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Editorials

作物への遺伝子編集技術をどのように扱い、規制すべきかの議論に、科学者も積極的に関わり、情報提供する必要がある。

Breeding controls p.147

Scientists must help to inform regulators wrestling with how to handle the next generation of genetically engineered crops.

doi: 10.1038/532147a

助成金申請の却下に対する異議申し立てで、決定が覆されたという英国での事例が公表されたが、こうした申し立ては必ずしも同様の結果をもたらすとはかぎらない。

Under appeal p.147

Don’t get too excited about that successful appeal against a grant rejection.

doi: 10.1038/532147b

日本の金星探査機「あかつき」から得られる知見は、金星に再び関心が向けられるきっかけになるだろう。

Destination Venus p.148

Findings from the Akatsuki mission should rekindle interest in Earth’s closest neighbour.

doi: 10.1038/532148a

News

アンゴラで黄熱病が大流行しており、専門家が、都市部への波及に強い警戒感を。

Fears rise over yellow fever’s next move p.155

Scientists warn vaccine stocks would be overwhelmed in the event of large urban outbreaks.

doi: 10.1038/532155a

軌道への再投入に成功した日本の金星探査機「あかつき」が、初めての観測結果を。

Rescued Japanese spacecraft delivers first results from Venus p.157

Streaked acidic clouds and a bow shape in the atmosphere are among Akatsuki’s findings.

doi: 10.1038/532157a

遺伝子編集作物は技術が先行していて規制が追い付いておらず、米国がその管理に向けて調査を。

Gene-editing surges as US rethinks regulations p.158

Committee begins study to guide oversight of modified organisms.

doi: 10.1038/532158a

英国の研究者が、助成金申請却下に弁護士を立てて異議を唱え、決定を覆すことに成功。

How one lab challenged a grant rejection and won €5 million p.159

A British scientist successfully appealed against an unfavourable grant review — but the road to victory can be paved with challenges.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19714

人間は、量子の世界を直感的に理解できる可能性があることを示す研究結果が。

Human mind excels at quantum physics game p.160

Revelation could have implications for how scientists approach quantum physics.

doi: 10.1038/532160a

News Features

免疫療法:完璧な併用

Cocktails for cancer with a measure of immunotherapy p.162

がん免疫療法をさらに発展させようと、他の治療法との最適な組み合わせの研究が行われている。

doi: 10.1038/532162a

がん:進化し続ける脅威

Cancer therapy: an evolved approach p.166

腫瘍は生物と同じように自然選択を受けて進化するものであり、この知識を臨床に生かそうという試みが始まっている。

doi: 10.1038/532166a

News & Views

動物の行動:餌ねだりの一部は「ひけらかし」

Animal behaviour: Some begging is actually bragging p.180

143種の鳥類についてのメタ解析から、ヒナの餌乞いシグナルに対する親鳥の応答には大きなばらつきが見られ、親鳥がどういう戦略を採るかは、長期的な餌の見通しや、その時点での餌の状況といった環境因子に依存して変わることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature17317

がんゲノミクス:近づきにくい場所の修復

Cancer genomics: Hard-to-reach repairs p.181

遺伝子の転写を開始する分子装置が、修復に関わるタンパク質がDNAに近づく邪魔となっていることが、2つの研究によって示された。その結果、転写因子が結合する部位では変異発生率が上昇するのである。

doi: 10.1038/532181a

再生:グリア瘢痕はそこまで怖くない

Regeneration: Not everything is scary about a glial scar p.182

脊髄損傷の後、アストロサイトと呼ばれる細胞は瘢痕を形成し、これは神経の再生を停止させると考えられてきた。だが、このような瘢痕が、軸索と呼ばれる長い神経突起の再成長を促進することが見いだされ、このずっと以前からの定説に疑問が投げ掛けられている。

doi: 10.1038/nature17318

物理学:ゲームを通して量子物理学の問題を解く

Physics: Quantum problems solved through games p.184

人間は、その直感力と優れた視覚処理によって、ある種のタスクについてはコンピューターより優れている。今回、こうした能力が生きるビデオゲームを使って量子物理学の問題が解かれた。

doi: 10.1038/532184a

神経炎症:ゴミ収集担当からの予想外の贈り物

Neuroinflammation: Surprises from the sanitary engineers p.185

哺乳類では、死んだ脳細胞を正常時に除去するのは、中枢神経系のミクログリア細胞の役目である。この機能にTAM受容体タンパク質が関わっていることが今回明らかにされた。

doi: 10.1038/nature17881

地球化学:雨は岩石や河川にどのように影響を及ぼすのか

Geochemistry: How rain affects rock and rivers p.186

局地的な降雨については河川流量への影響が重要視されることが多いが、ハワイ島の河道の進化についての解析から、岩盤強度への影響の方が重要な要因であることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/532186a

Articles

物性物理学:砂時計フェルミオン

Hourglass fermions p.189

The energy–momentum relationship of certain fermions resembles an hourglass, which is movable but unremovable; this robust property follows from the intertwining of spatial symmetries with the band theory of crystals, revised with mathematical connections to topology and cohomology.

doi: 10.1038/nature17410

再生:アストロサイト瘢痕形成は中枢神経系の軸索再生を促進する

Astrocyte scar formation aids central nervous system axon regeneration p.195

Sustained delivery of axon-specific growth factors not typically present in spinal cord lesions allows for robust axonal regrowth only if the astrocytic scar is present—a result that questions the prevailing dogma and suggests that astrocytic scarring aids rather than prevents central nervous system axon regeneration post injury.

doi: 10.1038/nature17623

再生:再生エンハンサーによる組織修復の調節

Modulation of tissue repair by regeneration enhancer elements p.201

An injury-dependent enhancer element is identified that activates gene expression in regenerating zebrafish tissues and can be engineered into DNA constructs that increase tissue regenerative capacity; the element is also active in injured mouse tissue.

doi: 10.1038/nature17644

Letters

惑星科学:系外スーパーアースに見られる昼夜間の大きな温度勾配分布

A map of the large day–night temperature gradient of a super-Earth exoplanet p.207

A longitudinal thermal brightness map of the super-Earth exoplanet 55 Cancri e reveals strong day–night temperature contrast, indicating inefficient heat redistribution consistent with 55 Cancri e either being devoid of atmosphere or having an optically thick atmosphere with heat recirculation confined to the planetary dayside.

doi: 10.1038/nature17169

量子物理学:コンピューターゲームで量子速度限界を調べる

Exploring the quantum speed limit with computer games p.210

The crowd sourcing and gamification of a problem in quantum computing are described; human players succeed in solving the problem where purely numerical optimization fails, providing insight into, and a starting point for, strategies for optimization.

doi: 10.1038/nature17620

材料科学:高密度分散系における動的せん断ジャミングの直接観察

Direct observation of dynamic shear jamming in dense suspensions p.214

Dense suspensions of hard granular particles can transform from liquid-like to solid-like when perturbed; a state diagram is mapped out that reveals how this transformation can occur via dynamic jamming at sufficiently large shear stress while leaving the particle density unchanged.

doi: 10.1038/nature17167

有機化学:ラジカルのイミニウムイオン捕捉による第四級炭素の触媒的不斉構築

Asymmetric catalytic formation of quaternary carbons by iminium ion trapping of radicals p.218

A combination of photoredox and asymmetric organic catalysis enables enantioselective radical conjugate additions to β,β-disubstituted cyclic enones to construct quaternary carbon stereocentres with high fidelity.

doi: 10.1038/nature17438

地球化学:岩盤への河川下刻に対する気候制御機構としての化学的風化作用

Chemical weathering as a mechanism for the climatic control of bedrock river incision p.223

Climate-dependent chemical weathering is found to control the erodibility of bedrock-floored rivers across a rainfall gradient on the Kohala Peninsula, Hawai‘i; river erosion models that incorporate this process could improve the assessment of climatic controls from topographic data and the understanding of climatic feedbacks in landscape evolution models.

doi: 10.1038/nature17449

人類学:儀式的な人身御供は成層社会の進化を促進し持続させた

Ritual human sacrifice promoted and sustained the evolution of stratified societies p.228

Phylogenetic methods were applied to a cross-cultural database of traditional Austronesian societies to test the link between ritual human sacrifice and the origins of social hierarchy—the presence of sacrifice in a society stabilized social stratification and promoted inherited class systems.

doi: 10.1038/nature17159

人類学:南米における先史人類侵入後の人口動態

Post-invasion demography of prehistoric humans in South America p.232

South America was the last habitable continent to be colonized by humans; using a database of 1,147 archaeological sites and 5,464 radiocarbon dates spanning 14,000 to 2,000 years ago reveals two phases of the population history of the continent—a rapid expansion through the continent at low population sizes for over 8,000 years and then a second phase of sedentary lifestyle and exponential population growth starting around 5,000 years ago.

doi: 10.1038/nature17176

神経科学:桿体–錐体の拮抗に基づく色覚神経回路

A neuronal circuit for colour vision based on rod–cone opponency p.236

Colour vision is thought to rely on the comparison of signals from cone cells in the retina, this paper identifies a class of mouse retinal ganglion cells (J-RGC) that integrates an OFF signal from ultraviolet-sensitive cones with an ON signal from green-sensitive rods, producing a colour-opponent channel that may enable animals to detect urine territory marks; the underlying circuit may also explain why humans experience a blue shift in night-time vision.

doi: 10.1038/nature17158

免疫学:TAM受容体はミクログリアの生理的性質の複数の特徴を調節している

TAM receptors regulate multiple features of microglial physiology p.240

Microglial phagocytosis is required for neurogenic niche maintenance and response to injury; the TAM kinases Mer and Axl are expressed by microglia in the adult CNS, and mediate the clearance of apoptotic cells from the niche.

doi: 10.1038/nature17630

消化器がん:ネクロソームはCXCL1とMincleによる免疫抑制を介して膵臓がんの発生を促す

The necrosome promotes pancreatic oncogenesis via CXCL1 and Mincle-induced immune suppression p.245

A study of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma shows that cancer cell proliferation is associated with increased expression of proteins that control programmed necrotic cell death and suppress the adaptive immune system.

doi: 10.1038/nature17403

皮膚がん:老化した微小環境のsFRP2は黒色腫の転移および治療耐性を促進する

sFRP2 in the aged microenvironment drives melanoma metastasis and therapy resistance p.250

Aged fibroblasts release a Wnt antagonist, sFRP2, which drives a signalling cascade in melanoma cells, leading to increased metastasis and reduced effectiveness of targeted therapy.

doi: 10.1038/nature17392

がんの代謝:足場非依存性増殖の際には還元的カルボキシル化が酸化還元恒常性を支える

Reductive carboxylation supports redox homeostasis during anchorage-independent growth p.255

Malignant cells are able to survive and grow in detached conditions, despite the associated increase in reactive oxygen species; here a novel metabolic pathway used by cancer cells as they adapt to anchorage-independent growth is described.

doi: 10.1038/nature17393

がんゲノミクス:DNA修復の差異が原因となって、がんゲノムの活性なプロモーターが変異のホットスポットとなる

Differential DNA repair underlies mutation hotspots at active promoters in cancer genomes p.259

Analysis of 1,161 cancer genomes across 14 cancer types shows that increased mutation density at gene promoters can be linked to transcription initiation activity and impairment of nucleotide excision repair.

doi: 10.1038/nature17437

がんゲノミクス:ヌクレオチド除去修復は、転写因子のDNAへの結合により阻害される

Nucleotide excision repair is impaired by binding of transcription factors to DNA p.264

An analysis of cancer genomic data reveals an increased rate of somatic mutations at active transcription factor binding sites located both within promoter regions and distal from genes; the increased mutation rate at these genomic regions can be explained by reduced accessibility of the protein-bound DNA to nucleotide excision repair machinery.

doi: 10.1038/nature17661

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