目次

Editorials

中国は核エネルギーを積極的に推進しているが、再処理計画は断念すべきだ。

The nuclear option p.7

China is vigorously promoting nuclear energy, but its pursuit of reprocessing is misguided.

doi: 10.1038/533007b

ケネウィックマンの骨の所有権をめぐる論争は、こうしたヒト遺物の管理のあり方をもっと明確にする必要性を浮き彫りにしている。

Lessons from the Ancient One p.7

The final stages of a dispute over an ancient Native American skeleton signal the need for clearer oversight of such human remains.

doi: 10.1038/533007a

ヒトは並外れてカロリーを消費する生物であり、この消費能力が進化の原動力となってきたらしい。

Fat lot of good p.8

Humans' exceptional ability to burn through calories fuels our evolution.

doi: 10.1038/533008a

News

ヒト胚を、培養でこれまでで最長の13日齢まで成長させることに成功。

Human embryos grown in lab for longer than ever before p.15

Embryos cultured for up to 13 days after fertilization open a window into early development.

doi: 10.1038/533015a

気候変動研究者の大量解雇の衝撃を和らげようと、オーストラリア連邦科学産業研究機構が新しい研究センターに新規ポストを。

Australia softens blow of climate job cuts p.16

New research centre at national science agency CSIRO adds 40 jobs, amid hundreds of redundancies.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19831

日本が、X線天文衛星「ひとみ」の運用を断念。

Software error doomed Japanese Hitomi spacecraft p.18

Space agency declares the astronomy satellite a loss.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19835

今後の重力波探査計画では国際間協力が重要になるが、規制上の障害によって妨げられる恐れも。

US and China eye up European gravitational-wave mission p.19

Space-based detector draws interest, but regulatory hurdles might complicate a partnership.

doi: 10.1038/533019a

絶滅の危機に瀕したキタシロサイを救うために、幹細胞技術や体外受精を駆使して自然繁殖可能な集団を作ろうという大胆な計画が。

Stem-cell plan aims to bring rhino back from brink of extinction p.20

Ambitious effort depends on transformation of rhino tissue into sperm and egg cells.

doi: 10.1038/533020a

News Features

技術:マテリアル・コード

Can artificial intelligence create the next wonder material? p.22

機械学習を使った技術によって、材料科学分野が大きく変革する可能性がある。

doi: 10.1038/533022a

科学コミュニケーション:沈黙の終わり

Nine years of censorship p.26

9年間沈黙を強いられてきたカナダの政府系科学者たちが、取り戻した言論の自由を謳歌している。

doi: 10.1038/533026a

News & Views

材料科学:原子スケールの精密さ

Materials science: Clockwork at the atomic scale p.38

極性金属と呼ばれるエキゾチック材料の設計ルールが、薄膜で実際に適用された。得られた知見は、スクリーニングと呼ばれる現象を操作して金属の新しい相を生成する仕組みについての研究を刺激するものになりそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/nature17890

生物工学:進化によってBt毒素耐性を乗り越える

Bioengineering: Evolved to overcome Bt-toxin resistance p.39

昆虫は、遺伝子組換え作物に導入されている殺虫性タンパク質に対する耐性を容易に進化させる。今回、指向性進化を連続的に行うことで昆虫の耐性に打ち勝つ毒素が作り出された。

doi: 10.1038/nature17893

パーキンソン病:関連性を洗い直して真犯人を突き止める

Parkinson's disease: Guilt by genetic association p.40

α-シヌクレイン遺伝子の塩基配列が変化した一部のバリアントはパーキンソン病のリスクに関連している。このようなバリアントについて、遺伝子編集技術を用いた解析が行われ、リスクを上昇させる仕組みが説明されそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/nature17891

免疫学:母親の微生物が子供の免疫を強化する

Immunology: Mum's microbes boost baby's immunity p.42

妊娠中のマウスに定着している微生物は、そのマウスから産まれた新生仔で自然免疫系のプライミングを行い、微生物と関わる生活への準備をさせることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature17895

細胞生物学:E1とE2酵素を使わないユビキチン化

Cell biology: Ubiquitination without E1 and E2 enzymes p.43

病原性細菌のLegionella pneumophilaのタンパク質の1つは、タンパク質修飾分子であるユビキチンをヒトのタンパク質に結合させることが分かった。意外なことに、結合には細胞のE1およびE2酵素が関わっていないことが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature17888

核物理学:トリウムで見つかった検出の難しい遷移

Nuclear physics: Elusive transition spotted in thorium p.44

科学研究や技術の分野で使われる極めて正確な原子時計は、原子の電子遷移に基づいている。トリウム229で核遷移が見つかったことは、原子核時計の実現を期待させる成果である。

doi: 10.1038/533044a

Articles

核物理学:229Th原子核の時計遷移の直接検出

Direct detection of the 229Th nuclear clock transition p.47

Direct detection of the 229Th nuclear clock transition has been achieved, placing direct constraints on transition energy and half-life; these results are a step towards a nuclear clock, nuclear quantum optics and a nuclear laser.

doi: 10.1038/nature17669

神経科学:一次視覚野の感覚地図トポグラフィーの構成原理

Principles underlying sensory map topography in primary visual cortex p.52

Recordings from cat visual cortex show that the cortical maps for stimulus orientation, direction and retinal disparity depend on an organization in which thalamic axons with similar retinotopy and light/dark responses are clustered together in the cortex.

doi: 10.1038/nature17936

生物工学:Bacillus thuringiensisの毒素の連続的進化で昆虫の耐性に打ち勝つ

Continuous evolution of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins overcomes insect resistance p.58

Phage-assisted continuous evolution (PACE) rapidly evolves Bacillus thuringiensis toxins through more than 500 generations of mutation, selection, and replication to bind a receptor expressed on the surface of insect-pest midgut cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature17938

Letters

高エネルギー宇宙物理学:分解された原子線によって明らかになった2つの超高輝度X線源のアウトフロー

Resolved atomic lines reveal outflows in two ultraluminous X-ray sources p.64

Ultraluminous X-ray sources are thought to be powered by accretion onto a compact object; now the discovery of X-ray emission lines and blueshifted absorption lines in the high-resolution spectra of ultraluminous X-ray sources NGC 1313 X-1 and NGC 5408 X-1 shows that in each case the compact object is surrounded by powerful winds with an outflow velocity of about 0.2 times that of light.

doi: 10.1038/nature17417

材料科学:幾何学的設計による極性金属

Polar metals by geometric design p.68

Ab initio calculations are used to identify the structural conditions under which a polar state in metals might be stabilized; this information is used to guide the experimental realization of new room-temperature polar metals.

doi: 10.1038/nature17628

化学合成:失敗実験を用いた機械学習による材料の発見

Machine-learning-assisted materials discovery using failed experiments p.73

Failed chemical reactions are rarely reported, even though they could still provide information about the bounds on the reaction conditions needed for product formation; here data from such reactions are used to train a machine-learning algorithm, which is subsequently able to predict reaction outcomes with greater accuracy than human intuition.

doi: 10.1038/nature17439

有機化学:スケーラブルかつ持続可能な電気化学的アリルC–H酸化

Scalable and sustainable electrochemical allylic C–H oxidation p.77

An electrochemical C–H oxidation strategy that exhibits broad substrate scope, operational simplicity and high chemoselectivity is described; it uses inexpensive and readily available materials and represents a scalable allylic C–H oxidation that could be adopted in large-scale industrial settings without substantial environmental impact.

doi: 10.1038/nature17431

地球化学:地球マントルのコンドライト的キセノン

Chondritic xenon in the Earth’s mantle p.82

High-precision analysis of magmatic gas from the Eifel volcanic area in Germany suggests that the light xenon isotopes reflect a chondritic primordial component that differs from the precursor of atmospheric xenon, consistent with an asteroidal origin for the volatile elements in the Earth’s mantle.

doi: 10.1038/nature17434

進化:軟骨発生の遺伝的プログラムは左右相称動物の中で深い相同性を有する

The genetic program for cartilage development has deep homology within Bilateria p.86

Vertebrate and invertebrate cartilage share structural and biochemical properties, and their development is controlled by a highly conserved genetic circuit, suggesting that a deeply homologous mechanism underlies the parallel evolution of cartilage in Bilateria.

doi: 10.1038/nature17398

神経科学:視覚野におけるオン・オフ入力のトポロジーが不変的な円柱状構造を可能にする

Topology of ON and OFF inputs in visual cortex enables an invariant columnar architecture p.90

Two-photon imaging of calcium signals in the tree shrew visual cortex shows that light-responsive and dark-responsive inputs have distinct arrangements that allow the cortex to map the orientation, visual location and spatial phase of visual stimuli.

doi: 10.1038/nature17941

幹細胞:α-シヌクレインの遠位エンハンサーに存在するパーキンソン病関連リスクバリアントは標的遺伝子の発現を変化させる

Parkinson-associated risk variant in distal enhancer of α-synuclein modulates target gene expression p.95

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous genetic variants associated with complex diseases, but mechanistic insights are impeded by a lack of understanding of how specific risk variants functionally contribute to the underlying pathogenesis. It has been proposed that cis-acting effects of non-coding risk variants on gene expression are a major factor for phenotypic variation of complex traits and disease susceptibility. Recent genome-scale epigenetic studies have highlighted the enrichment of GWAS-identified variants in regulatory DNA elements of disease-relevant cell types. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-specific changes in transcription factor binding are correlated with heritable alterations in chromatin state and considered a major mediator of sequence-dependent regulation of gene expression. Here we describe a novel strategy to functionally dissect the cis-acting effect of genetic risk variants in regulatory elements on gene expression by combining genome-wide epigenetic information with clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome editing in human pluripotent stem cells. By generating a genetically precisely controlled experimental system, we identify a common Parkinson’s disease associated risk variant in a non-coding distal enhancer element that regulates the expression of α-synuclein (SNCA), a key gene implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Our data suggest that the transcriptional deregulation of SNCA is associated with sequence-dependent binding of the brain-specific transcription factors EMX2 and NKX6-1. This work establishes an experimental paradigm to functionally connect genetic variation with disease-relevant phenotypes.

doi: 10.1038/nature17939

エボラウイルス:ギニアのエボラウイルス病で見られる独特なヒト免疫シグネチャー

Unique human immune signature of Ebola virus disease in Guinea p.100

Fatal Ebola virus disease is characterized by a high proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing the inhibitory molecules CTLA-4 and PD-1, correlating with high virus load; individuals who survive the infection exhibit lower expression of these inhibitory molecules and generate Ebola-specific CD8+ T cells, suggesting that dysregulation of the T cell response is a key component of Ebola virus disease pathophysiology.

doi: 10.1038/nature17949

ウイルス学:抗HIV-1抗体の単回注射はSHIVへの反復曝露による感染を防御する

A single injection of anti-HIV-1 antibodies protects against repeated SHIV challenges p.105

A single injection of four anti-HIV-1-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies blocks repeated weekly low-dose virus challenges of simian/human immunodeficiency virus.

doi: 10.1038/nature17677

免疫学:EBI2は、IL-2を抑制する樹状細胞との相互作用の促進によってTfh細胞運命をとる細胞を増やす

EBI2 augments Tfh cell fate by promoting interaction with IL-2-quenching dendritic cells p.110

The differentiation of T follicular helper cells requires the G-protein-coupled receptor Ebi2 as well as the interaction with CD25-producing dendritic cells that quench T-cell-derived interleukin-2.

doi: 10.1038/nature17947

免疫学:非標準的オートファジーは細胞死を起こした細胞に対する自己炎症性ループス様応答を阻害する

Noncanonical autophagy inhibits the autoinflammatory, lupus-like response to dying cells p.115

Defects in LC3-associated phagocytosis in mice are shown to result in systemic lupus erythematosus-like disease; dying cells are engulfed but not degraded in LAP-deficient mice, resulting in increased serum levels of autoantibodies and inflammatory cytokines, and evidence of kidney disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature17950

細胞生物学:細菌のエフェクターによるE1およびE2酵素に依存しないユビキチン化

Ubiquitination independent of E1 and E2 enzymes by bacterial effectors p.120

An unprecedented mechanism of ubiquitination that is independent of E1 and E2 enzymes, instead relying on activation of ubiquitin by ADP-ribosylation, and which is mediated by members of the SidE effector family encoded by the bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila, establishes that ubiquitination can be carried out by a single enzyme.

doi: 10.1038/nature17657

遺伝子工学:CRISPR/Cas9を用いた、特異的なホモ接合およびヘテロ接合変異の効率的な導入

Efficient introduction of specific homozygous and heterozygous mutations using CRISPR/Cas9 p.125

A CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing framework has been developed that allows controlled introduction of mono- and bi-allelic sequence changes, and is used to generate induced human pluripotent stem cells with heterozygous and homozygous dominant mutations in amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1 that have been associated with early onset Alzheimer’s disease.

doi: 10.1038/nature17664

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