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Editorials

現代社会の多様な問題に対処するには学際的研究が不可欠であり、こうした研究をもっと支援する必要がある。

The big picture p.589

Problems of modern society demand collaborative research.

doi: 10.1038/534589b

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英国のEU離脱という結果が出た今、科学者たちも皆、今後何が起こるのかほとんど分かっていない。

Non-expert nation p.589

Scientists — just like everybody else — have little idea what will happen now that the United Kingdom has voted to exit the European Union.

doi: 10.1038/534589a

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遺伝子治療の臨床試験は、危険性を十分考慮した上で、前に進めていかなければならない。

Calculated risks p.590

The perils of the past must not be allowed to happen again

doi: 10.1038/534590a

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News

英国のEU離脱の衝撃で、科学者たちが大混乱を。

UK scientists in limbo after Brexit shock p.597

Researchers organize to lobby for science as country prepares for life outside the EU.

doi: 10.1038/534597a

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NASAの探査機ジュノーが、間もなく木星の軌道へ。

NASA’s Juno spacecraft prepares to probe Jupiter’s mysteries p.599

The mission will peek through the gas giant’s swirling clouds in search of a planetary core.

doi: 10.1038/534599a

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ヒマラヤの雪解けが予測よりも遅く、インダス川の水量が減少していることが明らかに。

Stressed Indus River threatens Pakistan’s water supplies p.600

Cooler, cloudier summers slow snowmelt in Himalayas

doi: 10.1038/534600a

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プレプリントサーバーのarXivが大幅な改良を計画しているが、多くのユーザーは現状に満足しており、改良計画を不安視する声も。

ArXiv preprint server plans multimillion-dollar overhaul p.602

Users urge caution in revamp of service at the heart of physics.

doi: 10.1038/534602a

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News Features

核移植:ドリーが作られた日

Dolly at 20: The inside story on the world’s most famous sheep p.604

20年前に誕生した世界で最も有名なヒツジであるドリーの作製について、関係者たちが振り返る。

doi: 10.1038/534604a

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高速電波バースト:天空の謎

Why ultra-powerful radio bursts are the most perplexing mystery in astronomy p.610

地球には「高速電波バースト」と呼ばれる極めて強力な電波が届いているが、その起源は議論の的になっている。

doi: 10.1038/534610a

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News & Views

微生物学:抗生物質の嫌な性質

Microbiology: The dark side of antibiotics p.624

腸内での宿主細胞と細菌の相互作用は、健康を保つか、病気になるかを決める要因になることがある。そして今回、抗生物質の投与の影響によって宿主細胞が病原性細菌の増殖を促進するようになりかねない仕組みが調べられた。

doi: 10.1038/nature18449

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生理学:ストレス疲れのクロマチンは長寿の一因となる

Physiology: Stressed-out chromatin promotes longevity p.625

若齢期のミトコンドリア機能不全は、DNAの詰め込まれ方に長期にわたる変化をもたらすことが2つの研究によって明らかになった。このような変化が、細胞でのストレス応答と生物個体の長寿という結果をもたらすらしい。

doi: 10.1038/534625a

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地球科学:気候変動の判断基準を拡大する

Earth science: An extended yardstick for climate variability p.626

中国の洞窟から得られた石筍に隠されていた情報が、今回解読され、正確な年代が決められたことで、過去の気候変動の状況が明らかになり、現在の気候システムにおける複雑な相互作用についての手掛かりが得られた。

doi: 10.1038/534626a

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がん:海底で広がる伝播性の腫瘍

Cancer: Transmissible tumours under the sea p.628

生物種の一部では、がん細胞が個体間で直接伝播することがある。今回行われた貝類での解析から、このような伝播性のがんの一部は、種の障壁をも越えられることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature18455

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Perspective

気候科学:温暖化を2°Cより十分低く抑えるにはパリ協定における気候に関する提案をさらに引き上げる必要がある

Paris Agreement climate proposals need a boost to keep warming well below 2 °C p.631

The objective of the Paris climate agreement is to limit global-average temperature increase to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to further pursue limiting it to 1.5 degrees Celsius; here, the adequacy of the national plans submitted in preparation for this agreement is assessed, and it is concluded that substantial enhancement or over-delivery on these plans is required to have a reasonable chance of achieving the Paris climate objective.

doi: 10.1038/nature18307

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Articles

地球科学:過去64万年間のアジアモンスーンおよび氷期の終了

The Asian monsoon over the past 640,000 years and ice age terminations p.640

Records of the Asian monsoon have been extended to 640,000 years ago, and confirm both that the 100,000-year ice age cycle results from integral numbers of precessional cycles and that insolation influences the pacing of major millennial-scale climate events.

doi: 10.1038/nature18591

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がん治療:KRAS変異型肺がんの併用治療戦略

A combinatorial strategy for treating KRAS-mutant lung cancer p.647

A systematic screen identifies FGFR1 signalling reactivation as an adaptive resistance mechanism after MEK inhibition specific for KRAS tumours, which can be targeted by combined inhibition with the clinically approved drugs trametinib and ponatinib.

doi: 10.1038/nature18600

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発生学:哺乳類の着床前胚における接近可能なクロマチンの全体像

The landscape of accessible chromatin in mammalian preimplantation embryos p.652

An improved ATAC-seq approach is used to describe a genome-wide view of accessible chromatin and cis-regulatory elements in mouse preimplantation embryos, allowing construction of a regulatory network of early development that helps to identify key modulators of lineage specification.

doi: 10.1038/nature18606

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

Letters

惑星科学:500万~1000万歳の恒星の近傍を軌道運動している海王星サイズのトランジットする惑星

A Neptune-sized transiting planet closely orbiting a 5–10-million-year-old star p.658

A fully formed, Neptune-sized planet is observed orbiting a young star, demonstrating that planets can form in less than 10 million years and may also experience inward migration on these timescales.

doi: 10.1038/nature18293

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惑星科学:200万歳程度の太陽型のおうし座T型星の周りを回るホットジュピター

A hot Jupiter orbiting a 2-million-year-old solar-mass T Tauri star p.662

The radial velocities of a young star are measured, revealing the presence of a planet of mass about three-quarters that of Jupiter, orbiting its host star very closely, and thus demonstrating that ‘hot Jupiters’ can migrate inwards in less than two million years.

doi: 10.1038/nature18305

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量子情報学:量子イジングモデルを実現する単一リュードベリ原子の調整可能な二次元配列

Tunable two-dimensional arrays of single Rydberg atoms for realizing quantum Ising models p.667

Many proof-of-principle platforms for quantum simulation of spin models have been implemented, but it is difficult to produce a design with sufficient flexibility to realize arbitrary geometries and variable distance; here a platform based on arrays of optical microtraps achieves this flexibility with large atom numbers.

doi: 10.1038/nature18274

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光学・フォトニクス:光子に対する合成ランダウ準位

Synthetic Landau levels for photons p.671

It is an long-standing goal to produce a photonic quantum Hall effect, analogous to the well-known quantum Hall effect for electrons; now an artificial magnetic field for a continuum of photons has been produced, making it possible to observe photonic Landau levels in a photonic quantum Hall material.

doi: 10.1038/nature17943

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ナノスケール材料:固体上における液体の静摩擦と付着の切り替え

Switching stiction and adhesion of a liquid on a solid p.676

Switching of static friction and adhesion of a liquid drop on a corrugated solid boron nitride surface is linked to the intercalation of hydrogen, which changes the electric field of in-plane dipole rings and thus reduces the adsorption energy.

doi: 10.1038/nature18275

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気候科学:温帯林の光合成と日中の呼吸の季節性

Seasonality of temperate forest photosynthesis and daytime respiration p.680

Climate models require an understanding of ecosystem-scale respiration and photosynthesis, yet there is no way of measuring these two fluxes directly; here, new instrumentation is used to determine these fluxes in a temperate forest, showing, for instance, that respiration is less during the day than at night.

doi: 10.1038/nature17966

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研究費:学際研究はおしなべて研究費を獲得しにくい

Interdisciplinary research has consistently lower funding success p.684

The degree of interdisciplinarity in research proposals negatively correlates with funding success across a wide range of research fields.

doi: 10.1038/nature18315

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社会行動学:前脳基底部から外側手綱核への投射が攻撃の報酬性を調節する

Basal forebrain projections to the lateral habenula modulate aggression reward p.688

Here, the circuits underlying the motivational or rewarding component to aggression are deconstructed, showing that an inhibitory projection from the basal forebrain to the lateral habenula bi-directionally controls this aspect of aggression.

doi: 10.1038/nature18601

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微生物遺伝学:maximum-depth sequencingにより明らかになった細菌の変異率と変異誘発機構

Rates and mechanisms of bacterial mutagenesis from maximum-depth sequencing p.693

Maximum-depth sequencing (MDS), a new method of detecting extremely rare variants within a bacterial population, is used to show that mutation rates in Escherichia coli vary across the genome by at least an order of magnitude, and also to uncover mechanisms of antibiotic-induced mutagenesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature18313

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微生物学:抗生物質投与後の病原体増殖を促進するのは宿主が仲介する糖質酸化である

Host-mediated sugar oxidation promotes post-antibiotic pathogen expansion p.697

Antibiotic usage in humans can increase the risk of Salmonella infection by an unknown mechanism; this paper reveals that the antibiotic streptomycin increases the activity of the host-encoded enzyme inducible nitric oxide synthase, this then drives Salmonella expansion by the generation of galactarate — a metabolite normally absent from the gut.

doi: 10.1038/nature18597

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発生生物学:協調的な心筋細胞の相互作用が心室チャンバーの形態形成を導く

Coordinating cardiomyocyte interactions to direct ventricular chamber morphogenesis p.700

A complex interplay involving Notch- and Erbb2-mediated signalling between cardiomyocytes guides the morphogenesis of the ventricular wall.

doi: 10.1038/nature18310

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がん遺伝学:数種の二枚貝で見られる、異なる複数のがん細胞系統の広範な伝播

Widespread transmission of independent cancer lineages within multiple bivalve species p.705

Disseminated neoplasias in three species of bivalve mollusc are attributed to transmissible clonal lines, and neoplasias in one species are caused by cross-species transmission of cancer, suggesting that transmissible neoplasia is common in marine species.

doi: 10.1038/nature18599

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タンパク質折りたたみ:ミトコンドリアでの異常タンパク質応答はマトリックスのRNA前駆体プロセシングと翻訳を制御する

Mitochondrial unfolded protein response controls matrix pre-RNA processing and translation p.710

Acute protein folding stress in the mitochondrial matrix activates both increased chaperone availability within the matrix and reduced matrix-localized protein synthesis through translational inhibition.

doi: 10.1038/nature18302

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分子生物学:H4K20me0は複製後クロマチンを標識し、TONSL–MMS22L DNA修復複合体を誘導する

H4K20me0 marks post-replicative chromatin and recruits the TONSL–MMS22L DNA repair complex p.714

We have a limited understanding of how cells mark and identify newly replicated genomic loci that have a sister chromatid; here, unmethylated K20 in the tail of new histone H4 is shown to serve as a signature of post-replicative chromatin, which is specifically recognized by the homologous recombination complex TONSL–MMS22L.

doi: 10.1038/nature18312

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分子生物学:翻訳の読み過ごしを軽減

Translation readthrough mitigation p.719

Translation termination sequences are occasionally bypassed by the ribosome and the resulting proteins can be detrimental to the cell; here it is shown that cells can prevent such proteins from accumulating through peptides that are encoded within the 3' UTR of genes in both humans and C. elegans.

doi: 10.1038/nature18308

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構造生物学:ヒト細胞質アクトミオシン複合体のニア原子分解能での低温電子顕微鏡構造

Cryo-EM structure of a human cytoplasmic actomyosin complex at near-atomic resolution p.724

The first high-resolution structure of a human actomyosin complex reveals the interface between F-actin and myosin in near-atomic detail.

doi: 10.1038/nature18295

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