目次

Editorials

宇宙に関する情報の宝庫である重力波が検出されたことで、これを利用した研究のさらなる進展が期待される。

Siren call p.413

Now that gravitational waves have been discovered, it is time to put them to use.

doi: 10.1038/531413b

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中国政府が公言している透明性は政府からの一方的なものであり、国民やメディアの疑問にもしっかりと対応する姿勢を持つべきだ。

Cultural conundrum p.413

The Chinese government’s professed commitment to transparency and responsiveness has had a rocky start. That bodes ill for the desire to attract the best science brains from around the world.

doi: 10.1038/531413a

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トルコでは表現の自由が脅かされており、科学者はこの権利を守るため力を合わせる必要がある。

Power of the pen p.414

Scientists must unite to stop Turkey from removing the right to freedom of expression.

doi: 10.1038/531414a

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News

全球の海洋変動をリアルタイムで捉えることを目指した国際プロジェクト「アルゴ計画」では、参加各国が次世代型ロボット観測機器の開発に力を。

Massive network of robotic ocean probes gets smart upgrade p.421

Initiatives aim to measure global warming’s impact on high seas and deep currents.

doi: 10.1038/531421a

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スマートフォンのアプリを利用して、研究者が大量の健康データを集める時代に。

Mobile-phone health apps deliver data bounty p.422

Smartphone programs allow researchers to recruit large numbers of participants and monitor them in real time.

doi: 10.1038/531422a

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中国が5か年計画で、海洋学、神経科学、幹細胞研究など科学技術に強い意欲を。

What China’s latest five-year plan means for science p.424

Oceanography, brain science and stem cells among research fields that look set to grow.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19590

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中国が、予想より早く排出削減を実現する可能性も。

China’s carbon emissions could peak sooner than forecast p.425

Country's 13th Five-Year Plan advances a broad goal to phase down coal and expand renewable energy.

doi: 10.1038/531425a

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飼育下のシャチの寿命に関する研究結果をめぐって、激しい論争が。

Scientists clash over lifespan of captive killer whales p.426

Two conflicting studies are at centre of row.

doi: 10.1038/531426a

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News Features

物理学:次の波

The black-hole collision that reshaped physics p.428

重力波の直接検出により、ブラックホール理論の正しさが確かめられ、天文学は新しい時代を迎えている。

doi: 10.1038/531428a

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海洋生物学:クラゲの秘められた素顔

The secret lives of jellyfish p.432

クラゲは、海洋生態系的にはあまり重要でないと長い間考えられてきたが、実際には海洋食物網に欠かすことのできない存在であるらしい。

doi: 10.1038/531432a

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News & Views

アルツハイマー病:失われた記憶を見つけ出す

Alzheimer's disease: Lost memories found p.450

初期アルツハイマー病のマウスモデルで、記憶形成の際に脳の海馬で本来なら活性化されている神経間シナプス接続を増強してやると、記憶障害が回復することが明らかにされた。

doi: 10.1038/nature17312

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動物の移動:種の衰退を分散で説明する

Animal migration: Dispersion explains declines p.451

渡り鳥は全球的に減少しつつある。ヨーロッパの渡り鳥についての広範囲にわたる研究で、非繁殖期に広く分散する種は、分散範囲がもっと制限されている種に比べて数が減りにくいらしいことが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/531451a

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有機化学:後に二重結合を残さない

Organic chemistry: No double bond left behind p.453

ハロゲン化アルケニルは、小型有機分子の合成に使われる最も有用な構成要素の一種である。容易に手に入るアルケンから交差メタセシス反応によって直接ハロゲン化アルケニルを作り出すことを可能にする触媒が見つかった。

doi: 10.1038/531453a

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微生物海洋学:ウイルスの海での生存戦略

Microbial oceanography: Viral strategies at sea p.454

宿主の微生物の個体数が多い海洋環境内では、宿主当たりのウイルス数が、宿主の個体数が少ない場合に比べて減少していることが分かった。これは、宿主と共存する溶原感染と宿主を殺す溶菌感染というウイルスの生き残り戦略の相対的な役割に関する理論に疑問を投じるものだ。

doi: 10.1038/nature17303

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惑星科学:さまよう月の証

Planetary science: Signs of a wandering Moon p.455

月の正反対の側に位置する2つの場所に存在する氷は、かつては月の向きが現在の自転軸からずれていたことを示唆している。この知見は、月の火山活動歴と関わりがある。

doi: 10.1038/531455a

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行動経済学:不正は不正を呼ぶ

Behavioural economics: Corruption corrupts p.456

世界各地からの数千人が参加した異文化研究実験によって、脱税や不正な政治活動などの社会的規則違反は、個人が本質的に持っている正直さに有害な影響を及ぼすことが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature17307

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Articles

有機化学:触媒を用いた交差メタセシスによるZ-ハロゲン化アルケニルの直接合成

Direct synthesis of Z-alkenyl halides through catalytic cross-metathesis p.459

One shortcoming of olefin metathesis has been that acyclic alkenyl halides could not be generated efficiently and stereoselectively; but now halo-substituted molybdenum alkylidene species are shown to be able to participate in high-yielding olefin metathesis reactions that afford acyclic 1,2-disubstituted Z-alkenyl halides.

doi: 10.1038/nature17396

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微生物海洋学:ウイルス群集の溶菌性から溶原性への切り替え

Lytic to temperate switching of viral communities p.466

An analysis of 24 coral reef viromes challenges the view that lytic phage are believed to predominate when the density of their hosts increase and shows instead that lysogeny is more important at high host densities; the authors also show that this model is consistent with predator–prey dynamics in a range of other ecosystems, such as animal-associated, sediment and soil systems.

doi: 10.1038/nature17193

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がんゲノミクス:TP53消失に関連する欠失がp53非依存的機序でがんを駆動する

Deletions linked to TP53 loss drive cancer through p53-independent mechanisms p.471

The loss of the TP53 gene is often involved in the development of human cancer; here, the deletion of other genes in the vicinity is shown also to contribute to cancer progression in a mouse model.

doi: 10.1038/nature17157

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Letters

素粒子宇宙物理学:銀河系中心部におけるペタ電子ボルトの陽子の加速

Acceleration of petaelectronvolt protons in the Galactic Centre p.476

Deep γ-ray observations of the Galactic Centre with arcminute angular resolution show traces of petaelectronvolt protons within the central ten parsecs of our Galaxy; the accelerator of these particles could have provided a substantial contribution to Galactic cosmic rays in the past.

doi: 10.1038/nature17147

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惑星科学:月の極地水素から推測される真の極移動

Lunar true polar wander inferred from polar hydrogen p.480

Polar hydrogen deposits on the Moon provide evidence that its spin axis has shifted; analysis of the locations of these deposits and of the lunar figure suggests that the shift occurred as a result of changes in the Moon’s moments of inertia caused by a low-density thermal anomaly beneath the Procellarum region.

doi: 10.1038/nature17166

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材料科学:引力を持つ粒子で構成されるコロイド結晶における表面前駆融解モード

Modes of surface premelting in colloidal crystals composed of attractive particles p.485

Incomplete premelting at the edges of monolayer colloidal crystals is triggered by a bulk solid–solid phase transition and truncated by a mechanical instability that induces homogeneous bulk melting of the crystal; these observations challenge existing theories of two-dimensional melting.

doi: 10.1038/nature16987

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材料科学:ジグザグ型エッジトポロジーのグラフェンナノリボンの表面合成

On-surface synthesis of graphene nanoribbons with zigzag edge topology p.489

Synthesis of atomically precise zigzag edges in graphene nanoribbons is demonstrated using a bottom-up strategy based on surface-assisted arrangement and reaction of precursor monomers; these nanoribbons have edge-localized states with large energy splittings.

doi: 10.1038/nature17151

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気候科学:アフリカの塵の過去、現在そして未来

The past, present and future of African dust p.493

Variability in North African dust dispersal, which affects air quality and the amount of radiation reaching the ground, is captured by the wind patterns over the Sahara; climate models suggest a downward trend in dust concentration with increasing greenhouse gas emissions.

doi: 10.1038/nature17149

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人間行動学:さまざまな社会全体にわたる本質的正直さと規則違反の蔓延

Intrinsic honesty and the prevalence of rule violations across societies p.496

To test whether there is a relationship between the level of national corruption and the intrinsic honesty of individuals, a behavioural test of the honesty of people from 23 countries was conducted; the authors found that high national scores on an index of rule-breaking are linked with reduced personal honesty.

doi: 10.1038/nature17160

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人類学:肉食と前期旧石器時代の食物加工技術がヒトの咀嚼能力に与えた影響

Impact of meat and Lower Palaeolithic food processing techniques on chewing in humans p.500

The genus Homo had considerably smaller cheek teeth, chewing muscles and jaws than earlier hominins; here, the introduction of raw but processed meat, from which energy could more easily be extracted, is shown to have possibly been responsible for this change.

doi: 10.1038/nature16990

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進化生物学:シマ・デ・ロス・ウエソスの中期更新世ヒト族の核DNA塩基配列

Nuclear DNA sequences from the Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos hominins p.504

Nuclear DNA sequences from Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos hominins show they were more closely related to Neanderthals than to Denisovans, and indicate a population divergence between Neanderthals and Denisovans that predates 430,000 years ago.

doi: 10.1038/nature17405

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神経科学:初期アルツハイマー病モデルマウスの記憶エングラム細胞の活性化による記憶検索

Memory retrieval by activating engram cells in mouse models of early Alzheimer’s disease p.508

Experiments in transgenic mouse models of early Alzheimer’s disease show that the amnesia seen at this stage of the disease is probably caused by a problem with memory retrieval from the hippocampus rather than an encoding defect.

doi: 10.1038/nature17172

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がん免疫学:肺に到達した先駆転移細胞に対して即時に起こる免疫応答の可視化

Visualization of immediate immune responses to pioneer metastatic cells in the lung p.513

Tracing the fate of circulating tumour cells by intravital two-photon lung imaging shows that tumours produce microparticles as they arrive and these migrate along the lung vasculature and are mostly taken up by interstitial myeloid cells, in a process that contributes to metastatic seeding; a minor subset of microparticles is engulfed by conventional dendritic cells, which are thought to contribute to the initiation of an anti-tumour immune response in lung-draining lymph nodes.

doi: 10.1038/nature16985

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がん治療:長鎖非コードRNA SAMMSONに対する黒色腫の依存性

Melanoma addiction to the long non-coding RNA SAMMSON p.518

A known oncogene, MITF, resides in a region of chromosome 3 that is amplified in melanomas and associated with poor prognosis; now, a long non-coding RNA gene, SAMMSON, is shown to also lie in this region, to also act as a melanoma-specific survival oncogene, and to be a promising therapeutic target for anti-melanoma therapy.

doi: 10.1038/nature17161

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免疫学:アミノ酸センサーであるGCN2はインフラマソーム活性化の阻害により腸の炎症を制御する

The amino acid sensor GCN2 controls gut inflammation by inhibiting inflammasome activation p.523

The GCN2 kinase is shown to have a protective role in the regulation of intestinal inflammation during amino acid starvation in a mouse model of colitis.

doi: 10.1038/nature17186

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生理学:PGC1αは酸化的代謝を腎保護と結び付けるNADの生合成を促す

PGC1α drives NAD biosynthesis linking oxidative metabolism to renal protection p.528

The energetic burden of continuously concentrating solutes against gradients along the tubule may render the kidney especially vulnerable to ischaemia. Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects 3% of all hospitalized patients. Here we show that the mitochondrial biogenesis regulator, PGC1α, is a pivotal determinant of renal recovery from injury by regulating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthesis. Following renal ischaemia, Pgc1α−/− (also known as Ppargc1a−/−) mice develop local deficiency of the NAD precursor niacinamide (NAM, also known as nicotinamide), marked fat accumulation, and failure to re-establish normal function. Notably, exogenous NAM improves local NAD levels, fat accumulation, and renal function in post-ischaemic Pgc1α−/− mice. Inducible tubular transgenic mice (iNephPGC1α) recapitulate the effects of NAM supplementation, including more local NAD and less fat accumulation with better renal function after ischaemia. PGC1α coordinately upregulates the enzymes that synthesize NAD de novo from amino acids whereas PGC1α deficiency or AKI attenuates the de novo pathway. NAM enhances NAD via the enzyme NAMPT and augments production of the fat breakdown product β-hydroxybutyrate, leading to increased production of prostaglandin PGE2 (ref. 5), a secreted autacoid that maintains renal function. NAM treatment reverses established ischaemic AKI and also prevented AKI in an unrelated toxic model. Inhibition of β-hydroxybutyrate signalling or prostaglandin production similarly abolishes PGC1α-dependent renoprotection. Given the importance of mitochondrial health in ageing and the function of metabolically active organs, the results implicate NAM and NAD as key effectors for achieving PGC1α-dependent stress resistance.

doi: 10.1038/nature17184

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構造生物学:ミコセロシン酸シンターゼは還元性ポリケチドシンターゼの構造の好例である

Mycocerosic acid synthase exemplifies the architecture of reducing polyketide synthases p.533

A hybrid crystal structure of Mycobacterium smegmatis mycocerosic acid synthase, a multienzyme involved in the biosynthesis of mycobacterial branched-chain fatty acids, exemplifies the organization of fully-reducing polyketide synthases.

doi: 10.1038/nature16993

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