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Editorials

国際単位系(SI)には問題点もあり、見直しが必要だ。

SI units need reform to avoid confusion p.135

A flaw in the system leaves physicists grappling with dimensionless units.

doi: 10.1038/548135b

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最先端の治療法の早期承認のために、科学者は専門知識を生かし、力を貸すべきだ。

Drug approval needs a helping hand p.135

It’s time for researchers to lend their expertise to expediting the arrival of cutting-edge therapies that are waiting in the wings.

doi: 10.1038/548135a

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News

ダークエネルギーサーベイ(DES)により、宇宙の構造が予想以上に均等なことが明らかに。

Cosmic map reveals a not-so-lumpy Universe p.143

Odd results could still be consistent with the ‘standard model’ of cosmology.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22413

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アフリカの霊長類保護を地元主体で推進すべく、現地での研究者養成の試みが。

Home-grown scientists step up to save Africa’s primates p.144

Scientific network aims to train a generation of African leaders in primate research.

doi: 10.1038/548144a

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早産は睡眠障害と関連があることが、妊婦の大規模調査によって判明。

Insomnia linked to premature birth in study of 3 million mothers p.145

Women with sleep disorders were about twice as likely to deliver babies more than six weeks early.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22419

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北米大陸を横断する8月21日の皆既日食は、太陽活動の最新の観測技術を試す機会に。

Mysteries of Sun's corona on view during upcoming eclipse p.146

From ground, sky and space, researchers are ready to test latest technologies on the Great American Eclipse.

doi: 10.1038/548146a

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皆既日食のデータ収集に、米国立太陽観測所(NSO)が市民科学プロジェクトを。

Citizen scientists chase total solar eclipse p.147

Non-scientists are being recruited to collect data on everything from the Sun’s outer atmosphere to animal behaviour.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22415

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カナダで、遺伝子組換え(GM)サケが初めて市場へ。

First genetically engineered salmon sold in Canada p.148

US firm AquaBounty Technologies says that its transgenic fish has hit the market after a 25-year wait.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22116

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News Features

神経科学:脳の回路を解き明かす

How to map the circuits that define us p.150

ニューロンについては単純な回路ですら解明は困難であり、何十億個もの細胞を持つ脳の複雑なネットワークを理解するには、新しい脳マッピング技術が必要となる。

doi: 10.1038/548150a

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News & Views

進化学:古代の類人猿の頭蓋骨の秘密

Evolution: Skull secrets of an ancient ape p.160

類人猿の進化系統樹については、類人猿とヒトの祖先が分岐する以前の初期進化の化石証拠が不足している。今回、1300万年前の頭蓋骨から、当時の類人猿の発生に関する知見が得られた。

doi: 10.1038/548160a

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応用物理学:例外点を利用した光センシング

Applied physics: Optical sensing gets exceptional p.161

光共振器と呼ばれるデバイスを用いた従来型のセンサーには、感度に基本的な限界がある。今回、精密に調節することによってこの制約が克服され、超精密センシングへの扉が開かれた。

doi: 10.1038/548161a

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治療法:クリック化学で創薬

Therapeutics: Click and discover p.162

BET阻害剤と呼ばれる有望な抗がん剤の活性の詳細は、まだよく分かっていない。今回、クリック化学という方法によって、こうした薬剤が重要な標的タンパク質であるBRD4の機能を調節する仕組みを綿密に調べることができるようになった。

doi: 10.1038/548162a

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環境科学:干ばつからの生態系の回復の傾向

Environmental science: Trends in ecosystem recovery from drought p.164

20世紀において、生態系が干ばつから回復するのにかかる時間が長くなっていることが、解析によって示された。干ばつ事象の頻度が今後増えれば、一部の生態系が完全に回復する機会を失う可能性がある。

doi: 10.1038/548164a

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幹細胞:永遠の若さの代償

Stem cells: The cost of perpetual youth p.165

ほぼ全ての細胞タイプになる能力は、卵子、精子、最初期胚の始原幹細胞に限定されている。今回、2報の論文によって、この多能性状態をin vitroで維持するためには代償を伴うことが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature23102

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生態学:種間競争が生物多様性を助ける

Ecology: Contests between species aid biodiversity p.166

モデル化法を用いて、さまざまな種の間の競争が調べられ、複数の競争者間の相互作用が生物多様性の維持に役立つ仕組みに関する知見が得られた。

doi: 10.1038/nature23103

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Articles

進化学:中新世アフリカの新たな幼体頭蓋から得られた類人猿進化の手掛かり

New infant cranium from the African Miocene sheds light on ape evolution p.169

Description of the most complete fossil skull of an infant ape recovered from the Miocene epoch of Kenya, assigned to a new species in the genus Nyanzapithecus.

doi: 10.1038/nature23456

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神経科学:昆虫脳の学習・記憶中枢の完全なコネクトーム

The complete connectome of a learning and memory centre in an insect brain p.175

The complete, synapse-resolution connectome of the Drosophila larval mushroom body.

doi: 10.1038/nature23455

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Letters

天文学:木星質量の束縛されていない惑星や広軌道惑星の大集団はない

No large population of unbound or wide-orbit Jupiter-mass planets p.183

In an analysis of a large sample of microlensing events, a few suggest the existence of Earth-mass free-floating planets, but only the expected number of Jupiter-mass free-floating objects were detected.

doi: 10.1038/nature23276

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光学:高次例外点での感度の向上

Enhanced sensitivity at higher-order exceptional points p.187

The response of a ternary, parity–time-symmetric system that exhibits a third-order exceptional point increases as a function of the cube-root of induced perturbations.

doi: 10.1038/nature23280

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光学:例外点は光マイクロ共振器におけるセンシング感度を向上させる

Exceptional points enhance sensing in an optical microcavity p.192

Tuning optical microcavities to exceptional points enhances their ability to sense nanoscale objects, owing to the topological features of exceptional points.

doi: 10.1038/nature23281

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材料科学:ナノ結晶の高温結晶化による三次元超格子の形成

High-temperature crystallization of nanocrystals into three-dimensional superlattices p.197

A bottom-up process to achieve rapid growth of micrometre-sized three-dimensional nanocrystal superlattices during colloidal synthesis at high temperatures is revealed by in situ small-angle X-ray scattering; the process is applicable to several colloidal materials.

doi: 10.1038/nature23308

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環境科学:干ばつからの回復の全球パターン

Global patterns of drought recovery p.202

A global analysis of gross primary productivity reveals that drought recovery is driven by climate and carbon cycling, with recovery longest in the tropics and high northern latitudes, and with impacts increasing over the twentieth century.

doi: 10.1038/nature23021

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生態学:夜間の人工光は花粉媒介への新たな脅威である

Artificial light at night as a new threat to pollination p.206

The pollination service provided by nocturnal flower visitors is disrupted near street lamps, which leads to a reduced reproductive output of the plant that cannot be compensated for by daytime pollinators; in addition, the structure of combined nocturnal and diurnal pollination networks facilitates the spread of the consequences of disrupted night-time pollination to daytime pollinators.

doi: 10.1038/nature23288

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生態学:高次相互作用は競争ネットワークモデルにおいて動態を安定させる

Higher-order interactions stabilize dynamics in competitive network models p.210

Communities that are very rich in species could persist thanks to the stabilizing role of higher-order interactions, in which the presence of a species influences the interaction between other species.

doi: 10.1038/nature23273

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人類学:ミノア人とミケーネ人の遺伝的起源

Genetic origins of the Minoans and Mycenaeans p.214

New genome-wide data for ancient, Bronze Age individuals, including Minoans, Mycenaeans, and southwestern Anatolians, show that Minoans and Mycenaeans were genetically very similar yet distinct, supporting the idea of continuity but not isolation in the history of populations of the Aegean.

doi: 10.1038/nature23310

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幹細胞:長期にわたるMek1/2抑制により胚性幹細胞の発生能が障害される

Prolonged Mek1/2 suppression impairs the developmental potential of embryonic stem cells p.219

Long-term culture of male embryonic stem cells in naive conditions containing Mek1/2 and Gsk3a/b inhibitors leads to irreversible changes in epigenetic and genomic stability that compromise their in vivo developmental potential.

doi: 10.1038/nature23274

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幹細胞:配偶子由来のDNAメチル化を維持した基底状態の雌ES細胞の樹立

Derivation of ground-state female ES cells maintaining gamete-derived DNA methylation p.224

Derivation of female mouse embryonic stem cells under certain conditions induces a loss of DNA methylation and erasure of genomic imprints, which are not recovered and that may contribute to observed impaired development.

doi: 10.1038/nature23286

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細胞生物学:エピジェネティック機構によるTH17および誘導性Treg細胞バランスの代謝制御

Metabolic control of TH17 and induced Treg cell balance by an epigenetic mechanism p.228

Metabolic changes in T cells can affect the genomic methylation status of key transcription factors and regulate the fate decision between induced regulatory T cells and T helper 17 cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature23475

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がん:クラス3の変異型BRAFを持つ腫瘍は活性化RASの阻害に感受性を示す

Tumours with class 3 BRAF mutants are sensitive to the inhibition of activated RAS p.234

Hypoactive BRAF mutants bind more tightly than wild type to the upstream regulator RAS, thus amplifying ERK signalling; tumours expressing these mutants require coexistent mechanisms for RAS activation to grow and are sensitive to their inhibition.

doi: 10.1038/nature23291

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がん:キナーゼ不活性型の変異型Brafが肺腺がんを誘発する

A Braf kinase-inactive mutant induces lung adenocarcinoma p.239

Kinase-inactive Braf mutants can initiate the development of lung adenocarcinoma in mice; co-expression of activated Kras enhances tumour initiation and progression, and wild-type Braf is required to sustain tumorigenesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature23297

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構造生物学:タンパク質は、超分子が自己集合する危険にさらされながら進化する

Proteins evolve on the edge of supramolecular self-assembly p.244

Introducing a single ‘sticky’ (hydrophobic) amino acid by point mutation into symmetric protein complexes frequently triggers their association into higher-order assemblies, without affecting their native fold and structure.

doi: 10.1038/nature23320

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