and animal behaviour. Presynaptic homeostatic plasticity is a conserved form of neuronal homeostatic signalling that is observed in organisms ranging from Drosophila to human. Defining the underlying molecular mechanisms of neuronal homeostatic signalling will be essential in order to establish clear connections to the causes and progression of neurological disease. During neural development, semaphorin–plexin signalling instructs axon guidance and neuronal morphogenesis. However, semaphorins and plexins are also expressed in the adult brain. Here we show that semaphorin 2b (Sema2b) is a target-derived signal that acts upon presynaptic plexin B (PlexB) receptors to mediate the retrograde, homeostatic control of presynaptic neurotransmitter release at the neuromuscular junction in Drosophila. Further, we show that Sema2b–PlexB signalling regulates presynaptic homeostatic plasticity through the cytoplasmic protein Mical and the oxoreductase-dependent control of presynaptic actin. We propose that semaphorin–plexin signalling is an essential platform for the stabilization of synaptic transmission throughout the developing and mature nervous system. These findings may be relevant to the aetiology and treatment of diverse neurological and psychiatric diseases that are characterized by altered or inappropriate neural function and behaviour.

doi: 10.1038/nature24017

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A reversible haploid mouse embryonic stem cell biobank resource for functional genomics p.114

The Haplobank contains over 100,000 individually reversibly mutagenized, barcoded, mouse embryonic cell lines; proof-of-principle experiments were used to search for genes that are required for rhinovirus infection and angiogenesis using forward and reverse genetic screens, respectively.

doi: 10.1038/nature24027

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Inflammasome-driven catecholamine catabolism in macrophages blunts lipolysis during ageing p.119

Lipolysis declines with age because NLRP3 inflammasome-activated adipose tissue macrophages reduce levels of noradrenaline by upregulating genes that control its degradation, such as GDF3 and MAOA.

doi: 10.1038/nature24022

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CG dinucleotide suppression enables antiviral defence targeting non-self RNA p.124

Vertebrate genomes contain fewer CG dinucleotides than would be expected by chance, and this pattern is mimicked by many viruses; HIV-1 derivatives mutated to contain more CG dinucleotides are targeted by the human antiviral protein ZAP, suggesting that CG suppression has evolved in viruses to evade recognition.

doi: 10.1038/nature24039

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Discovery of a selective catalytic p300/CBP inhibitor that targets lineage-specific tumours p.128

A potent and selective catalytic inhibitor of p300/CBP histone acetyltransferases suppresses tumour proliferation across multiple cell lineages, illustrating the therapeutic potential of drug-like small molecules that target histone acetyltransferases.

doi: 10.1038/nature24028

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PAK signalling drives acquired drug resistance to MAPK inhibitors in BRAF-mutant melanomas p.133

BRAF-inhibition resistance in metastatic melanoma occurs through p21-activated kinase-mediated reactivation of ERK, whereas resistance to combined BRAF and MEK inhibition occurs through p21-activated kinase-mediated regulation of JNK and β-catenin phosphorylation, mTOR pathway activation and apoptosis inhibition in many patients.

doi: 10.1038/nature24040

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How type II CRISPR–Cas establish immunity through Cas1–Cas2-mediated spacer integration p.137

Several structures of the Enteroccocus faecalis Cas1–Cas2 proteins are solved, and help to define the spacer integration mechanisms of type II CRISPR systems.

doi: 10.1038/nature24020

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