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Editorials

科学に必要な研究の自由を脅かし始めている大学の企業化の風潮を、見直すべき時だ。

Corporate culture spreads to Scandinavian institutes p.315

The trend of turning universities into businesses is limiting research freedoms in traditionally liberal institutes in northern Europe. It is time for scientists to regain lost ground.

doi: 10.1038/540315a

トランプ次期米国大統領が、科学を軽視し温暖化対策に反対するScott Pruittを環境保護庁(EPA)長官に指名したことには失望する。

Donald Trump’s choice for head of the US environment agency is dismaying p.315

Scott Pruitt has consistently opposed attempts to reduce pollution.

doi: 10.1038/540315b

タツノオトシゴのゲノム解読によって、この生物の独特な形質の謎を解明する手掛かりが得られた。

Sequence reveals genes behind bizarre sea-horse traits p.316

A Nature paper explores this unusual creature from the inside out.

doi: 10.1038/540316a

News

人工知能(AI)開発大手が、AIの訓練にも使える3Dバーチャル環境を、次々と公開。

Tech giants open virtual worlds to bevy of AI programs p.323

Artificial-intelligence algorithms can learn a lot from playing immersive 3D video games.

doi: 10.1038/540323a

イタリア科学界は、辞任したレンツィ首相に期待外れだったとの評価を。

Italian scientists won’t miss departing Prime Minister Matteo Renzi p.324

Italy’s youngest leader failed to walk the talk when it came to boosting research, academics say.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.21139

出版最大手のエルゼビア社が、新たな学術雑誌評価指標を発表。

Controversial impact factor gets a heavyweight rival p.325

Elsevier’s CiteScore uses a larger database — and provides different results for the quality of journals.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.21131

米国のカリフォルニア大学とブロード研究所のCRISPR関連特許権争いが、法廷へ。

CRISPR heavyweights battle in US patent court p.326

The University of California, Berkeley, and the Broad Institute are vying for lucrative rights to the gene-editing system.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.21101

トランプ次期米国大統領が科学顧問を置くかどうかは、いまだ不透明。

Does it matter if Donald Trump has a science adviser? p.327

His plans for the job are a mystery, but past presidents have used their chief scientific aide in a number of ways.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.21129

患者に合ったがんワクチンを探すためのコンピュータープログラムの開発競争が。

Algorithms compete to predict recipe for cancer vaccine p.328

How to rouse the immune system against tumours has proved elusive.

doi: 10.1038/540328a

News Features

経済学:神話の打破

Three minutes with Hans Rosling will change your mind about the world p.330

スウェーデン・カロリンスカ医科大学の医師で、非営利組織Gapminder Foundationの創設者でもあるHans Roslingは、世界の貧困の実状を、先入観を捨てて事実に基づいて見つめるよう人々に働きかけている。

doi: 10.1038/540330a

News & Views

薬理学:受容体の裏側からの阻害

Pharmacology: Inside-out receptor inhibition p.344

2種類のケモカイン受容体タンパク質について、小型分子と複合体を作った状態の構造が得られ、以前には知られていなかった結合ポケットが明らかになった。このポケットは、この受容体ファミリーが関与する多様な疾患を治療するための薬剤標的となる可能性がある。

doi: 10.1038/nature20486

化学生物学:酵素の触媒作用における抜本的変化

Chemical biology: A radical change in enzyme catalysis p.345

ケトレダクターゼに本来の反応と異なるものを触媒させる方法が考案された。重要なポイントは、光を使ってこの酵素の補因子を励起することで、この方法は他の酵素にも応用できるかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/540345a

がん:白血病の遺伝子発現プロファイル

Cancer: A gene-expression profile for leukaemia p.346

遺伝的リスクの簡単なプロファイルは、複雑な病気の場合でも明らかにできるのだろうか。急性白血病での遺伝子発現プロファイルから、これが可能であることが示され、こうしたプロファイリングによって予後予測が向上する可能性もあることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature20488

水文学:地球の地表水の動態

Hydrology: The dynamics of Earth's surface water p.348

過去32年間にわたる地球の地表水の動態が高分解能衛星画像を使ってマッピングされ、自然のサイクルや人間活動の影響など、地球の水系に起こった変化が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature21100

幹細胞:老化した筋肉が衰えることの原因と結果

Stem cells: Cause and consequence in aged-muscle decline p.349

老化した筋幹細胞(衛星細胞)の活性化は、DNAのパッケージングに変化を引き起こし、これがHoxa9遺伝子の発現につながることが今回明らかになった。このHoxa9発現によって胚のシグナル伝達経路が再活性化され、損傷を受けた筋肉を修復する衛星細胞の機能が制限を受けるのである。

doi: 10.1038/nature20485

生物医学:網膜移植の監視から見えてきた意外な結果

Biomedicine: An eye on retinal recovery p.350

網膜変性のマウスモデルでは、網膜細胞の移植によって視力が回復する。移植によってドナー細胞が網膜へ組み込まれると予想されていたのだが、実際には移植によってドナーと宿主細胞の間での物質交換が起こることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature20487

Articles

進化学:タツノオトシゴのゲノムおよびその特異な形態の進化

The seahorse genome and the evolution of its specialized morphology p.395

Here, the genome sequence of the tiger tail seahorse is reported and comparative genomic analyses with other ray-finned fishes are used to explore the genetic basis of the unique morphology and reproductive system of the seahorse.

doi: 10.1038/nature20595

構造生物学:電場によって刺激されたタンパク質の力学的性質

Electric-field-stimulated protein mechanics p.400

A new method in which strong electric fields are applied to a protein crystal while collecting time-resolved X-ray diffraction patterns is able to follow the mechanical motions of all the constituent atoms, with implications for molecular biology and drug discovery.

doi: 10.1038/nature20571

Letters

天文学:広がった円盤風によって駆動される原始星のアウトフローを解像した画像

Resolved images of a protostellar outflow driven by an extended disk wind p.406

Observations of the outflow associated with the TMC1A protostellar system reveal that the ‘disk wind’ model correctly explains how material is ejected from protostars.

doi: 10.1038/nature20600

物性物理学:人工正方アイスにおける広範囲の縮退、クーロン相、磁気単極子

Extensive degeneracy, Coulomb phase and magnetic monopoles in artificial square ice p.410

All of the characteristics of the square-ice model are observed in an artificial square-ice system in which the two sublattices of nanomagnets are slightly vertically separated.

doi: 10.1038/nature20155

酵素生物学:ニコチンアミド依存性酵素への光照射による非天然型反応性の実現

Accessing non-natural reactivity by irradiating nicotinamide-dependent enzymes with light p.414

Photoexcitation of a catalytic enzyme’s co-factor is shown to change the reactivity of the enzyme, enabling it to carry out a non-natural enantioselective dehalogenation of lactone molecules.

doi: 10.1038/nature20569

水文学:全球の地表水の高分解能マッピングとその長期的な変化

High-resolution mapping of global surface water and its long-term changes p.418

A freely available dataset produced from three million Landsat satellite images reveals substantial changes in the distribution of global surface water over the past 32 years and their causes, from climate change to human actions.

doi: 10.1038/nature20584

神経発生疾患:自閉症における、lncRNA、スプライシング、および脳領域の遺伝子発現パターンのゲノム規模の変化

Genome-wide changes in lncRNA, splicing, and regional gene expression patterns in autism p.423

Gene expression analysis in brain tissue from individuals with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggests that the transcription factor SOX5 contributes to an ASD-associated reduction in transcriptional differences between brain areas and indicates that common transcriptomic changes occur in different forms of ASD.

doi: 10.1038/nature20612

幹細胞:エピジェネティックなストレス応答はHoxa9の発生シグナルによって筋幹細胞の老化を誘導する

Epigenetic stress responses induce muscle stem-cell ageing by Hoxa9 developmental signals p.428

Changes in active chromatin marks in old activated satellite cells lead to Hoxa9 activation, which induces the expression of developmental pathway genes with a known inhibitory effect on satellite cell function and muscle regeneration in aged mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature20603

がん:急性白血病のリスクを迅速に決定するための17個の遺伝子による幹細胞性スコア

A 17-gene stemness score for rapid determination of risk in acute leukaemia p.433

A rapid gene signature test (LSC17) that captures stem cell expression programs in acute myeloid leukaemia patients at diagnosis is associated with therapy response and survival, facilitating initial treatment stratification.

doi: 10.1038/nature20598

ウイルス学:ジカウイルス感染はマウスの精巣に損傷を与える

Zika virus infection damages the testes in mice p.438

Infection of male mice with Zika virus caused testicular and epididymal damage, reduction in sex hormone levels, destruction of germ and somatic cells in the testis, loss of mature sperm and reduction in fertility.

doi: 10.1038/nature20556

ウイルス学:ヒト中和抗体はマウスでジカウイルスの複製と胎児疾患を防ぐ

Neutralizing human antibodies prevent Zika virus replication and fetal disease in mice p.443

Monoclonal Zika-virus-neutralizing human antibodies can protect against maternal–fetal transmission, infection and disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature20564

免疫学:樹状細胞サブセットにおける受容体利用はヒトTRIM5αによるHIV-1制限を決定付ける

Receptor usage dictates HIV-1 restriction by human TRIM5α in dendritic cell subsets p.448

The most prevalent route of HIV-1 infection is across mucosal tissues after sexual contact. Langerhans cells (LCs) belong to the subset of dendritic cells (DCs) that line the mucosal epithelia of vagina and foreskin and have the ability to sense and induce immunity to invading pathogens. Anatomical and functional characteristics make LCs one of the primary targets of HIV-1 infection. Notably, LCs form a protective barrier against HIV-1 infection and transmission. LCs restrict HIV-1 infection through the capture of HIV-1 by the C-type lectin receptor Langerin and subsequent internalization into Birbeck granules. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of HIV-1 restriction in LCs remains unknown. Here we show that human E3-ubiquitin ligase tri-partite-containing motif 5α (TRIM5α) potently restricts HIV-1 infection of LCs but not of subepithelial DC-SIGN+ DCs. HIV-1 restriction by TRIM5α was thus far considered to be reserved to non-human primate TRIM5α orthologues, but our data strongly suggest that human TRIM5α is a cell-specific restriction factor dependent on C-type lectin receptor function. Our findings highlight the importance of HIV-1 binding to Langerin for the routeing of HIV-1 into the human TRIM5α-mediated restriction pathway. TRIM5α mediates the assembly of an autophagy-activating scaffold to Langerin, which targets HIV-1 for autophagic degradation and prevents infection of LCs. By contrast, HIV-1 binding to DC-SIGN+ DCs leads to disassociation of TRIM5α from DC-SIGN, which abrogates TRIM5α restriction. Thus, our data strongly suggest that restriction by human TRIM5α is controlled by C-type-lectin-receptor-dependent uptake of HIV-1, dictating protection or infection of human DC subsets. Therapeutic interventions that incorporate C-type lectin receptors and autophagy-targeting strategies could thus provide cell-mediated resistance to HIV-1 in humans.

doi: 10.1038/nature20567

生物エネルギー学:光化学系IIの室温での構造と基質結合

Structure of photosystem II and substrate binding at room temperature p.453

The structures of three intermediate states of photosystem II, which is crucial for photosynthesis, have been solved at room temperature, shedding new light on this process.

doi: 10.1038/nature20161

創薬:オルソステリックおよびアロステリックなアンタゴニストと結合したCCケモカイン受容体2の構造

Structure of CC chemokine receptor 2 with orthosteric and allosteric antagonists p.458

The crystal structure of CCR2 chemokine receptor in a complex with two different antagonists—one orthosteric the other allosteric—which functionally cooperate to inhibit CCR2.

doi: 10.1038/nature20605

創薬:CCR9受容体の細胞内アロステリック拮抗作用

Intracellular allosteric antagonism of the CCR9 receptor p.462

The crystal structure of the CCR9 chemokine receptor in complex with vercirnon at 2.8 Å resolution.

doi: 10.1038/nature20606

構造生物学:クロマチンリモデリング因子ISWIの構造と調節

Structure and regulation of the chromatin remodeller ISWI p.466

The crystal structures of ISWI, the catalytic subunit of several chromatin remodelling complexes, and its complex with a histone H4 peptide are reported.

doi: 10.1038/nature20590

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