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Editorials

核物理学者Adlène Hicheur氏の強制送還・自宅監禁には多くの疑問点があり、公正な審理が必要だ。

Researchers should join protests over detained scientist p.279

Questions abound over the deportation and subsequent house arrest of a physicist.

doi: 10.1038/537279b

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米国は、他の国々と足並みをそろえ、放射線測定にSI単位を採用すべきだ。

Modernize radiation measurements to save lives p.279

The US refusal to use SI radiation units is confusing and dangerous. It’s time to make the switch.

doi: 10.1038/537279a

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トイレの汚水が、薬物使用の実態把握や捜査に利用され、役立っている。

Using waste water to flush out drug dealers p.280

Assessing the contents of the toilet bowl in the name of crime prevention.

doi: 10.1038/537280a

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News

テロ容疑を掛けられた物理学者のブラジルからフランスへの強制送還に、物理学界から抗議の声が。

Mystery deportation of particle physicist leads to swell of protest p.287

Adlène Hicheur’s ejection from Brazil to France remains unexplained.

doi: 10.1038/537287a

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米国のがん「ムーンショット」計画が目指す、10項目の目標が明らかに。

Cancer experts unveil wishlist for US government ‘moonshot’ p.288

From immunotherapies to diagnostics, an expert panel outlines research goals for broad initiative.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20535

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スウェーデンのカロリンスカ研究所の研究不正問題がノーベル賞選考委員会にも飛び火し、メンバー2人が辞任を。

Medical Nobel prize committee deals with surgical scandal p.289

Panel rocked by investigations into surgeon — but its credibility stays intact.

doi: 10.1038/537289a

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単一種と考えられていたキリンが、4種に分類できることがDNA解析から明らかに。

DNA reveals that giraffes are four species – not one p.290

Finding could alter conservation strategies for long-necked animals.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20567

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エボラウイルスは、回復後も驚くほど長期にわたって体内に残存することが明らかに。

Ebola virus lingers longer than scientists thought p.291

Long-term tracking of people who beat the virus reveal its remarkable longevity in the human body.

doi: 10.1038/537291a

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欧州宇宙機関(ESA)の位置天文衛星ガイアによって、銀河系の最初の立体地図が。

Milky Way mapper: 6 ways the Gaia spacecraft will change astronomy p.292

European mission will shed light on hidden asteroids, the Universe’s expansion and exoplanets.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20569

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News Features

健康:オフィス実験

The office experiment: can science build the perfect workspace? p.294

科学の力で、完璧な仕事場を作ることはできるのだろうか?

doi: 10.1038/537294a

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土壌学:隠れた世界の守り神

Secrets of life in the soil p.298

長年の研究で世界の土壌を知り尽くしている、米国コロラド州立大学の生態学者Diana Wallは、足元に広がるこの豊かな生態系を保護する道を探っている。

doi: 10.1038/537298a

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News & Views

地球科学:地球の組成はとっても普通

Earth science: Extraordinary world p.310

太陽系の進化の初期に形成された天体の同位体組成が、地球のものと似ていることが分かった。これは地球という惑星の化学的独自性を覆すような結果である。

doi: 10.1038/537310a

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進化:まだ成長途中だった四肢動物

Evolution: Teenage tetrapods p.311

四肢を持つ脊椎動物が陸上に移動し始めたのに近い時期の水生四肢動物の骨の解析から、この大量の標本が幼体のものばかりであることが明らかになり、この動物がどのように成長したのかという疑問が生じている。

doi: 10.1038/nature19432

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免疫学:疲弊を免れる細胞傷害性T細胞

Immunology: Cytotoxic T cells that escape exhaustion p.312

免疫系のT細胞は抗ウイルス応答を行うが、応答がうまくいかない場合はウイルス感染が慢性化する。だが、リンパ系免疫組織に存在するT細胞サブセットが慢性感染を抑制できることが今回明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature19428

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ゲノミクス:シロイヌナズナに関する地理学的問題

Genomics: Geography matters for Arabidopsis p.314

1000を超えるシロイヌナズナ(Arabidopsis thaliana)のDNAのゲノム塩基配列、遺伝子発現および分子修飾に関するデータをまとめた、無料公開されているデータベースは、この植物種の複雑な歴史と現在見られるばらつきに関する貴重な情報源となっている。

doi: 10.1038/nature19466

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材料科学:応力下でもクリープしにくい合金

Ageing: Dietary protection for genes p.315

ナノ結晶合金は低温で優れた機械的強度を示すが、高温下でのクリープ、つまり持続応力による変形に対する抵抗性が低い。こうした問題点を克服した合金が今回作製された。

doi: 10.1038/537315a

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老化:食餌制限で遺伝子を守る

Ageing: Dietary protection for genes p.316

多くの生物種で食餌量の制限が寿命を延長することが知られている。ヒトのDNA修復異常のモデルマウスで、こうした食餌制限がDNA損傷を減らし、寿命を延ばすことが今回明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature19427

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Articles

神経科学:青斑核と日常記憶のドーパミン依存的固定化

Locus coeruleus and dopaminergic consolidation of everyday memory p.357

Projections from the locus coeruleus, an area typically defined by noradrenergic signalling, to the hippocampus drive novelty-based memory enhancement through possible co-release of dopamine.

doi: 10.1038/nature19325

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構造生物学:エンドセリンETB受容体のエンドセリン-1による活性化機構

Activation mechanism of endothelin ETB receptor by endothelin-1 p.363

The X-ray crystal structures of human endothelin type B receptor in the ligand-free form and in complex with the endogenous agonist endothelin-1.

doi: 10.1038/nature19319

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エピジェネティクス:RNAのm6Aメチル化はXISTの関与する転写抑制を促進する

m6A RNA methylation promotes XIST-mediated transcriptional repression p.369

The methylation of adenosine residues on the long non-coding RNA XIST is essential for X-chromosome transcriptional repression during female mammalian development.

doi: 10.1038/nature19342

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Letters

宇宙物理学:電波パルスを発する白色矮星の連星

A radio-pulsing white dwarf binary star p.374

Observations of a white dwarf/cool star binary that emits from X-ray to radio wavelengths, AR Sco, reveal a close binary with a 3.56-h period, pulsing in brightness with a period of 1.97 min; these pulses are so intense that the optical flux of AR Sco can increase by a factor of four within 30 s, and the pulsing is detectable at radio frequencies.

doi: 10.1038/nature18620

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材料科学:微細構造が安定なナノ結晶合金の極めて高いクリープ抵抗

Extreme creep resistance in a microstructurally stable nanocrystalline alloy p.378

A nanocrystalline copper–tantalum alloy with high strength and extremely high-temperature creep resistance is achieved via a processing method that creates clusters of atoms within the alloy that pin grain boundaries.

doi: 10.1038/nature19313

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材料科学:電場に誘起される試薬の濃縮による二酸化炭素の電極触媒還元の促進

Enhanced electrocatalytic CO2 reduction via field-induced reagent concentration p.382

Gold and palladium nanoneedle electrocatalysts benefit from field-induced reagent concentration to improve the efficiency of carbon dioxide reduction in the synthesis of carbon-based fuels using renewable electricity.

doi: 10.1038/nature19060

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化学:プロパルギル基およびアリル基の触媒的エナンチオ選択的1,6-共役付加

Catalytic enantioselective 1,6-conjugate additions of propargyl and allyl groups p.387

A difficult synthesis is described that uses an organocopper catalyst and commercially available starting materials to give high yield and the mechanics of the reaction are elucidated through density functional theory.

doi: 10.1038/nature19063

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地球化学:地球の異常な142Nd組成の元素合成的起源

A nucleosynthetic origin for the Earth’s anomalous 142Nd composition p.394

A long-standing paradigm assumes that the chemical and isotopic compositions of many elements in the bulk silicate Earth are the same as in chondrites. However, the accessible Earth has a greater 142Nd/144Nd ratio than do chondrites. Because 142Nd is the decay product of the now-extinct 146Sm (which has a half-life of 103 million years), this 142Nd difference seems to require a higher-than-chondritic Sm/Nd ratio for the accessible Earth. This must have been acquired during global silicate differentiation within the first 30 million years of Solar System formation and implies the formation of a complementary 142Nd-depleted reservoir that either is hidden in the deep Earth, or lost to space by impact erosion. Whether this complementary reservoir existed, and whether or not it has been lost from Earth, is a matter of debate, and has implications for determining the bulk composition of Earth, its heat content and structure, as well as for constraining the modes and timescales of its geodynamical evolution. Here we show that, compared with chondrites, Earth’s precursor bodies were enriched in neodymium that was produced by the slow neutron capture process (s-process) of nucleosynthesis. This s-process excess leads to higher 142Nd/144Nd ratios; after correction for this effect, the 142Nd/144Nd ratios of chondrites and the accessible Earth are indistinguishable within five parts per million. The 142Nd offset between the accessible silicate Earth and chondrites therefore reflects a higher proportion of s-process neodymium in the Earth, and not early differentiation processes. As such, our results obviate the need for hidden-reservoir or super-chondritic Earth models and imply a chondritic Sm/Nd ratio for the bulk Earth. Although chondrites formed at greater heliocentric distances and contain a different mix of presolar components than Earth, they nevertheless are suitable proxies for Earth’s bulk chemical composition.

doi: 10.1038/nature18956

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地球化学:共通の初期142Nd存在度を共有した原始太陽系物質と地球

Primitive Solar System materials and Earth share a common initial 142Nd abundance p.399

The early evolution of planetesimals and planets can be constrained using variations in the abundance of neodymium-142 (142Nd), which arise from the initial distribution of 142Nd within the protoplanetary disk and the radioactive decay of the short-lived samarium-146 isotope (146Sm). The apparent offset in 142Nd abundance found previously between chondritic meteorites and Earth has been interpreted either as a possible consequence of nucleosynthetic variations within the protoplanetary disk or as a function of the differentiation of Earth very early in its history. Here we report high-precision Sm and Nd stable and radiogenic isotopic compositions of four calcium–aluminium-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) from three CV-type carbonaceous chondrites, and of three whole-rock samples of unequilibrated enstatite chondrites. The CAIs, which are the first solids formed by condensation from the nebular gas, provide the best constraints for the isotopic evolution of the early Solar System. Using the mineral isochron method for individual CAIs, we find that CAIs without isotopic anomalies in Nd compared to the terrestrial composition share a 146Sm/144Sm–142Nd/144Nd isotopic evolution with Earth. The average 142Nd/144Nd composition for pristine enstatite chondrites that we calculate coincides with that of the accessible silicate layers of Earth. This relationship between CAIs, enstatite chondrites and Earth can only be a result of Earth having inherited the same initial abundance of 142Nd and chondritic proportions of Sm and Nd. Consequently, 142Nd isotopic heterogeneities found in other CAIs and among chondrite groups may arise from extrasolar grains that were present in the disk and incorporated in different proportions into these planetary objects. Our finding supports a chondritic Sm/Nd ratio for the bulk silicate Earth and, as a consequence, chondritic abundances for other refractory elements. It also removes the need for a hidden reservoir or for collisional erosion scenarios to explain the 142Nd/144Nd composition of Earth.

doi: 10.1038/nature19351

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行動生態学:ハワイガラスの種規模での道具使用の発見

Discovery of species-wide tool use in the Hawaiian crow p.403

A species-wide study shows that the Hawaiian crow Corvus hawaiiensis is a highly proficient tool user, creating opportunities for comparative studies with tool-using New Caledonian crows and other corvids.

doi: 10.1038/nature19103

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進化学:シンクロトロン・マイクロトモグラフィーによって明らかになった、ステム群四肢類アカンソステガの生活史

Life history of the stem tetrapod Acanthostega revealed by synchrotron microtomography p.408

Analysis of fossil limb bones suggests that a mass-death deposit of the Devonian tetrapod Acanthostega may consist entirely of juveniles, throwing new light on the life history of this species and the evolution of terrestriality.

doi: 10.1038/nature19354

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免疫学:濾胞CXCR5発現CD8+ T細胞は慢性ウイルス感染を減弱させる

Follicular CXCR5-expressing CD8+ T cells curtail chronic viral infection p.412

During chronic viral infection, virus-specific CD8+ T cells become exhausted, exhibit poor effector function and lose memory potential. However, exhausted CD8+ T cells can still contain viral replication in chronic infections, although the mechanism of this containment is largely unknown. Here we show that a subset of exhausted CD8+ T cells expressing the chemokine receptor CXCR5 has a critical role in the control of viral replication in mice that were chronically infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). These CXCR5+ CD8+ T cells were able to migrate into B-cell follicles, expressed lower levels of inhibitory receptors and exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than the CXCR5+ subset. Furthermore, we identified the Id2–E2A signalling axis as an important regulator of the generation of this subset. In patients with HIV, we also identified a virus-specific CXCR5+ CD8+ T-cell subset, and its number was inversely correlated with viral load. The CXCR5+ subset showed greater therapeutic potential than the CXCR5+ subset when adoptively transferred to chronically infected mice, and exhibited synergistic reduction of viral load when combined with anti-PD-L1 treatment. This study defines a unique subset of exhausted CD8+ T cells that has a pivotal role in the control of viral replication during chronic viral infection.

doi: 10.1038/nature19317

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免疫学:PD-1療法後に急激に増殖するCD8+ T細胞の特徴付け

Defining CD8+ T cells that provide the proliferative burst after PD-1 therapy p.417

Chronic viral infections are characterized by a state of CD8+ T-cell dysfunction that is associated with expression of the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitory receptor. A better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate CD8+ T-cell responses during chronic infection is required to improve immunotherapies that restore function in exhausted CD8+ T cells. Here we identify a population of virus-specific CD8+ T cells that proliferate after blockade of the PD-1 inhibitory pathway in mice chronically infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). These LCMV-specific CD8+ T cells expressed the PD-1 inhibitory receptor, but also expressed several costimulatory molecules such as ICOS and CD28. This CD8+ T-cell subset was characterized by a unique gene signature that was related to that of CD4+ T follicular helper (TFH) cells, CD8+ T cell memory precursors and haematopoietic stem cell progenitors, but that was distinct from that of CD4+ TH1 cells and CD8+ terminal effectors. This CD8+ T-cell population was found only in lymphoid tissues and resided predominantly in the T-cell zones along with naive CD8+ T cells. These PD-1+CD8+ T cells resembled stem cells during chronic LCMV infection, undergoing self-renewal and also differentiating into the terminally exhausted CD8+ T cells that were present in both lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues. The proliferative burst after PD-1 blockade came almost exclusively from this CD8+ T-cell subset. Notably, the transcription factor TCF1 had a cell-intrinsic and essential role in the generation of this CD8+ T-cell subset. These findings provide a better understanding of T-cell exhaustion and have implications in the optimization of PD-1-directed immunotherapy in chronic infections and cancer.

doi: 10.1038/nature19330

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がん:PGC1αを介した転写軸は黒色腫の転移を抑制する

A PGC1α-mediated transcriptional axis suppresses melanoma metastasis p.422

Melanoma is the deadliest form of commonly encountered skin cancer because of its rapid progression towards metastasis. Although metabolic reprogramming is tightly associated with tumour progression, the effect of metabolic regulatory circuits on metastatic processes is poorly understood. PGC1α is a transcriptional coactivator that promotes mitochondrial biogenesis, protects against oxidative stress and reprograms melanoma metabolism to influence drug sensitivity and survival. Here, we provide data indicating that PGC1α suppresses melanoma metastasis, acting through a pathway distinct from that of its bioenergetic functions. Elevated PGC1α expression inversely correlates with vertical growth in human melanoma specimens. PGC1α silencing makes poorly metastatic melanoma cells highly invasive and, conversely, PGC1α reconstitution suppresses metastasis. Within populations of melanoma cells, there is a marked heterogeneity in PGC1α levels, which predicts their inherent high or low metastatic capacity. Mechanistically, PGC1α directly increases transcription of ID2, which in turn binds to and inactivates the transcription factor TCF4. Inactive TCF4 causes downregulation of metastasis-related genes, including integrins that are known to influence invasion and metastasis. Inhibition of BRAFV600E using vemurafenib, independently of its cytostatic effects, suppresses metastasis by acting on the PGC1α–ID2–TCF4–integrin axis. Together, our findings reveal that PGC1α maintains mitochondrial energetic metabolism and suppresses metastasis through direct regulation of parallel acting transcriptional programs. Consequently, components of these circuits define new therapeutic opportunities that may help to curb melanoma metastasis.

doi: 10.1038/nature19347

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老化:DNA修復不全マウスで、食餌制限が早期老化とゲノムストレスを遅延させる

Restricted diet delays accelerated ageing and genomic stress in DNA-repair-deficient mice p.427

A restricted diet extends the lives and improves the health of mice with accelerated ageing due to an inability to repair DNA damage.

doi: 10.1038/nature19329

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