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Editorials

科学界は、若手研究者が大学を離れても満足できるキャリアがあることを、しっかりと認めるべきだ。

Young researchers thrive in life after academia p.585

Alternative career paths should be celebrated, not seen as a compromise.

doi: 10.1038/537585a

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温暖化を1.5°C以下に抑えるのは不可能かもしれないが、挑戦を諦めるべきではない。

The maximum climate ambition needs a firm research backing p.585

We need to know what the 1.5 °C warming target will involve — even if we don’t reach it.

doi: 10.1038/537585b

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都市化と居住の問題に取り組む第3回国連人間居住計画会議(ハビタットIII)は、これまで以上に大きな課題に直面している。

The challenges facing Habitat III p.586

United Nations conference on cities needs to set goals for the next 20 years.

doi: 10.1038/537586a

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News

中国で、単一鏡としては世界最大の「500メートル球面電波望遠鏡(FAST)」が完成し、大きな期待が。

Daring Chinese telescope is poised to transform astronomy p.593

Construction of the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST) is complete, but debugging has only just begun.

doi: 10.1038/537593a

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フェイスブックのマーク・ザッカーバーグとその妻プリシラ・チャンが、「今世紀中に全ての疾患の治療を可能にする」ことを目指して、疾病研究に30億ドルの投資を。

Facebook couple commits $3 billion to cure disease p.595

Chan Zuckerberg Initiative aims to have major impact by 2100.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20649

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絶滅が危惧されるキューバワニの遺伝子解析で、アメリカワニとの幅広い交雑が判明し、今後の保護活動に難問を。

Cuban crocodiles pose conservation conundrum p.596

Genetic analyses of endangered animals reveal high level of interbreeding with hardier American species.

doi: 10.1038/537596a

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新たな大規模国際脳研究プロジェクト「International Brain Initiative」については、途上国の参加の仕方などで懸念も。

Worldwide brain-mapping project sparks excitement — and concern p.597

Worries include how to coordinate research programmes and resources from different countries.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20658

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ウクライナが、ロシアの化石燃料に頼らない、再生可能エネルギー推進の方向へ。

Solar on the steppe: Ukraine embraces renewables revolution p.598

Former Soviet nation bids for independence from Russian fossil fuels.

doi: 10.1038/537598a

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国際制裁による経済悪化で、ジンバブエの科学アカデミーが苦境に。

Zimbabwean scientists fight to preserve national academy p.599

Research struggles in a country in economic free-fall.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20670

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News Features

カリブ:岐路に立つキューバの科学

Can Cuban science go global? p.600

米国からの経済制裁が緩和され、キューバの科学が進化し始めている。

doi: 10.1038/537600a

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News & Views

植物科学:雑種強勢の研究

Plant science: Hybrid vigour characterized p.620

作物の収量や稔性を改良するための変種同士の交配はよく行われる。このような雑種強勢の基盤となるゲノム構造を詳細に解明した研究からは、将来の農作物改良戦略に有用な情報が得られそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/nature19433

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画像化技術:γ線を検出する高感度のMRI法

Imaging techniques: MRI illuminated by γ-rays p.621

核磁気共鳴法と核医学の技術を組み合わせて使って放射性トレーサーの分布状態を画像化する方法が開発された。これは医用画像化技術の強力で革新的な手法への道を開く可能性がある。

doi: 10.1038/537621a

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微生物学:注目を集める細菌細胞壁

Microbiology: The bacterial cell wall takes centre stage p.622

細菌細胞壁を合成する分子装置の主要部分に予想外の機能があることが、今回明らかになった。この結果は細菌細胞壁に関する我々の理解を大きく変えるだけでなく、抗生物質の開発にも重大な関わりがあると考えられる。

doi: 10.1038/537622a

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食料安全保障:穀物増産のための価値ある協力

Food security: A collaboration worth its weight in grain p.624

中国の農村で研究者と農家の間の協力によって行われている穀物収量改善活動は、世界の食料生産量を増加させるために、地域規模で何ができるのかを明らかにしている。

doi: 10.1038/nature19431

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生物地球化学:永久凍土融解の長期的影響

Biogeochemistry: Long-term effects of permafrost thaw p.625

地球温暖化による永久凍土融解が進むにつれて、北極のツンドラからの炭素排出は急激に増加する可能性がある。こうした融解の二酸化炭素排出への長期的影響について今回得られた手掛かりから、さらなるデータの必要性がはっきりした。

doi: 10.1038/537625a

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生理学:水分バランスを予測する脳領域

Physiology: Forecast for water balance p.626

哺乳類では、体内の水分平衡状態が擾乱されると衰弱につながることがある。今回2つの研究によって、マウスで渇きへの応答と渇きの予測が行われ、全体的な体液調節の維持に関わっている脳領域が特定された。

doi: 10.1038/537626a

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化学:小分子複製装置で有機物を扱う

Chemistry: Small molecular replicators go organic p.627

複雑で動的な分子挙動が生じたことは、生命の出現に関わった可能性がある。このような挙動が今回、自己複製する小型の生体関連有機分子が関わる反応ネットワーク中で観察された。

doi: 10.1038/537627a

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Articles

植物遺伝学:イネの収量形質に関する雑種強勢のゲノム構造

Genomic architecture of heterosis for yield traits in rice p.629

Insights into the genomic architecture of heterosis for grain yield in rice are presented, and further mapping of grain yield loci resolves candidate genes that could be useful for breeding.

doi: 10.1038/nature19760

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微生物学:SEDSタンパク質は細菌細胞壁ポリメラーゼの広く見られるファミリーである

SEDS proteins are a widespread family of bacterial cell wall polymerases p.634

SEDS proteins are core peptidoglycan polymerases involved in bacterial cell wall elongation and division.

doi: 10.1038/nature19331

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構造生物学:哺乳類レスピラソームの構造

The architecture of the mammalian respirasome p.639

Respirasomes are supercomplexes of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes that are responsible for cellular respiration and energy production; a cryo-electron microscopy structural study of the respirasome is presented.

doi: 10.1038/nature19359

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構造生物学:呼吸鎖超複合体の構造

The architecture of respiratory supercomplexes p.644

Respirasomes are supercomplexes of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes that are responsible for cellular respiration and energy production; cryo-electron microscopy structures of mammalian (sheep) respirasomes are presented.

doi: 10.1038/nature19774

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Letters

天文・宇宙物理学:古典新星の休眠からの覚醒

The awakening of a classical nova from hibernation p.649

Long-term pre- and post-eruption observations of the classical nova V1213 Centauri reveal that its progenitor was a dwarf nova and that the mass-transfer rate increased considerably as a result of the nova explosion.

doi: 10.1038/nature19066

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分子画像化法:γ線と磁気共鳴を使って画像化と分光を行う方法

A method for imaging and spectroscopy using γ-rays and magnetic resonance p.652

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides fine spatial resolution, spectral sensitivity and a rich variety of contrast mechanisms for diagnostic medical applications. Nuclear imaging using γ-ray cameras offers the benefits of using small quantities of radioactive tracers that seek specific targets of interest within the body. Here we describe an imaging and spectroscopic modality that combines favourable aspects of both approaches. Spatial information is encoded into the spin orientations of tiny amounts of a polarized radioactive tracer using pulses of both radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation and magnetic-field gradients, as in MRI. However, rather than detecting weak radio-frequency signals, imaging information is obtained through the detection of γ-rays. A single γ-ray detector can be used to acquire an image; no γ-ray camera is needed. We demonstrate the feasibility of our technique by producing images and spectra from a glass cell containing only about 4 × 1013 atoms (about 1 millicurie) of the metastable isomer 131mXe that were polarized using the laser technique of spin-exchange optical pumping. If the cell had instead been filled with water and imaged using conventional MRI, then it would have contained more than 1024 water molecules. The high sensitivity of our modality expands the breadth of applications of magnetic resonance, and could lead to a new class of radioactive tracers.

doi: 10.1038/nature19775

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化学:生体関連有機反応の自己触媒的双安定振動ネットワーク

Autocatalytic, bistable, oscillatory networks of biologically relevant organic reactions p.656

A few-component network of biologically relevant, organic reactions displays bistability and oscillations, without an enzymatic catalyst.

doi: 10.1038/nature19776

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生体触媒:in vivoメタセシス用の人工金属酵素の定方向進化

Directed evolution of artificial metalloenzymes for in vivo metathesis p.661

An artificial metalloenzyme is compartmentalized and evolved in vivo for olefin metathesis—an archetypal organometallic reaction without equivalent in nature; the evolved metathase reveals broad substrate scope and compares favourably with commercial catalysts.

doi: 10.1038/nature19114

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地球力学:カンラン石とダイヤモンド包有物から得られたHIMUの謎を解く新たなカギ

Key new pieces of the HIMU puzzle from olivines and diamond inclusions p.666

Trace-element analyses of olivine phenocrysts and diamond inclusions indicate that carbonatite-metasomatized subcontinental mantle may be the source of the HIMU mantle end-member, as opposed to recycled basaltic oceanic crust.

doi: 10.1038/nature19113

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食料安全保障:小規模農家の強化による中国の収量ギャップの縮小

Closing yield gaps in China by empowering smallholder farmers p.671

The authors report on attempts to increase the yield of smallholder farms in China using ten practices recommended by the Science and Technology Backyard for farming maize and wheat at county level.

doi: 10.1038/nature19368

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神経科学:CHD8のハプロ不全はマウスに自閉症様表現型をもたらす

CHD8 haploinsufficiency results in autistic-like phenotypes in mice p.675

Heterozygous Chd8 mutant mice display autistic-like behaviours and small but global changes in brain gene expression, which are associated with delays in neuronal development.

doi: 10.1038/nature19357

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神経科学:渇きに関わるニューロンは、摂食および飲水が恒常性に及ぼす結果を予期する

Thirst neurons anticipate the homeostatic consequences of eating and drinking p.680

Feedback from the oral cavity to thirst-promoting neurons in the subfornical organ (SFO) during eating and drinking is integrated with information about blood composition, providing a prediction of how oral consumption will affect fluid balance and leading to changes in behaviour.

doi: 10.1038/nature18950

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神経科学:中枢時計で駆動されるバソプレッシン性神経伝達が入眠前の予期的渇きを仲介する

Clock-driven vasopressin neurotransmission mediates anticipatory thirst prior to sleep p.685

Clock neurons projecting from the suprachiasmatic nucleus activate a thirst-related brain area in mice to cause a surge in drinking just before sleep and thereby to prevent dehydration during the sleep period.

doi: 10.1038/nature19756

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環境微生物学:全球的に大量に存在する海洋ウイルスのエコゲノミクスと起こり得る生物地球化学的影響

Ecogenomics and potential biogeochemical impacts of globally abundant ocean viruses p.689

The assembly and analysis of complete genomes and large genomic fragments have tripled the number of known ocean viruses and uncovered the potentially important roles they play in nitrogen and sulfur cycling.

doi: 10.1038/nature19366

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産業微生物学:イソプレノイドの工業生産のために酵母の中心的な炭素代謝経路を書き換える

Rewriting yeast central carbon metabolism for industrial isoprenoid production p.694

Yeast central carbon metabolism has been engineered to achieve a more efficient isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway, an advance that brings commodity-scale production of such compounds a step closer.

doi: 10.1038/nature19769

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計算生物学:混合系譜状態の単一細胞解析で明らかになった二元的な細胞運命選択

Single-cell analysis of mixed-lineage states leading to a binary cell fate choice p.698

Stem cells generate progenitors that transition through a series of dynamically unstable states with mixed-lineage gene expression, culminating in the specification of cell-fate.

doi: 10.1038/nature19348

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