目次

Editorials

「ポケモンGO」が世界各地でブームを巻き起こしているが、このブームは、新しい生物種の発見や記載にも影響を及ぼすのだろうか?

Gotta name them all: how Pokémon can transform taxonomy p.323

Scientists are urging Pokémon Go fanatics to keep an eye out for new species.

doi: 10.1038/535323b

ノーベル賞級の科学研究では中心的人物に目が行きやすいが、その影には実作業をする多くの大学院生や研究者がいることを忘れてはならない。

Reward the forgotten foot soldiers of science p.323

The story of CRISPR–Cas9 gene editing has tended to focus on a few key players. But, as with any area of basic research, it takes a small army of talented researchers to make a discovery.

doi: 10.1038/535323a

自転車の速度と安全性の向上に、科学が役立つ可能性がある。

Time for physics to make its mark on cycling p.324

Basic bike design has been unchanged for a century — but science is finally finding out how to make bicycles better.

doi: 10.1038/535324a

News

EU離脱の決まった英国のTheresa May新政権の省庁再編では、科学にも影響が。

Science’s status shifts in new Brexit government p.331

Reshuffled UK administration signals change for research and science policy.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20264

緊縮財政が続いたギリシャに、欧州投資銀行からの融資による初めての科学機関が。

First Greek science agency is rare source of joy for beleaguered researchers p.333

European Investment Bank provides surprise loan to halt startling brain drain.

doi: 10.1038/535333a

南シナ海をめぐる緊張が高まっており、生態系が脅かされる恐れも。

South China Sea ruling sparks conservation fears p.334

Court decision escalates tensions in ecologically sensitive region, but may also push nations to cooperate.

doi: 10.1038/535334a

南アフリカのHIV感染を拡大する社会的要因が、遺伝学研究から明らかに。

Older men and young women drive South African HIV epidemic p.335

Genetics study confirms social cycle that helps infection to spread.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20273

政治的・経済的な状況が悪化の一途をたどるベネズエラでの、科学の実情とは。

Science under siege: how Venezuela’s economic crisis is affecting researchers p.336

Chemist Claudio Bifano tells Nature about daily life in a country gripped by hunger, scarcity and violence.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20261

藻類が、グリーンランドの氷床の融解を加速することが判明。

Algae are melting away the Greenland ice sheet p.336

'Black and Bloom' project explores how microorganisms help to determine the pace of Arctic melting.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20265

News Features

サイクリング:2つの車輪の物理学

The bicycle problem that nearly broke mathematics p.338

自転車を愛し自転車と共に過ごしてきた技術者Jim Papadopoulosの、自転車の走る仕組みに関する数学的研究が、今、注目を集めている。

doi: 10.1038/535338a

技術:CRISPRの影のヒーロー

The unsung heroes of CRISPR p.342

遺伝子編集技術の需要がますます高まり、開発の中心になった研究者はすっかり有名になったが、それを支えた大学院生やポスドクたちは見過ごされがちである。

doi: 10.1038/535342a

News & Views

気候科学:南極での寒冷化

Climate science: Cooling in the Antarctic p.358

南極半島はここ数十年にわたって温暖化してきたが、今回行われた解析では、1990年代後半からは寒冷化していることが示されている。寒冷化に関係する要因が調べられ、これが自然変動と一致して起こっていることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/535358a

分子生物学:RNAの意外な起源

Molecular biology: A surprise beginning for RNA p.359

補酵素と呼ばれる有機分子類は代謝で重要な役割を果たしているが、細菌のRNAの成分としても働いていることが知られている。今回、補酵素がRNAに組み込まれる仕組みが明らかにされた。

doi: 10.1038/nature18908

保全:漁業からサンゴ礁について学ぶ

Conservation: Fishing for lessons on coral reefs p.361

サンゴ礁についての世界的規模の研究で、魚類のバイオマスが人間や環境による圧から予想される量より大きいサンゴ礁が見つかった。このような想定外の値を示すサンゴ礁からは、サンゴ礁の持続可能な管理法について学べることがありそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/535361a

物性物理学:ナノ工学で示された「引きつけ合う」電子

Condensed-matter physics: Attractive electrons from nanoengineering p.362

電子は負電荷を持つために互いに反発し合う。今回、他の電子からの反発力を受けた結果、電子同士が引きつけ合うことがあるという50年前からの説が、実験によって確証された。

doi: 10.1038/535362a

生物地球化学:夜に沼気が逃げ出す道

Biogeochemistry: Nocturnal escape route for marsh gas p.363

湿地からのメタン放出についての野外研究によって、予想されたよりも大量のガスが拡散過程によって逸出していて、それは主に夜間に起こっていることが明らかになった。メタンは温室効果ガスであることから、この知見は地球温暖化に関係してくる。

doi: 10.1038/535363a

生理学:膵臓β細胞の不均一性を再考する

Physiology: Pancreatic β-cell heterogeneity revisited p.365

インスリンを産生するβ細胞に関する2つの研究から、長らく均一と見なされてきたこの細胞集団にばらつきがあることが明らかになった。このようなばらつきは細胞の成熟あるいは老化の間に起こった変化を反映しているらしい。

doi: 10.1038/nature18907

Articles

神経科学:霊長類脳発達の包括的転写地図

A comprehensive transcriptional map of primate brain development p.367

A high-resolution gene expression atlas of prenatal and postnatal brain development of rhesus monkey charts global transcriptional dynamics in relation to brain maturation, while comparative analysis reveals human-specific gene trajectories; candidate risk genes associated with human neurodevelopmental disorders tend to be co-expressed in disease-specific patterns in the developing monkey neocortex.

doi: 10.1038/nature18637

マイクロバイオーム:ヒト腸内細菌は宿主の血清メタボロームとインスリン感受性に影響を及ぼす

Human gut microbes impact host serum metabolome and insulin sensitivity p.376

Increased potential for branched-chain amino acid and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in the gut microbiome of insulin-resistant individuals suggests that changes in the serum metabolome induced by dysbiosis, and driven by only a handful of species, contribute to the development of diabetes.

doi: 10.1038/nature18646

がん治療:BRCA欠損細胞では複製フォークの安定性が化学療法抵抗性をもたらす

Replication fork stability confers chemoresistance in BRCA-deficient cells p.382

Protection of nascent DNA from degradation provides a mechanism that can promote synthetic viability and drug resistance in Brca-deficient cells without restoring homologous recombination at double-strand breaks.

doi: 10.1038/nature18325

Letters

高エネルギー宇宙物理学:潮汐破壊事象の降着流における相対論的な反響

Relativistic reverberation in the accretion flow of a tidal disruption event p.388

Observations of reverberation arising from gravitationally redshifted iron Kα photons reflected off the inner accretion flow in a tidal disruption event demonstrate that X-rays originate from a region very close to the central black hole and not from a relativistic jet, as previously thought.

doi: 10.1038/nature18007

惑星科学:月の非放射状インブリウムスカルプチャーの起源とその意味

Origin and implications of non-radial Imbrium Sculpture on the Moon p.391

The widespread rimmed grooves, lineations and elongate craters extending from the Imbrium impact basin on the Moon, termed the Imbrium Sculpture, includes a non-radial component that is used to infer that the Imbrium impactor was the size of a proto-planet—about half the diameter of Vesta.

doi: 10.1038/nature18278

材料科学:クーロン斥力が媒介する電子引力

Electron attraction mediated by Coulomb repulsion p.395

Experimental demonstration of excitonic attraction between two electrons is achieved in quantum devices made from carbon nanotubes, where the interaction between two electrons is reversed from repulsive to attractive owing to their strong Coulomb interaction with another electronic system.

doi: 10.1038/nature18639

DNAナノテクノロジー:DNA折り紙の精密配置によるナノ共振器発光の設計とマッピング

Engineering and mapping nanocavity emission via precision placement of DNA origami p.401

The incorporation of large numbers of chemically diverse functional components into microfabricated structures at precise locations is challenging; now the precision placement of DNA origami by directed self-assembly is shown to overcome this problem for the purpose of reliably and controllably coupling molecular emitters to photonic crystal cavities.

doi: 10.1038/nature18287

化学:電子-プロトン移動メディエーターを用いる協同的な電極触媒的アルコール酸化

Cooperative electrocatalytic alcohol oxidation with electron-proton-transfer mediators p.406

A co-catalyst system for electrochemical alcohol oxidation composed of a bipyridine copper catalyst and an electron-proton-transfer mediator called TEMPO operates at much lower potential and is faster than TEMPO alone.

doi: 10.1038/nature18008

気候科学:自然変動と一致する温暖化していない21世紀の南極半島

Absence of 21st century warming on Antarctic Peninsula consistent with natural variability p.411

Here it is shown that the late twentieth century warming trends in the Antarctic Peninsula have ceased, with the Peninsula having instead been cooling for most of the twenty-first century, underscoring the considerable internal variability within the Antarctic climate system.

doi: 10.1038/nature18645

熱帯生態学:世界のサンゴ礁のブライトスポット

Bright spots among the world’s coral reefs p.416

Data from over 2,500 reefs worldwide is used to identify 15 bright spots—sites where reef biomass is significantly higher than expected—and surveys of local experts in these areas suggest that strong sociocultural institutions and high levels of local engagement are among the factors supporting higher fish biomass.

doi: 10.1038/nature18607

神経科学:恐怖行動を時間的に制御する前頭前野ニューロン集団

Prefrontal neuronal assemblies temporally control fear behaviour p.420

Precise spike timing through the coordination and synchronization of neuronal assemblies is an efficient and flexible coding mechanism for sensory and cognitive processing. In cortical and subcortical areas, the formation of cell assemblies critically depends on neuronal oscillations, which can precisely control the timing of spiking activity. Whereas this form of coding has been described for sensory processing and spatial learning, its role in encoding emotional behaviour remains unknown. Fear behaviour relies on the activation of distributed structures, among which the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) is known to be critical for fear memory expression. In the dmPFC, the phasic activation of neurons to threat-predicting cues, a spike-rate coding mechanism, correlates with conditioned fear responses and supports the discrimination between aversive and neutral stimuli. However, this mechanism does not account for freezing observed outside stimuli presentations, and the contribution of a general spike-time coding mechanism for freezing in the dmPFC remains to be established. Here we use a combination of single-unit and local field potential recordings along with optogenetic manipulations to show that, in the dmPFC, expression of conditioned fear is causally related to the organization of neurons into functional assemblies. During fear behaviour, the development of 4 Hz oscillations coincides with the activation of assemblies nested in the ascending phase of the oscillation. The selective optogenetic inhibition of dmPFC neurons during the ascending or descending phases of this oscillation blocks and promotes conditioned fear responses, respectively. These results identify a novel phase-specific coding mechanism, which dynamically regulates the development of dmPFC assemblies to control the precise timing of fear responses.

doi: 10.1038/nature18630

神経免疫学:ニューロンの結合性と社会的行動の調節におけるインターフェロンγの予想外の役割

Unexpected role of interferon-γ in regulating neuronal connectivity and social behaviour p.425

Immune dysfunction is commonly associated with several neurological and mental disorders. Although the mechanisms by which peripheral immunity may influence neuronal function are largely unknown, recent findings implicate meningeal immunity influencing behaviour, such as spatial learning and memory. Here we show that meningeal immunity is also critical for social behaviour; mice deficient in adaptive immunity exhibit social deficits and hyper-connectivity of fronto-cortical brain regions. Associations between rodent transcriptomes from brain and cellular transcriptomes in response to T-cell-derived cytokines suggest a strong interaction between social behaviour and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-driven responses. Concordantly, we demonstrate that inhibitory neurons respond to IFN-γ and increase GABAergic (γ-aminobutyric-acid) currents in projection neurons, suggesting that IFN-γ is a molecular link between meningeal immunity and neural circuits recruited for social behaviour. Meta-analysis of the transcriptomes of a range of organisms reveals that rodents, fish, and flies elevate IFN-γ/JAK-STAT-dependent gene signatures in a social context, suggesting that the IFN-γ signalling pathway could mediate a co-evolutionary link between social/aggregation behaviour and an efficient anti-pathogen response. This study implicates adaptive immune dysfunction, in particular IFN-γ, in disorders characterized by social dysfunction and suggests a co-evolutionary link between social behaviour and an anti-pathogen immune response driven by IFN-γ signalling.

doi: 10.1038/nature18626

細胞生物学:ランゲルハンス島で増殖型と成熟型のβ細胞を見分ける

Identification of proliferative and mature β-cells in the islets of Langerhans p.430

Insulin-dependent diabetes is a complex multifactorial disorder characterized by loss or dysfunction of β-cells. Pancreatic β-cells differ in size, glucose responsiveness, insulin secretion and precursor cell potential; understanding the mechanisms that underlie this functional heterogeneity might make it possible to develop new regenerative approaches. Here we show that Fltp (also known as Flattop and Cfap126), a Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) effector and reporter gene, acts as a marker gene that subdivides endocrine cells into two subpopulations and distinguishes proliferation-competent from mature β-cells with distinct molecular, physiological and ultrastructural features. Genetic lineage tracing revealed that endocrine subpopulations from Fltp-negative and -positive lineages react differently to physiological and pathological changes. The expression of Fltp increases when endocrine cells cluster together to form polarized and mature 3D islet mini-organs. We show that 3D architecture and Wnt/PCP ligands are sufficient to trigger β-cell maturation. By contrast, the Wnt/PCP effector Fltp is not necessary for β-cell development, proliferation or maturation. We conclude that 3D architecture and Wnt/PCP signalling underlie functional β-cell heterogeneity and induce β-cell maturation. The identification of Fltp as a marker for endocrine subpopulations sheds light on the molecular underpinnings of islet cell heterogeneity and plasticity and might enable targeting of endocrine subpopulations for the regeneration of functional β-cell mass in diabetic patients.

doi: 10.1038/nature18624

マイクロバイオーム:ヒトマイクロバイオーム内の可動性遺伝子は全球規模から個人規模まで構造化されている

Mobile genes in the human microbiome are structured from global to individual scales p.435

Mobile genes, which can be transferred between bacterial species in the microbiome to impart properties such as antibiotic resistance, are reflective of human activity and local diets.

doi: 10.1038/nature18927

免疫学:グリア細胞由来の神経調節因子は3型自然リンパ球と腸の防御を支配する

Glial-cell-derived neuroregulators control type 3 innate lymphoid cells and gut defence p.440

Neurotrophic factors produced by enteric glia in response to microbiota and alarmin cues regulate IL-22 production by group 3 innate lymphoid cells in the gut; disruption of this pathway leads to impaired clearance of Citrobacter rodentium and defects in epithelial integrity in a model of intestinal inflammation.

doi: 10.1038/nature18644

構造生物学:NAD+、NADHおよびデホスホCoAによるRNAの5′キャップ形成機構

The mechanism of RNA 5′ capping with NAD+, NADH and desphospho-CoA p.444

The chemical nature of the 5′ end of RNA is a key determinant of RNA stability, processing, localization and translation efficiency, and has been proposed to provide a layer of ‘epitranscriptomic’ gene regulation. Recently it has been shown that some bacterial RNA species carry a 5′-end structure reminiscent of the 5′ 7-methylguanylate ‘cap’ in eukaryotic RNA. In particular, RNA species containing a 5′-end nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) or 3′-desphospho-coenzyme A (dpCoA) have been identified in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. It has been proposed that NAD+, reduced NAD+ (NADH) and dpCoA caps are added to RNA after transcription initiation, in a manner analogous to the addition of 7-methylguanylate caps. Here we show instead that NAD+, NADH and dpCoA are incorporated into RNA during transcription initiation, by serving as non-canonical initiating nucleotides (NCINs) for de novo transcription initiation by cellular RNA polymerase (RNAP). We further show that both bacterial RNAP and eukaryotic RNAP II incorporate NCIN caps, that promoter DNA sequences at and upstream of the transcription start site determine the efficiency of NCIN capping, that NCIN capping occurs in vivo, and that NCIN capping has functional consequences. We report crystal structures of transcription initiation complexes containing NCIN-capped RNA products. Our results define the mechanism and structural basis of NCIN capping, and suggest that NCIN-mediated ‘ab initio capping’ may occur in all organisms.

doi: 10.1038/nature18622

構造生物学:アロステリックナノボディによって明らかになった、Gタンパク質共役受容体活性化のダイナミックレンジと多様な機構

Allosteric nanobodies reveal the dynamic range and diverse mechanisms of G-protein-coupled receptor activation p.448

Stabilization of an active and inactive conformation of the β2-adrenergic receptor by allosteric nanobodies reveals differential ligand-dependent regulation of receptor states to control G-protein-coupled receptor activation.

doi: 10.1038/nature18636

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