Young researchers thrive in life after academia p.585

Alternative career paths should be celebrated, not seen as a compromise.

doi: 10.1038/537585a

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The maximum climate ambition needs a firm research backing p.585

We need to know what the 1.5 °C warming target will involve — even if we don’t reach it.

doi: 10.1038/537585b

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The challenges facing Habitat III p.586

United Nations conference on cities needs to set goals for the next 20 years.

doi: 10.1038/537586a

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Daring Chinese telescope is poised to transform astronomy p.593

Construction of the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST) is complete, but debugging has only just begun.

doi: 10.1038/537593a

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Facebook couple commits $3 billion to cure disease p.595

Chan Zuckerberg Initiative aims to have major impact by 2100.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20649

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Cuban crocodiles pose conservation conundrum p.596

Genetic analyses of endangered animals reveal high level of interbreeding with hardier American species.

doi: 10.1038/537596a

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新たな大規模国際脳研究プロジェクト「International Brain Initiative」については、途上国の参加の仕方などで懸念も。

Worldwide brain-mapping project sparks excitement — and concern p.597

Worries include how to coordinate research programmes and resources from different countries.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20658

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Solar on the steppe: Ukraine embraces renewables revolution p.598

Former Soviet nation bids for independence from Russian fossil fuels.

doi: 10.1038/537598a

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Zimbabwean scientists fight to preserve national academy p.599

Research struggles in a country in economic free-fall.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20670

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News Features


Can Cuban science go global? p.600


doi: 10.1038/537600a

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News & Views


Plant science: Hybrid vigour characterized p.620


doi: 10.1038/nature19433

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Imaging techniques: MRI illuminated by γ-rays p.621


doi: 10.1038/537621a

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Microbiology: The bacterial cell wall takes centre stage p.622


doi: 10.1038/537622a

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Food security: A collaboration worth its weight in grain p.624


doi: 10.1038/nature19431

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Biogeochemistry: Long-term effects of permafrost thaw p.625


doi: 10.1038/537625a

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Physiology: Forecast for water balance p.626


doi: 10.1038/537626a

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Chemistry: Small molecular replicators go organic p.627


doi: 10.1038/537627a

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Genomic architecture of heterosis for yield traits in rice p.629

Insights into the genomic architecture of heterosis for grain yield in rice are presented, and further mapping of grain yield loci resolves candidate genes that could be useful for breeding.

doi: 10.1038/nature19760

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SEDS proteins are a widespread family of bacterial cell wall polymerases p.634

SEDS proteins are core peptidoglycan polymerases involved in bacterial cell wall elongation and division.

doi: 10.1038/nature19331

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The architecture of the mammalian respirasome p.639

Respirasomes are supercomplexes of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes that are responsible for cellular respiration and energy production; a cryo-electron microscopy structural study of the respirasome is presented.

doi: 10.1038/nature19359

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The architecture of respiratory supercomplexes p.644

Respirasomes are supercomplexes of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes that are responsible for cellular respiration and energy production; cryo-electron microscopy structures of mammalian (sheep) respirasomes are presented.

doi: 10.1038/nature19774

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The awakening of a classical nova from hibernation p.649

Long-term pre- and post-eruption observations of the classical nova V1213 Centauri reveal that its progenitor was a dwarf nova and that the mass-transfer rate increased considerably as a result of the nova explosion.

doi: 10.1038/nature19066

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A method for imaging and spectroscopy using γ-rays and magnetic resonance p.652

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides fine spatial resolution, spectral sensitivity and a rich variety of contrast mechanisms for diagnostic medical applications. Nuclear imaging using γ-ray cameras offers the benefits of using small quantities of radioactive tracers that seek specific targets of interest within the body. Here we describe an imaging and spectroscopic modality that combines favourable aspects of both approaches. Spatial information is encoded into the spin orientations of tiny amounts of a polarized radioactive tracer using pulses of both radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation and magnetic-field gradients, as in MRI. However, rather than detecting weak radio-frequency signals, imaging information is obtained through the detection of γ-rays. A single γ-ray detector can be used to acquire an image; no γ-ray camera is needed. We demonstrate the feasibility of our technique by producing images and spectra from a glass cell containing only about 4 × 1013 atoms (about 1 millicurie) of the metastable isomer 131mXe that were polarized using the laser technique of spin-exchange optical pumping. If the cell had instead been filled with water and imaged using conventional MRI, then it would have contained more than 1024 water molecules. The high sensitivity of our modality expands the breadth of applications of magnetic resonance, and could lead to a new class of radioactive tracers.

doi: 10.1038/nature19775

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Autocatalytic, bistable, oscillatory networks of biologically relevant organic reactions p.656

A few-component network of biologically relevant, organic reactions displays bistability and oscillations, without an enzymatic catalyst.

doi: 10.1038/nature19776

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生体触媒:in vivoメタセシス用の人工金属酵素の定方向進化

Directed evolution of artificial metalloenzymes for in vivo metathesis p.661

An artificial metalloenzyme is compartmentalized and evolved in vivo for olefin metathesis—an archetypal organometallic reaction without equivalent in nature; the evolved metathase reveals broad substrate scope and compares favourably with commercial catalysts.

doi: 10.1038/nature19114

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Key new pieces of the HIMU puzzle from olivines and diamond inclusions p.666

Trace-element analyses of olivine phenocrysts and diamond inclusions indicate that carbonatite-metasomatized subcontinental mantle may be the source of the HIMU mantle end-member, as opposed to recycled basaltic oceanic crust.

doi: 10.1038/nature19113

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Closing yield gaps in China by empowering smallholder farmers p.671

The authors report on attempts to increase the yield of smallholder farms in China using ten practices recommended by the Science and Technology Backyard for farming maize and wheat at county level.

doi: 10.1038/nature19368

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CHD8 haploinsufficiency results in autistic-like phenotypes in mice p.675

Heterozygous Chd8 mutant mice display autistic-like behaviours and small but global changes in brain gene expression, which are associated with delays in neuronal development.

doi: 10.1038/nature19357

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Thirst neurons anticipate the homeostatic consequences of eating and drinking p.680

Feedback from the oral cavity to thirst-promoting neurons in the subfornical organ (SFO) during eating and drinking is integrated with information about blood composition, providing a prediction of how oral consumption will affect fluid balance and leading to changes in behaviour.

doi: 10.1038/nature18950

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Clock-driven vasopressin neurotransmission mediates anticipatory thirst prior to sleep p.685

Clock neurons projecting from the suprachiasmatic nucleus activate a thirst-related brain area in mice to cause a surge in drinking just before sleep and thereby to prevent dehydration during the sleep period.

doi: 10.1038/nature19756

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Ecogenomics and potential biogeochemical impacts of globally abundant ocean viruses p.689

The assembly and analysis of complete genomes and large genomic fragments have tripled the number of known ocean viruses and uncovered the potentially important roles they play in nitrogen and sulfur cycling.

doi: 10.1038/nature19366

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Rewriting yeast central carbon metabolism for industrial isoprenoid production p.694

Yeast central carbon metabolism has been engineered to achieve a more efficient isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway, an advance that brings commodity-scale production of such compounds a step closer.

doi: 10.1038/nature19769

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Single-cell analysis of mixed-lineage states leading to a binary cell fate choice p.698

Stem cells generate progenitors that transition through a series of dynamically unstable states with mixed-lineage gene expression, culminating in the specification of cell-fate.

doi: 10.1038/nature19348

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