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Editorials

欧州連合(EU)の第9次欧州研究開発フレームワーク計画(FP9)は、これまでの経験を踏まえつつ、壮大な目標を忘れずに、あらゆる科学に開かれたものにすべきだ。

Europe should hold fast to its scientific ambitions p.483

The EU’s fresh round of billion-euro Flagship research projects must be open to all types of science.

doi: 10.1038/540483a

40年のキャリアをNatureで勤め上げ、2016年12月をもって退職するCharles Wenzにこの記事を捧ぐ。

Raise the importance of retirement policy p.484

Studies that inform policies on retirement need to assess occupations as well.

doi: 10.1038/540484b

賭けに出るのはいいが、心理的な錯覚があることを認識しないと痛い目にある。

Place your bets for a white Christmas p.484

But don’t fall for an old chestnut.

doi: 10.1038/540484a

News

世界情勢の変化とテロの脅威に対処するため、EUが軍事研究を助成へ。

Peaceful EU starts to fund military research p.491

Shift in focus comes in response to a changing world order and the threat of terrorism.

doi: 10.1038/540491a

トランプ政権に備え、米国科学界に防衛策を考える動きが。

US Earth scientists plan for uncertain future under Trump p.492

Concerned by president-elect’s choice of advisers, researchers take steps to defend their fields.

doi: 10.1038/540492a

資金難などのために遅れが生じていた衛星測位システム「ガリレオ」が、ようやく運用開始へ。

Europe's Galileo satellites herald new era for Earth science p.493

Third global fleet will soon be joined by Asian counterparts, setting the atmosphere abuzz with scientifically-useful radio-wave signals.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.21183

世界保健機関(WHO)が、エボラ出血熱のような危機を防ぐため、感染症の流行対策の見直しを。

World Health Organization rethinks its response to disease outbreaks p.494

Programme aims to prevent crises similar to the recent Ebola epidemic.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.21134

ESAの火星探査機の着陸失敗や、英国の国民投票や米国大統領選の結果など、多くの衝撃的な出来事があった一方、重力波の検出、3人のDNAを持つ赤ちゃんの誕生、世界のトップ囲碁棋士との対局での人工知能の勝利など、目覚ましい進歩も多かった。

2016 in news: The science events that shaped the year p.496

Climate accords, controversial assisted reproduction and the CRISPR patent battle are among the year's top stories.

doi: 10.1038/540496a

写真で見る2016年

2016 in pictures: The best science images of the year p.500

Includes storms from space, southern stars and a striking cell.

doi: 10.1038/540500a

News Features

Natureが選ぶ今年の10人

Nature’s 10 p.507

今年の科学を大きく変えたのは、どのような人たちだろうか。

doi: 10.1038/540507a

News & Views

転移:同時進行するプログレッションの経路

Metastasis: Pathways of parallel progression p.528

極めて早期の乳がんで腫瘍細胞の播種が起こる機構が、マウスを使った2つの研究によって突き止められた。2つの研究は共に、このような細胞は、後期に播種される腫瘍細胞よりもずっと効率よく遠隔組織に定着することを明らかにしている。

doi: 10.1038/nature21104

超分子化学:自己集合の知られざる領域

Supramolecular chemistry: Unexplored territory for self-assembly p.529

適切な金属イオンと有機化合物のリンカーを使えば自己集合によってケージ状構造体を形成できるが、集合体のサイズには限界があった。一連の新しいケージ構造が発見されるという意外な結果は、自己集合の研究をさらに拡大することになりそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/540529a

心血管疾患:プラーク形成につながる波立つ経路

Cardiovascular disease: A turbulent path to plaque formation p.531

プラークの沈着は動脈がカーブしていて血流が乱れがちな部分に起こることが多い。内皮細胞がこれまで知られていなかったシグナル伝達経路を介して血流に応答し、これがプラーク形成に影響することが今回明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature20489

生体材料:サメは棘を硬化させて泳ぎのギアを上げる

Biomaterials: Sharks shift their spine into high gear p.532

ツノザメの一種Squalus acanthiasは背びれに棘が生えていて、この棘は速く泳げば泳ぐほど硬くなり、さまざまな速度で効率よく泳げるようになることが分かった。この知見はロボット材料の設計にヒントを与えるものとなるかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/nature21102

惑星科学:暗闇で凍らせる

Planetary science: Frozen in darkness p.534

準惑星ケレスの観測から、極域の永続的に陰となっている領域が水氷を捕捉・保存していることが明らかになり、惑星体上に水のリザーバーが作られる過程に関する貴重な情報が得られた。

doi: 10.1038/nature21108

物性物理学:ついに見つかった量子スピン液体

Condensed-matter physics: Quantum mechanics in a spin p.534

量子スピン液体は、物質のエキゾチック状態の1つであり、その存在が最初に予測されたのは40年以上前である。ある無機材料の性質がこうした予測と合致することが分かり、量子物質の性質の詳細が明らかになってきた。

doi: 10.1038/540534a

エディターが選んだ2016年N&Vの「逸品」

2016 Editors' choice p.536

今年度掲載されたNews & Viewsの中から編集部が精選した記事の抜粋。

doi: 10.1038/540536a

Articles

ウイルス学:無脊椎動物のRNAウイルス圏を再定義する

Redefining the invertebrate RNA virosphere p.539

Profiling the total RNA of 220 invertebrate species leads to the discovery of almost 1,500 new species of RNA virus, revealing that the RNA virosphere is much more diverse than was previously thought.

doi: 10.1038/nature20167

微生物学:持続的なマイクロバイオームの変化は食餌制限後の体重再増加速度を調節する

Persistent microbiome alterations modulate the rate of post-dieting weight regain p.544

The identification of an intestinal microbiome signature that persists after successful dieting in obese mice and contributes to faster weight regain upon re-exposure to an obesity-promoting diet, and that transmits the altered weight regain phenotype to non-dieting mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature20796

がん:初期の播種が乳がん転移を促す

Early dissemination seeds metastasis in breast cancer p.552

Two related papers show that cells disseminated from malignant lesions at early time points during tumorigenesis can contribute to metastases at distant organs and provide insights into the molecular basis of dissemination.

doi: 10.1038/nature20785

Letters

物性物理学:三角格子量子スピン液体の候補物質におけるスピノンフェルミ面の証拠

Evidence for a spinon Fermi surface in a triangular-lattice quantum-spin-liquid candidate p.559

A spin excitation continuum across a large region of the Brillouin zone that persists at near-zero temperatures provides evidence for a quantum spin liquid state with a spinon Fermi surface in YbMgGaO4.

doi: 10.1038/nature20614

超分子化学:144個の小さな構成要素の自己集合による4価のゴールドバーグ多面体の形成

Self-assembly of tetravalent Goldberg polyhedra from 144 small components p.563

Graph theory is used to guide the self-assembly of a complex consisting of 48 palladium ions and 96 ligands, with the topology of a tetravalent Goldberg polyhedron.

doi: 10.1038/nature20771

生物地球化学:水収支が全球規模の土壌pHのしきい値を生み出す

Water balance creates a threshold in soil pH at the global scale p.567

There is an abrupt transition from alkaline to acid soil pH when mean annual precipitation exceeds mean annual potential evapotranspiration, demonstrating that climate creates a nonlinear pattern in soil solution chemistry at the global scale.

doi: 10.1038/nature20139

気候科学:1990年代初頭以降のアガラス海流は強くならずに広がっている

Broadening not strengthening of the Agulhas Current since the early 1990s p.570

The Agulhas Current has not intensified since the early 1990s, but has instead broadened as a result of more eddy activity.

doi: 10.1038/nature19853

植物生物工学:植物の糖シグナル伝達における化学的介入は収量および復元力を増大させる

Chemical intervention in plant sugar signalling increases yield and resilience p.574

Treatment with signalling precursors of trehalose-6-phosphate allows light-triggered release of trehalose-6-phosphate in Arabidopsis thaliana and increases the yield and drought resistance of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum).

doi: 10.1038/nature20591

心血管疾患:インテグリン–YAP/TAZ–JNKカスケードは一方向性せん断流のアテローム防護効果を仲介する

Integrin-YAP/TAZ-JNK cascade mediates atheroprotective effect of unidirectional shear flow p.579

The Yorkie homologues YAP (Yes-associated protein) and TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif, also known as WWTR1), effectors of the Hippo pathway, have been identified as mediators for mechanical stimuli. However, the role of YAP/TAZ in haemodynamics-induced mechanotransduction and pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here we show that endothelial YAP/TAZ activity is regulated by different patterns of blood flow, and YAP/TAZ inhibition suppresses inflammation and retards atherogenesis. Atheroprone-disturbed flow increases whereas atheroprotective unidirectional shear stress inhibits YAP/TAZ activity. Unidirectional shear stress activates integrin and promotes integrin–Gα13 interaction, leading to RhoA inhibition and YAP phosphorylation and suppression. YAP/TAZ inhibition suppresses JNK signalling and downregulates pro-inflammatory genes expression, thereby reducing monocyte attachment and infiltration. In vivo endothelial-specific YAP overexpression exacerbates, while CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Yap knockdown in endothelium retards, plaque formation in ApoE/ mice. We also show several existing anti-atherosclerotic agents such as statins inhibit YAP/TAZ transactivation. On the other hand, simvastatin fails to suppress constitutively active YAP/TAZ-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression in endothelial cells, indicating that YAP/TAZ inhibition could contribute to the anti-inflammatory effect of simvastatin. Furthermore, activation of integrin by oral administration of MnCl2 reduces plaque formation. Taken together, our results indicate that integrin–Gα13–RhoA–YAP pathway holds promise as a novel drug target against atherosclerosis.

doi: 10.1038/nature20602

免疫学:NLRC3はがんにおけるPI3K–mTOR経路の抑制性センサーである

NLRC3 is an inhibitory sensor of PI3K–mTOR pathways in cancer p.583

Mice deficient in the protein NLRC3 are highly prone to colitis and tumour development in the colon as NLRC3 suppresses the activation of mTOR signalling pathways that help drive tumorigenesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature20597

がん:Her2+乳がんにおける初期播種と転移の機構

Mechanism of early dissemination and metastasis in Her2+ mammary cancer p.588

Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths; metastatic lesions develop from disseminated cancer cells (DCCs) that can remain dormant. Metastasis-initiating cells are thought to originate from a subpopulation present in progressed, invasive tumours. However, DCCs detected in patients before the manifestation of breast-cancer metastasis contain fewer genetic abnormalities than primary tumours or than DCCs from patients with metastases. These findings, and those in pancreatic cancer and melanoma models, indicate that dissemination might occur during the early stages of tumour evolution. However, the mechanisms that might allow early disseminated cancer cells (eDCCs) to complete all steps of metastasis are unknown. Here we show that, in early lesions in mice and before any apparent primary tumour masses are detected, there is a sub-population of Her2+p-p38lop-Atf2loTwist1hiE-cadlo early cancer cells that is invasive and can spread to target organs. Intra-vital imaging and organoid studies of early lesions showed that Her2+ eDCC precursors invaded locally, intravasated and lodged in target organs. Her2+ eDCCs activated a Wnt-dependent epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like dissemination program but without complete loss of the epithelial phenotype, which was reversed by Her2 or Wnt inhibition. Notably, although the majority of eDCCs were Twist1hiE-cadlo and dormant, they eventually initiated metastasis. Our work identifies a mechanism for early dissemination in which Her2 aberrantly activates a program similar to mammary ductal branching that generates eDCCs that are capable of forming metastasis after a dormancy phase.

doi: 10.1038/nature20609

細胞生物学:ストレス応答性転写産物の迅速な搬出のためにmRNAの品質管理が回避される

mRNA quality control is bypassed for immediate export of stress-responsive transcripts p.593

Heat shock drives the expression of transcripts that bypass mRNA quality control for direct export and translation, allowing cells to survive extreme situations at the cost of accuracy.

doi: 10.1038/nature20572

構造生物学:サルモネラのT3Sインジェクチソーム基部のニア原子分解能低温電子顕微鏡解析

Near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM analysis of the Salmonella T3S injectisome basal body p.597

The authors report the structure of the assembled membrane spanning ring forming proteins of the Salmonella Typhimurium injectisome basal body, including the first atomic structure of a member of the secretin family of outer-membrane pores.

doi: 10.1038/nature20576

構造生物学:ヒトCB1カンナビノイド受容体の高分解能結晶構造

High-resolution crystal structure of the human CB1 cannabinoid receptor p.602

The authors report a 2.6 Å resolution crystal structure of the human CB1 cannabinoid receptor trapped in the inactive conformation and bound to the antagonist taranabant.

doi: 10.1038/nature20613

構造生物学:リボソームDNA遺伝子を転写中のRNAポリメラーゼIの構造

Structure of RNA polymerase I transcribing ribosomal DNA genes p.607

Structures of budding yeast RNA polymerase I in a catalytically active conformation are presented and confirmed by visualizing processive transcription along ribosomal DNA genes; they support a general model for transcription elongation in which contracted and expanded polymerase conformations are associated with active and inactive states, respectively.

doi: 10.1038/nature20561

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