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Editorials

米国疾病管理予防センター(CDC)の新所長Brenda Fitzgeraldは、科学研究経験はないが、女性や子どもの健康問題には熱心に取り組むだろう。

Proposed US public-health chief is a champion for women and children p.137

In sharp contrast to President Trump, Brenda Fitzgerald has put maternal and child health at the heart of her policies.

doi: 10.1038/547137b

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中国では、有力誌への論文掲載に報奨金が出されているが、助成は成果ではなく今後の研究に対して行う方が科学のためになる。

Don’t pay prizes for published science p.137

China and other countries should look again at how they pay bonuses and allocate grants that are based on individual research papers.

doi: 10.1038/547137a

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ロボット性産業は今後活発になると予想されるが、科学的な検証は不可欠だ。

Let’s talk about sex robots p.138

Interactions between humans and robots may eventually include sex.

doi: 10.1038/547138a

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News

米国科学技術政策局(OSTP)が、トランプ政権による大幅な職員削減によって苦境に。

White House’s dwindling science office leaves major research programmes in limbo p.145

Pared-back staff struggles to continue cybersecurity, climate-change and science-education efforts without direction from the Trump administration.

doi: 10.1038/547145a

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NASAが、惑星や小惑星の表面をよりよく再現する模擬砂の探求を。

Why planetary scientists want better fake space dirt p.146

Artificial soils that mimic the surfaces of the Moon, Mars and asteroids are hard to make — and often miss the mark.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22228

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植物の葉の形、系統、採集地をまとめた大規模なアトラスが作製され、植物の地理的、分類学的関係を予測する手掛かりに。

Massive database of 182,000 leaves is helping predict plants' family trees p.147

The technique could be used on everything from flowers to cells to examine the factors that influence the shapes of plant parts.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22230

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標準量子限界を回避する方法が考案され、重力波検出器の感度をさらに高められる可能性が。

Tricks to mute quantum noise aid hunt for gravitational waves p.148

Physicists find ways to make LIGO and other gravitational-wave detectors even more sensitive.

doi: 10.1038/547148a

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人類の世界への広がり方は予想以上に複雑だったことが、古代人のゲノム解析から明らかに。

Ancient-genome studies grapple with Africa’s past p.149

Clutch of DNA analyses show that ancient humans moved around on the continent far more than has been appreciated.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2017.22272

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News Features

子どもの健康:貧困が脳に与える影響

How poverty affects the brain p.150

栄養不良、不十分な衛生環境、ネグレクトなどが、子どもの成長や神経の発達に与える影響を調べようと、バングラデシュで前例のない脳画像化研究が行われている。

doi: 10.1038/547150a

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News & Views

精密測定:量子限界を超えるセンシング

Precision measurement: Sensing past the quantum limit p.164

位置センサー、速度センサー、加速度センサーの性能は、究極的には量子物理学によって制約される。こうした制約を回避するハイブリッド量子系によって、センサー技術が改善される可能性がある。

doi: 10.1038/547164a

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がん:腫瘍を標的にする個別化T細胞療法

Cancer: Precision T-cell therapy targets tumours p.165

免疫系のT細胞は腫瘍を破壊できるが、その活性化効率は低い場合がある。今回、腫瘍の変異を利用するワクチンによって、腫瘍に対するロバストなT細胞応答が引き出された。これは臨床的に有益である可能性がある。

doi: 10.1038/nature23093

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生物地球化学:水銀蒸気を吸収する北極の植物

Biogeochemistry: Arctic plants take up mercury vapour p.167

微量元素は、自然の過程や人間の活動によって植物中に濃縮される。今回、北極のツンドラ植生を分析して、植物による大気からの微量金属の吸収について新たな知見が得られた。

doi: 10.1038/547167a

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分子生物学:抑制されているクロマチンの液体リザーバー

Molecular biology: A liquid reservoir for silent chromatin p.168

HP1タンパク質は、DNAがヘテロクロマチンと呼ばれる抑制構造に圧縮されるのを仲介する。今回、HP1には液体に似た性質があることが分析によって明らかになり、ゲノム構成について新たな見方が得られた。

doi: 10.1038/nature23089

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神経変性:もつれたタウタンパク質を制御する

Neurodegeneration: Taming tangled tau p.170

タウタンパク質は、神経変性を伴う人々の脳にもつれと呼ばれる繊維状の異常な凝集体を形成する(神経原繊維変化)。今回、こうした繊維の2つの構造から、アルツハイマー病の理解を深める道が得られた。

doi: 10.1038/nature23094

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生物工学:胆管の再生

Bioengineering: Bile ducts regenerated p.171

今回、胆管の内側を覆う細胞集団を分離し拡大するプロトコルが開発され、生物工学的な胆管をin vitroで発生させることが可能になった。そして、こうした胆管をマウスへ移植すると、天然の胆管を置き換えることができた。

doi: 10.1038/547171a

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Articles

遺伝学:単一バリアントレベルでの炎症性腸疾患関連座位の精細マッピング

Fine-mapping inflammatory bowel disease loci to single-variant resolution p.173

Results of fine-mapping 94 inflammatory bowel disease loci using high-density genotyping in 67,852 individuals and several new fine-mapping methods.

doi: 10.1038/nature22969

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細胞生物学:細胞外マトリックスタンパク質アグリンはマウスで心臓再生を促進する

The extracellular matrix protein agrin promotes heart regeneration in mice p.179

The extracellular matrix protein agrin promotes cardiac regeneration in adult mice after myocardial infarction; it modulates cardiac differentiation and proliferation by interacting with the dystrophin–glycoprotein complex, Yap and ERK-mediated signalling.

doi: 10.1038/nature22978

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神経変性:アルツハイマー病由来のタウ繊維の低温電子顕微鏡構造

Cryo-EM structures of tau filaments from Alzheimer’s disease p.185

High-resolution structures of tau filaments shed light on the ultrastructure of neurofibrillary lesions in Alzheimer’s disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature23002

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Letters

量子物理学:負の質量の基準座標系における量子反作用を回避する運動測定

Quantum back-action-evading measurement of motion in a negative mass reference frame p.191

By coupling a mechanical object to an ensemble of atomic spins with negative effective mass, the object’s position can be measured without the usual quantum back-action perturbation of its momentum.

doi: 10.1038/nature22980

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有機化学:内部アルケンの触媒的アリル位酸化による多官能性キラルビルディングブロックの合成

Catalytic allylic oxidation of internal alkenes to a multifunctional chiral building block p.196

Non-symmetric internal alkenes are selectively converted into allylic functionalized products with high stereoselectivity and regioselectivity.

doi: 10.1038/nature22805

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生物地球化学:ツンドラによる大気中の水銀元素の吸収が北極域の水銀汚染を駆動する

Tundra uptake of atmospheric elemental mercury drives Arctic mercury pollution p.201

A two-year study of mercury deposition in the Arctic finds that the main source of mercury is gaseous elemental mercury, which is deposited throughout the year and leads to very high soil mercury levels.

doi: 10.1038/nature22997

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地球科学:FeOOHのパイライト型高圧相

The pyrite-type high-pressure form of FeOOH p.205

The pyrite-type high-pressure form of FeOOH is predicted from first principles, and found experimentally to be stable under the conditions at the base of the mantle, with implications for transport of water within Earth’s deep interior.

doi: 10.1038/nature22823

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発生生物学:真骨類以外の魚類では口前腸が顔の構造に寄与する

Pre-oral gut contributes to facial structures in non-teleost fishes p.209

In contrast to the prevailing belief that the gut begins with the mouth and continues backwards from there, this work shows that substantial areas of the faces of ray-finned fishes originate from the pre-oral gut or endoderm.

doi: 10.1038/nature23008

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微生物学:栄養感知がマラリア寄生虫の毒力を調節する

Nutrient sensing modulates malaria parasite virulence p.213

Malaria parasites use a sensing mechanism to moderate their growth in response to the nutrient content of their host.

doi: 10.1038/nature23009

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免疫学:黒色腫患者のための免疫原性を持つ個別化ネオアンチゲンワクチン

An immunogenic personal neoantigen vaccine for patients with melanoma p.217

The results of a phase I trial assessing a personal neoantigen multi-peptide vaccine in patients with melanoma, showing feasibility, safety, and immunogenicity.

doi: 10.1038/nature22991

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免疫学:個別化RNAミュータノームワクチンはがんに対する多特異性の治療免疫を誘導する

Personalized RNA mutanome vaccines mobilize poly-specific therapeutic immunity against cancer p.222

The authors report the first-in-human application of personalized neo-antigen RNA vaccines in patients with melanoma.

doi: 10.1038/nature23003

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発生生物学:ジストロフィン–糖タンパク質複合体はYapを隔離して心筋細胞増殖を阻害する

Dystrophin–glycoprotein complex sequesters Yap to inhibit cardiomyocyte proliferation p.227

After injury in the heart, postnatal mouse hearts deficient in the Hippo pathway show efficient repair, and in the hearts of Mdx mice (a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy) Hippo deficiency protects against overload-induced heart failure.

doi: 10.1038/nature22979

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分子生物学:哺乳類初期発生における3Dクロマチン構造の対立遺伝子性再プログラム化

Allelic reprogramming of 3D chromatin architecture during early mammalian development p.232

A low-input Hi-C method is used to show that chromatin organization is markedly relaxed in pre-implantation mouse embryos after fertilization and that the subsequent maturation of 3D chromatin architecture is surprisingly slow.

doi: 10.1038/nature23263

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分子生物学:HP1αによる液滴形成から示唆されるヘテロクロマチンにおける相分離の役割

Liquid droplet formation by HP1α suggests a role for phase separation in heterochromatin p.236

Gene silencing by heterochromatin is proposed to occur in part as a result of the ability of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) proteins to spread across large regions of the genome, compact the underlying chromatin and recruit diverse ligands. Here we identify a new property of the human HP1α protein: the ability to form phase-separated droplets. While unmodified HP1α is soluble, either phosphorylation of its N-terminal extension or DNA binding promotes the formation of phase-separated droplets. Phosphorylation-driven phase separation can be promoted or reversed by specific HP1α ligands. Known components of heterochromatin such as nucleosomes and DNA preferentially partition into the HP1α droplets, but molecules such as the transcription factor TFIIB show no preference. Using a single-molecule DNA curtain assay, we find that both unmodified and phosphorylated HP1α induce rapid compaction of DNA strands into puncta, although with different characteristics. We show by direct protein delivery into mammalian cells that an HP1α mutant incapable of phase separation in vitro forms smaller and fewer nuclear puncta than phosphorylated HP1α. These findings suggest that heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing may occur in part through sequestration of compacted chromatin in phase-separated HP1 droplets, which are dissolved or formed by specific ligands on the basis of nuclear context.

doi: 10.1038/nature22822

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分子生物学:相分離がヘテロクロマチン領域の形成の原動力となる

Phase separation drives heterochromatin domain formation p.241

HP1a can nucleate into foci that display liquid properties during the early stages of heterochromatin domain formation in Drosophila embryos, suggesting that the repressive action of heterochromatin may be mediated in part by emergent properties of phase separation.

doi: 10.1038/nature22989

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