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Editorials

米国は、GM作物やその関連技術に関する問題について、科学的な議論を進めるべきだ。

Researchers and policymakers are now free to tackle the most-pressing GM issues p.199

A US Senate decision on labelling genetically modified foods paves the way for a redirection of resources.

doi: 10.1038/535199a

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心地良い和音や不協和音など音に関する認識は、文化によって違うらしい。

The people who don’t get ‘Eleanor Rigby’ p.199

Happy music and sad sounds are not universal.

doi: 10.1038/535199b

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痛みを測定する信頼性の高い方法の開発は、痛みを生み出すことより難しい。

Fifty shades of pain p.200

Measuring hurt is harder than inflicting it.

doi: 10.1038/535200a

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News

南アフリカの大学が、政治的混乱と予算問題で、研究活動の危機に。

South Africa’s political turmoil endangers research p.207

Economic instability and campus violence have thrown labs into crisis.

doi: 10.1038/535207a

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携帯電話の電波が、気象衛星からのデータ通信に悪影響を。

Mobile-phone expansion could disrupt key weather satellites p.208

The US government is considering a plan to allow wireless firms to share radio frequencies used in weather forecasts.

doi: 10.1038/535208a

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アレン脳科学研究所がマウス視覚野を調べた膨大のデータを公開し、脳研究の貴重な試料に。

Brain-data gold mine could reveal how neurons compute p.209

Allen Brain Observatory releases unprecedented survey of activity in the mouse visual cortex.

doi: 10.1038/535209a

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主要な科学雑誌や学界が、インパクトファクターの使われ方について批判を。

Beat it, impact factor! Publishing elite turns against controversial metric p.210

Senior staff at leading journals want to end inappropriate use of the measure.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20224

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ドイツが、再生可能エネルギーの効率的活用のために、太陽光・風力による発電量の予測を。

Germany’s renewable revolution awaits energy forecast p.212

Poster-child for renewables strives to make wind and solar power more grid-friendly.

doi: 10.1038/535212a

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男性研究者は、女性研究者に比べて自己引用率が高い傾向が。

Men cite themselves more than women do p.212

The apparent trend has been on the rise over the past two decades.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.20176

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News Features

エイズ:HIVの新時代

South Africa ushers in a new era for HIV p.214

南アフリカが実施してきた世界最大規模の抗HIVプログラムが、抗レトロウイルス薬の効果を長期的に検証できる貴重な機会となっている。

doi: 10.1038/535214a

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古生物学:忘れられた大陸

How China is rewriting the book on human origins p.218

中国で発見された化石によって、現生人類の進化に関する見方が変わりつつある。

doi: 10.1038/535218a

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News & Views

細胞分裂:染色体がくっつくという大問題

Cell division: A sticky problem for chromosomes p.234

有糸細胞分裂の際にKi-67が果たす役割はこれまで謎だった。詳細な画像化を行った結果、陽電荷を多数持つこのタンパク質が染色体を覆い、崩れてひとかたまりにならないようにしていることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature18904

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材料科学:磁気を帯びたナノ粒子が整列

Materials science: Magnetic nanoparticles line up p.235

細菌の中には磁性を帯びたナノ粒子からなるひもを含むものがあり、このような細菌はそのため、磁場に沿って整列する。天然に存在するこのような構造からヒントを得て、こうした粒子の合成一次元アレイが作られた。

doi: 10.1038/535235a

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生物季節学:気候変動と種の間の相互作用

Phenology: Interactions of climate change and species p.236

さまざまな種にわたって見られる季節生物学的事象が気候変動に感受性を示すのは1年の内のどの時期で、どの程度の感受性が見られるのだろうか。このような疑問に対する答えが大量の長期間データセットの解析から得られた。

doi: 10.1038/nature18905

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宇宙物理学:スノーラインの変動は惑星形成に影響する

Astrophysics: Variable snow lines affect planet formation p.237

生まれてすぐの恒星を取り囲む、塵とガスからなる円盤の観測から、円盤内の水が氷となる恒星からの距離であるスノーラインが変動することが分かった。この変動は惑星形成を妨害している可能性がある。

doi: 10.1038/535237a

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計測学:シュレーディンガーの猫が量子限界を打ち破る

Metrology: Schrödinger's cat beats a quantum limit p.238

量子効果は、さまざまな量を計測する装置に使われてきたが、電場の計測に使われたことはなかった。今回、電位計の感度が、量子重ね合わせ現象を使うことで改良された。

doi: 10.1038/535238a

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Articles

気候変動生態学:広範なタクソンおよび栄養段階における気候への生物季節学的感受性

Phenological sensitivity to climate across taxa and trophic levels p.241

An ambitious study has used more than 10,000 datasets to examine how the phenological characteristics—such as the timing of reproduction—of various taxa alter in response to climate change, and suggests that differing levels of climate sensitivity could lead to the desynchronization of seasonal events over time.

doi: 10.1038/nature18608

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がん:神経芽細胞腫でlet-7マイクロRNAファミリーを妨げる複数の機構

Multiple mechanisms disrupt the let-7 microRNA family in neuroblastoma p.246

Disparate modes of suppression of the let-7 microRNA family are selectively and inversely related in neuroblastoma.

doi: 10.1038/nature18632

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創薬:新たなセレブロンモジュレーターはGSPT1をCRL4CRBN ユビキチンリガーゼに動員する

A novel cereblon modulator recruits GSPT1 to the CRL4CRBN ubiquitin ligase p.252

This paper reports the identification of a new cereblon-modulating agent, CC-885, which targets the translation termination factor GSPT1 and demonstrates anti-tumour activity in patient-derived tumour cells; the crystal structure of the cereblon–DDB1–GSPT1–CC-885 complex reveals a common motif for cereblon-substrate recruitment.

doi: 10.1038/nature18611

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

Letters

惑星科学:原始星のアウトバースト中での水のスノーラインの撮像

Imaging the water snow-line during a protostellar outburst p.258

The snow-line is the distance from a protostar at which a particular volatile gas condenses; images of the protostar V883 Ori suggest that the water snow-line migrated outwards during a protostellar outburst, with implications for our understanding of the formation of planetary systems such as our own.

doi: 10.1038/nature18612

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量子計測学:シュレーディンガーの猫状態のリュードベリ原子に基づく感度の高い電位計

A sensitive electrometer based on a Rydberg atom in a Schrödinger-cat state p.262

A highly sensitive electrometer is reported that is based on a Schrödinger-cat state in a Rydberg atom, that reaches a sensitivity beyond the standard quantum limit and can compete with state-of-the-art electric field measurements performed using electromechanical resonators and single-electron transistors.

doi: 10.1038/nature18327

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物性物理学:ディラック半金属Cd3As2におけるフェルミアークが媒介するカイラリティ移動を示す輸送上の証拠

Transport evidence for Fermi-arc-mediated chirality transfer in the Dirac semimetal Cd3As2 p.266

Electronic transport measurements in a magnetic field on the topological Dirac semimetal Cd3As2 identify the predicted Weyl orbits that weave Fermi arcs and bulk states together; the Weyl orbits enable transfer of chirality from one node to another, and open up the possibility of controlling topological properties electronically.

doi: 10.1038/nature18276

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ナノスケール材料:自発的な自己引き裂きと基板からの自己剥離によるグラフェンリボンの自己組織化

Self-assembly of graphene ribbons by spontaneous self-tearing and peeling from a substrate p.271

The controllable self-assembly of graphene ribbons on a substrate is shown, demonstrating an effect which could be applied to patterning and actuating devices made from two-dimensional materials.

doi: 10.1038/nature18304

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地球物理学:大洋中央海嶺の地震活動が明らかにした海洋リソスフェアの極端な型

Mid-ocean-ridge seismicity reveals extreme types of ocean lithosphere p.276

The structure and accretion modes of two end-member types of oceanic lithosphere are described using a detailed seismicity survey along 390 kilometres of an ultraslow ridge axis, indicating deeper seismicity in amagmatic regions and explaining the uneven crustal production at ultraslow-spreading ridges.

doi: 10.1038/nature18277

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神経発生学:チョウの色覚を豊かにした3通りの確率的選択を支える分子機構

Molecular logic behind the three-way stochastic choices that expand butterfly colour vision p.280

Butterflies diversify their retinal mosaics by producing three stochastic types of ommatidia instead of the two types found in Drosophila; this study shows that butterfly retinas use two R7-like photoreceptors per ommatidium that each make an independent stochastic decision to express the transcription factor Spineless, which controls photoreceptor and ommatidial fate.

doi: 10.1038/nature18616

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認知神経科学:霊長類の背側経路での意思決定関連活動の機能的意義の区別

Dissociated functional significance of decision-related activity in the primate dorsal stream p.285

Activity in regions of the brain have been correlated with decision making but determining whether such relationships are correlative or causative has been challenging; using a technique to reversibly inactivate brain areas in monkeys reveals that although there is decision-related activity in the lateral intraparietal (LIP) area, LIP is not critical for the perceptual decisions studied here.

doi: 10.1038/nature18617

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発生生物学:単一細胞発現プロファイリングから初期中胚葉の多様化を読み解く

Resolving early mesoderm diversification through single-cell expression profiling p.289

Analysis of the transcriptome of more than 1,200 cells from gastrulating mouse embryos using single-cell sequencing, gathering unexpected insights into early mesoderm formation during gastrulation.

doi: 10.1038/nature18633

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発生生物学:clocheはbHLH-PAS転写因子であり、血球-血管の運命指定を進める

Cloche is a bHLH-PAS transcription factor that drives haemato-vascular specification p.294

The zebrafish cloche gene is required for the formation of most endothelial and haematopoietic cells, however, it has been difficult to isolate; this study reveals that cloche encodes a PAS-domain-containing bHLH transcription factor, and a mammalian orthologue can partially rescue cloche mutants, indicating a possible conserved role in mammals.

doi: 10.1038/nature18614

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幹細胞:骨髄細胞系譜の初期選択はタンパク質PU.1とGATA1のランダムな比率で開始されるわけではない

Early myeloid lineage choice is not initiated by random PU.1 to GATA1 protein ratios p.299

Live imaging and single-cell analyses are used to show that decision-making by differentiating haematopoietic stem cells between the megakaryocytic–erythroid and granulocytic–monocytic lineages is not initiated by stochastic switching between the lineage-specific transcription factors PU.1 and GATA1, which challenges the previous model of early myeloid lineage choice.

doi: 10.1038/nature18320

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分子生物学:TTC39B欠損はLXRを安定化することでアテローム性動脈硬化と脂肪性肝炎の両方を減少させる

TTC39B deficiency stabilizes LXR reducing both atherosclerosis and steatohepatitis p.303

In mice, deficiency in the high-density lipoprotein gene T39 stabilizes liver X receptor (LXR), reducing both atherosclerosis and steatohepatitis, suggesting that T39 inhibition could be an effective strategy for reducing these diseases.

doi: 10.1038/nature18628

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細胞生物学:Ki-67は有糸分裂染色体を分散させる生物学的界面活性剤として働く

Ki-67 acts as a biological surfactant to disperse mitotic chromosomes p.308

During cell division, chromosomes are maintained as individual units; this process is shown to be mediated by the cell proliferation marker Ki-67, which has biophysical properties similar to those of surfactants.

doi: 10.1038/nature18610

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