目次

Editorials

大型ハドロン衝突型加速器(LHC)で見つかった予想外のシグナルは、これまで想定されていなかった新しい粒子の手掛かりなのかもしれない。

Who ordered that? p.139

An unexpected data signal that could change everything has particle physicists salivating.

doi: 10.1038/531139b

古代のヒトは、火を使った調理が始まるよりはるかに前から、道具を巧みに使って肉を食べやすくしていたようだ。

Food processing p.139

A recreation of how early humans managed to eat a diet of meat hundreds of thousands of years before they had fire to cook it with, shows an ingenious use of tools to cut down on chewing time.

doi: 10.1038/531139a

ゲノム編集のリスクや恩恵は、臨床医学をはるかに超えた幅広い分野に及ぶため、慎重な議論が必要だ。

Gene intelligence p.140

The risks and rewards of genome editing resonate beyond the clinic.

doi: 10.1038/531140a

News

低コストで自作できるDIY実験装置の情報公開を進めようという動きが。

‘Open-hardware’ pioneers push for low-cost lab kit p.147

Conference aims to raise awareness of shared resources for building lab equipment.

doi: 10.1038/531147a

米国特許商標局が、CRISPR技術の特許の審査を開始。

How the US CRISPR patent probe will play out p.149

Decision could determine who profits from the gene-editing technique in future.

doi: 10.1038/531149a

中国の重力波探査計画に2つの案が。

Chinese gravitational-wave hunt hits crunch time p.150

The pressure is on to choose between several proposals for space-based detectors.

doi: 10.1038/531150a

統計的有意を示すP値の誤用に、統計学界が警鐘を。

Statisticians issue warning over misuse of P values p.151

Policy statement aims to halt missteps in the quest for certainty.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19503

米国で、植物が気候変動などの人為的な活動に対してどのように適応したかの解明を目指す、大規模な種子バンク計画が。

Five million US seeds banked for resurrection experiment p.152

Project Baseline will monitor effects of climate change on plant evolution.

doi: 10.1038/531152a

コロンビアで、ジカウイルス感染に関連する先天性異常の症例が。

First Zika-linked birth defects detected in Colombia p.153

Cases may signal start of anticipated wave of birth defects in country hit hard by Zika virus.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19502

News Features

どこもかしこもCRISPR

CRISPR everywhere p.155

遺伝子編集の時代に生きるとはどういうことかを考察する。

doi: 10.1038/531155a

CRISPRの波に乗る

CRISPR: gene editing is just the beginning p.156

生物学者たちは、ゲノム編集技術の威力を、ゲノム研究に積極的に活用しようとしている。

doi: 10.1038/531156a

CRISPR動物園

Welcome to the CRISPR zoo p.160

CRISPR技術は、疾患研究から食用としての改良、絶滅動物の復元まで、さまざまな動物を対象に至る所で用いられるようになってきている。

doi: 10.1038/531160a

News & Views

分子進化:有性生殖は適応を加速させる

Molecular evolution: Sex accelerates adaptation p.176

有性生殖は適応進化を加速させるというずっと以前からある説では、その理由を有性生殖集団では無性生殖集団の場合とは対照的に、有利な変異の頻度が選択的に上がるからだとしている。今回、新たな解析によってこの説が確証された。

doi: 10.1038/nature17304

超伝導体:量子情報の指数関数的増強

Superconductors: Exponential boost for quantum information p.177

量子コンピューターはいつの日か、従来型のコンピューターの性能をとんでもなく上回るようになるだろう。巧妙な実験によって、こうした量子技術に一歩近づくためのエキゾチックな半導体の基本的性質が明らかにされた。

doi: 10.1038/531177a

植物科学:LUREは多数の受容体をおびき寄せる

Plant biology: LURE is bait for multiple receptors p.178

顕花植物では、精子を内包する花粉管が雌性生殖器官から放出される誘引物質に誘導されて胚珠の方向に伸びていく。誘引性分子のAtLURE1に対する受容体が、今回見つかった。

doi: 10.1038/531178a

サステイナブルケミストリー:二酸化炭素を仕事に就かせる

Sustainable chemistry: Putting carbon dioxide to work p.180

二酸化炭素は供給源としては豊富に存在するが、工業的に有効に使用することは難しい。簡単な反応が見つかれば、二酸化炭素を使って、現行の過程よりもっと持続可能性の高い方法で市販品を作れそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/531180a

生態学:気候変動への植生の応答

Ecology: Vegetation's responses to climate variability p.181

多様な生態系の気候変動への応答速度を評価する定量的モデルの作製が、衛星観測データを使って可能になった。得られた指数は、気候変動に対する地域ごとの感受性と復元性を比較する手段となる。

doi: 10.1038/nature17301

神経発生:再生スイッチとして働く一酸化窒素

Neurodevelopment: Regeneration switch is a gas p.182

ニューロンからの軸索投射は発生過程で再編成されるが、その際に働くスイッチの1つが、一酸化窒素ガスであることが明らかになった。この気体の濃度が高いと不要な軸索の退縮が促進され、濃度が低くなるとそれに続く再伸長が促進される。

doi: 10.1038/nature17308

Articles

学習と記憶:不動状態および睡眠中に空間符号化を行う海馬神経ネットワーク

A hippocampal network for spatial coding during immobility and sleep p.185

In the mammalian navigational system, neurons have been identified in the CA2 region of the hippocampus that keep track of position when an animal is not moving.

doi: 10.1038/nature17144

細胞生物学:RQC装置の障害はタンパク質凝集とタンパク質毒性ストレスを引き起こす

Failure of RQC machinery causes protein aggregation and proteotoxic stress p.191

Defects in the ribosome quality control (RQC) complex, which clears proteins that stalled during translation, can cause neurodegeneration; here it is shown that in RQC-defective cells a peptide tail added by the RQC subunit 2 to stalled polypeptides promotes their aggregation and the sequestration of chaperones in these aggregates, affecting normal protein quality control processes.

doi: 10.1038/nature16973

構造生物学:シロイヌナズナの電位依存性2孔型チャネルTPC1の構造

Structure of the voltage-gated two-pore channel TPC1 from Arabidopsis thaliana p.196

The X-ray crystal structure of a two-pore channel from Arabidopsis thaliana reveals the structure and the mechanism of voltage gating of this class of ubiquitous cation-selective ion channels.

doi: 10.1038/nature16446

Letters

宇宙物理学:反復する高速電波バースト

A repeating fast radio burst p.202

Observations of repeated fast radio bursts, having dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with those of FRB 121102, show that the signals do not originate in a single cataclysmic event and may come from a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

doi: 10.1038/nature17168

超伝導体:マヨラナ島ゼロモードの指数関数的保護

Exponential protection of zero modes in Majorana islands p.206

The splitting of zero-energy Majorana modes in a tunnel-coupled InAs nanowire with epitaxial aluminium is exponentially suppressed as the wire length is increased, resulting in protection of these modes; this result helps to establish the robust presence of Majorana modes and quantifies exponential protection in nanowire devices.

doi: 10.1038/nature17162

超伝導体:銅酸化物超伝導体の擬ギャップ臨界点におけるキャリア密度の変化

Change of carrier density at the pseudogap critical point of a cuprate superconductor p.210

Low-temperature measurements of the Hall effect in cuprate materials in which superconductivity is suppressed by high magnetic fields show that the pseudogap is not related to the charge ordering that has been seen at intermediate doping levels, but is instead linked to the antiferromagnetic Mott insulator at low doping.

doi: 10.1038/nature16983

有機化学:炭酸塩で促進されるC–Hカルボキシル化による二酸化炭素利用

Carbon dioxide utilization via carbonate-promoted C–H carboxylation p.215

Molten salts at intermediate temperatures enable efficient carbonate-promoted carboxylation of very weakly acidic C–H bonds, revealing a new way to transform inedible biomass and carbon dioxide into valuable feedstock chemicals.

doi: 10.1038/nature17185

有機化学:パラジウムに触媒される脂環式アミンの渡環C–H官能基化

Palladium-catalysed transannular C–H functionalization of alicyclic amines p.220

An approach to selectively manipulate the C–H bonds of alicyclic amines at sites remote to nitrogen is demonstrated by the synthesis of new derivatives of several bioactive molecules, including varenicline, a drug used to treat nicotine addiction.

doi: 10.1038/nature16957

生物地球化学:大気への温室効果ガスの正味の供給源としての陸上生物圏

The terrestrial biosphere as a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere p.225

The net balance of terrestrial biogenic greenhouse gases produced as a result of human activities and the climatic impact of this balance are uncertain; here the net cumulative impact of the three greenhouse gases, methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide, on the planetary energy budget from 2001 to 2010 is a warming of the planet.

doi: 10.1038/nature16946

気候変動生態学:気候変動に対する全球の陸上生態系の感受性

Sensitivity of global terrestrial ecosystems to climate variability p.229

Using satellite data and a novel analytical approach, a new index of the sensitivity of vegetation to climate variability is developed, revealing areas of high sensitivity that include tundra, boreal forest, tropical forest and temperate grasslands.

doi: 10.1038/nature16986

分子進化学:有性生殖は分子進化の動態を変化させることで適応を加速させる

Sex speeds adaptation by altering the dynamics of molecular evolution p.233

In a comparison between replicate sexual and asexual populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, sexual reproduction increases fitness by reducing clonal interference and alters the type of mutations that get fixed by natural selection.

doi: 10.1038/nature17143

再生:MARCKS様タンパク質はアホロートルにおける外肢再生の開始分子である

MARCKS-like protein is an initiating molecule in axolotl appendage regeneration p.237

The salamander, or axolotl, is well known to be able to regenerate missing body parts, but the signals that drive the initial proliferative response were unclear; now, a secreted protein has been identified that induces the initial cell cycle response after injury.

doi: 10.1038/nature16974

植物科学:植物での雌性誘引物質の雄による感知は受容体であるヘテロ複合体を介して起こる

A receptor heteromer mediates the male perception of female attractants in plants p.241

A male cell-surface receptor-like kinase that responds to the female chemoattractant LURE1 on the pollen tube of Arabidopsis thaliana is identified; LURE1 triggers dimerization of the receptor components and activation of the kinase activity, and the transformation of a component of the A. thaliana receptor to the Capsella rubella species partially breaks down the reproductive isolation barrier.

doi: 10.1038/nature16975

植物科学:シロイヌナズナでは花粉管先端に局在する受容体が花粉管伸長およびLUREの感知を制御する

Tip-localized receptors control pollen tube growth and LURE sensing in Arabidopsis p.245

Pollen-specific receptor-like kinase 6 (PRK6), which signals through the guanine nucleotide-exchange factors ROPGEFs, is required for sensing of the LURE1 attractant peptide in Arabidopsis thaliana, and functions together with other PRK family kinases; when introduced into the pollen tubes of the related species Capsella rubella, PRK6 could confer responsiveness to AtLURE1.

doi: 10.1038/nature17413

微生物学:MIMIVIREはヴィロファージへの耐性を付与するミミウイルスの防御系である

MIMIVIRE is a defence system in mimivirus that confers resistance to virophage p.249

MIMIVIRE is a novel nucleic-acid-based immune system against virophage infection in the giant virus mimivirus.

doi: 10.1038/nature17146

がん:NAFLDはCD4+ Tリンパ球の選択的な消失を引き起こして肝細胞がんの発生を促進する

NAFLD causes selective CD4+ T lymphocyte loss and promotes hepatocarcinogenesis p.253

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects a large proportion of the US population and is considered to be a metabolic predisposition to liver cancer. However, the role of adaptive immune responses in NAFLD-promoted HCC is largely unknown. Here we show, in mouse models and human samples, that dysregulation of lipid metabolism in NAFLD causes a selective loss of intrahepatic CD4+ but not CD8+ T lymphocytes, leading to accelerated hepatocarcinogenesis. We also demonstrate that CD4+ T lymphocytes have greater mitochondrial mass than CD8+ T lymphocytes and generate higher levels of mitochondrially derived reactive oxygen species (ROS). Disruption of mitochondrial function by linoleic acid, a fatty acid accumulated in NAFLD, causes more oxidative damage than other free fatty acids such as palmitic acid, and mediates selective loss of intrahepatic CD4+ T lymphocytes. In vivo blockade of ROS reversed NAFLD-induced hepatic CD4+ T lymphocyte decrease and delayed NAFLD-promoted HCC. Our results provide an unexpected link between lipid dysregulation and impaired anti-tumour surveillance.

doi: 10.1038/nature16969

構造生物学:シロイヌナズナの2孔型チャネルTPC1の構造、阻害および調節

Structure, inhibition and regulation of two-pore channel TPC1 from Arabidopsis thaliana p.258

The X-ray crystal structure of a two-pore channel from Arabidopsis thaliana is reported, revealing the mechanisms of ion permeation, inhibition channel activation, and location of regulatory sites and voltage-sensing domains.

doi: 10.1038/nature17194

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