目次

Editorials

特集:パリ気候変動会議:各国は確固たる合意のために協力し、さらに、それぞれが決定事項を守り、排出削減の新たな方法を見いだし、対策に着手しなくてはならない。

The way forward is through Paris p.409

Once a solid agreement is made, the world must get to work.

doi: 10.1038/527409a

共同研究を円滑に進めるには、握手だけでなく、書面での合意が大切だ。

Built on trust p.410

Written agreements between parties in research collaborations are not a sign of a lack of faith.

doi: 10.1038/527410a

ブラジルの司法は、効果が未証明の薬物の提供を停止する決定を堅持すべきだ。

Drugs on demand p.410

Controversy in Brazil over access to a purported cancer cure could set a harmful precedent.

doi: 10.1038/527410b

News

米食品医薬品局(FDA)が、動物として初となる食用の遺伝子組換えサケをついに承認へ。

Salmon approval heralds rethink of transgenic animals p.417

Long-awaited decision by US government authorizes the first genetically engineered animal to be sold as food.

doi: 10.1038/527417a

特集:パリ気候変動会議:パリ会議に集う各国代表の姿勢から、新たな合意への期待が。

Climate optimism builds ahead of Paris talks p.418

Emission pledges raise hopes for an international treaty.

doi: 10.1038/527418a

特集:パリ気候変動会議:途上国の気候変動対策を支援する緑の気候基金(GCF)の運営に、批判が。

Green Climate Fund faces slew of criticism p.419

First tranche of aid projects prompts concern over operations of fund for developing nations.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18815

ブラジルの法廷が、サンパウロ大学に対し、臨床試験を実施していない薬物の、末期がん患者への提供を認めない判決を。

Brazilian courts tussle over unproven cancer treatment p.420

Patients demand access to compound despite lack of clinical testing.

doi: 10.1038/527420a

「うるう秒」の存廃議論の決着は、少なくとも8年先送りに。

Leap-second decision delayed by eight years p.421

Some want to scrap adjustment that keeps atomic time in sync with Earth's rotation.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18855

米国立衛生研究所(NIH)は、動物実験用チンパンジーを全て引退させ、今後はチンパンジーの脳組織バンクとオンラインデータベースに力を。

'Digital chimp' trove preserves brains of retired apes p.422

NIH to fund a cache of brain tissue and online data in place of live-animal experimentation.

doi: 10.1038/527422a

News Features

特集:パリ気候変動会議:みんなで一緒に!

All together now p.425

25年にわたる交渉を経て、ついに世界全体が地球温暖化対策に踏み出そうとしている今、これまでの歩みを振り返り、今後の道筋を展望する。

doi: 10.1038/527425a

特集:パリ気候変動会議:不安定な枠組み

The fragile framework p.427

各国は、団結して地球を守れるのだろうか? 気候変動枠組条約に関するこれまでの物語をコミックでたどる。

doi: 10.1038/527427a

特集:パリ気候変動会議:2°Cの夢

Is the 2 °C world a fantasy? p.436

気候モデルによれば、温暖化を産業革命前と比較して2°C未満に抑えることは可能だが、この目標を達成するためには超人的な努力が要る。

doi: 10.1038/527436a

News & Views

ゲノミクス:ギボシムシの概要ゲノム

Genomics: Acorn worms in a nutshell p.448

半索動物に属する2種類の海洋無脊椎動物のゲノム塩基配列が解読され、これらと近縁の動物の進化の輪郭が、脊椎動物も含めて、かなりはっきりしてきた。

doi: 10.1038/nature16315

概日時計:微妙な気温変化を感知する受容体

Circadian clocks: A receptor for subtle temperature changes p.449

タンパク質のIR25aについては、ショウジョウバエのにおい受容体という役割を持つことで最もよく知られている。今回、IR25aが気温の小さな変動を感知して概日時計を同調させる働きもしていることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature16316

画像化技術:超解像超音波イメージング

Imaging techniques: Super-resolution ultrasound p.451

ラット脳の血管にガスを充填したマイクロバブルを注入し、高速超音波イメージングを使ってバブルを検出することで、血管系全体の超解像イメージングが達成された。

doi: 10.1038/527451a

細胞運命:転換によって失われる侵襲性

Cell fate: Transition loses its invasive edge p.452

上皮腫瘍細胞の間葉細胞状態への転換は、転移巣を形成する際には必要でないが、この過程が実は薬剤耐性の誘導に関わっていることを示す証拠が、2つの研究で得られた。

doi: 10.1038/nature16313

エボラ出血熱:隠れたリザーバー

Ebola: Hidden reservoirs p.453

西アフリカでのエボラ出血熱の流行からは、意外なことが次々と明らかになっている。ウイルスを最初にヒトに伝播させた動物種はまだ明らかになっていないが、病気から回復した一部の患者でウイルスリザーバーの存在と持続感染が起こっていることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/527453a

惑星科学:月の軌道はなぜ傾いているのか

Planetary science: The Moon's tilt for gold p.455

月の現在の軌道は、月の形成初期の軌道が地球の赤道面にあったと予測している理論とは一致しない。今回、月の軌道は数個の大型天体との重力相互作用によって傾いたことがシミュレーションによって示唆された。

doi: 10.1038/527455a

失明:視覚の殺し屋

Blindness: Assassins of eyesight p.456

転写因子SIX6とその標的遺伝子であるp16INK4aが関わる分子カスケードは、眼と脳を連結するニューロンの死を引き起こす。この知見は、失明のよく見られる原因である緑内障に関する理解を深めることになる。

doi: 10.1038/527456a

Articles

ゲノミクス:半索動物のゲノムと新口動物の起源

Hemichordate genomes and deuterostome origins OPEN p.459

Sequencing the genomes of two enteropneusts reveals complex genomic organization and developmental innovation in the ancestor of deuterostomes, a group of animals including echinoderms (starfish and their relatives) and chordates (which includes humans).

doi: 10.1038/nature16150

幹細胞:脾臓での髄外造血のための洞様血管周囲ニッチ

A perisinusoidal niche for extramedullary haematopoiesis in the spleen p.466

Haematopoietic stem cells normally reside in a bone marrow niche but they are recruited to the spleen after physiological stresses; here, endothelial cells and stromal cells around sinusoidal blood vessels of the spleen are shown to secrete key niche factors to support this process.

doi: 10.1038/nature15530

がん:上皮間葉転換は肺転移には不要だが化学療法耐性に寄与する

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is not required for lung metastasis but contributes to chemoresistance p.472

An epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) lineage-tracing system in a mouse model of breast-to-lung metastasis reveals that although some cells undergo EMT in a primary epithelial tumour, the lung metastases mainly arise from cells that have not undergone EMT; in addition, cells that have undergone EMT appear more resistant to chemotherapy.

doi: 10.1038/nature15748

化学生物学:薬理学的特性が不明な受容体GPR68とGPR65に対するアロステリックリガンド

Allosteric ligands for the pharmacologically dark receptors GPR68 and GPR65 p.477

Yeast-based screening identifies the benzodiazepine drug lorazepam as a non-selective positive allosteric modulator of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) GPR68; homology modelling and molecular docking of 3.1 million molecules found a new compound, ‘ogerin’, as a potent GPR68 modulator, which suppressed recall in fear conditioning in wild-type mice, and the general method of combining physical and structure-based screening may lead to the discovery of selective ligands for other GPCRs.

doi: 10.1038/nature15699

Letters

宇宙物理学:天の川銀河のバルジにおける宇宙の夜明けからの極端な金属欠乏星

Extremely metal-poor stars from the cosmic dawn in the bulge of the Milky Way p.484

The first stars and their immediate successors should be found today in the central regions (bulges) of galaxies; old, metal-poor stars have now been found in the Milky Way bulge, including one star with an iron abundance about 10,000 times lower than that of the Sun without noticeable carbon enhancement, making it possibly the oldest known star in the Galaxy.

doi: 10.1038/nature15747

宇宙物理学:積分された星集団の遍在する時間変動性

Ubiquitous time variability of integrated stellar populations p.488

The number of long-period variable stars in a stellar population is directly related to their lifetime, which is difficult to predict from first principles; here a time-dependent stellar population model is constructed that includes the effects of long-period variable stars, and is applied to the galaxy M87.

doi: 10.1038/nature15731

惑星科学:無衝突近接遭遇と月傾斜角の起源

Collisionless encounters and the origin of the lunar inclination p.492

Gravitational interactions after the Moon-forming event suggest that the current lunar inclination is the result of collisionless encounters of planetesimals with the early Moon–Earth system.

doi: 10.1038/nature16137

材料科学:第二種ワイル半金属

Type-II Weyl semimetals p.495

A new type of topological semimetal is described, which contains so-called type-II Weyl fermions and has very different properties to standard Weyl semimetals, owing to the existence of an open Fermi surface rather than a point-like one in the vicinity of Weyl points; WTe2 is predicted to be one such semimetal.

doi: 10.1038/nature15768

画像化技術:血管の深部超解像イメージングのための超高速超音波局在顕微鏡法

Ultrafast ultrasound localization microscopy for deep super-resolution vascular imaging p.499

Conventional clinical ultrasound imaging has, at best, sub-millimetre-scale resolution, but now a new ultrasound technique is demonstrated that is based on fast tracking of transient signals from a sub-wavelength contrast agent and has sufficiently high resolution to map the microvasculature deep into organs.

doi: 10.1038/nature16066

材料化学:金属有機構造体における過剰吸着と吸着質超格子の形成

Extra adsorption and adsorbate superlattice formation in metal-organic frameworks p.503

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have a high internal surface area and widely tunable composition, which make them useful for applications involving adsorption, such as hydrogen, methane or carbon dioxide storage. The selectivity and uptake capacity of the adsorption process are determined by interactions involving the adsorbates and their porous host materials. But, although the interactions of adsorbate molecules with the internal MOF surface and also amongst themselves within individual pores have been extensively studied, adsorbate–adsorbate interactions across pore walls have not been explored. Here we show that local strain in the MOF, induced by pore filling, can give rise to collective and long-range adsorbate–adsorbate interactions and the formation of adsorbate superlattices that extend beyond an original MOF unit cell. Specifically, we use in situ small-angle X-ray scattering to track and map the distribution and ordering of adsorbate molecules in five members of the mesoporous MOF-74 series along entire adsorption–desorption isotherms. We find in all cases that the capillary condensation that fills the pores gives rise to the formation of ‘extra adsorption domains’—that is, domains spanning several neighbouring pores, which have a higher adsorbate density than non-domain pores. In the case of one MOF, IRMOF-74-V-hex, these domains form a superlattice structure that is difficult to reconcile with the prevailing view of pore-filling as a stochastic process. The visualization of the adsorption process provided by our data, with clear evidence for initial adsorbate aggregation in distinct domains and ordering before an even distribution is finally reached, should help to improve our understanding of this process and may thereby improve our ability to exploit it practically.

doi: 10.1038/nature15734

植物科学:脱水耐性のあるイネ科植物Oropetium thomaeumの単一分子塩基配列解読

Single-molecule sequencing of the desiccation-tolerant grass Oropetium thomaeum OPEN p.508

Oropetium thomaeum is a resurrection plant that can survive extreme water stress through desiccation to complete dryness, providing a model for drought tolerance; here, whole-genome sequencing and assembly of the Oropetium genome using single-molecule real-time sequencing is reported.

doi: 10.1038/nature15714

神経科学:覚醒状態で行動している動物の脳における甘味と苦味の知覚

Sweet and bitter taste in the brain of awake behaving animals p.512

Activation of the sweet and bitter cortical fields in awake mice evokes predetermined behavioural programs, independent of learning and experience, illustrating the hardwired and innate nature of the sense of taste.

doi: 10.1038/nature15763

神経科学:ショウジョウバエのイオンチャネル型受容体IR25aは温度による概日時計のリセットに関わっている

Drosophila Ionotropic Receptor 25a mediates circadian clock resetting by temperature p.516

A Drosophila chemosensory receptor, expressed in leg sensory neurons, is necessary for behavioural and molecular synchronization of the fly’s circadian clock to low-amplitude temperature cycles; this temperature-sensing pathway functions independently from the known temperature sensors of the fly’s antennae.

doi: 10.1038/nature16148

微生物学:真菌病原体は性フェロモン受容体を用いて宿主植物の出すシグナルを感知し、化学屈性を起こす

Fungal pathogen uses sex pheromone receptor for chemotropic sensing of host plant signals p.521

Fungal pathogens reorient hyphal growth towards their plant hosts in response to chemical signals; here, directed growth of the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum towards the roots of the tomato plant is shown to be triggered by class III peroxidases secreted by the tomato plant, with the fungal response requiring a sex pheromone receptor.

doi: 10.1038/nature15516

がん:膵がんにおいて上皮間葉転換は転移に必要ではないが化学療法耐性を誘導する

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is dispensable for metastasis but induces chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer p.525

Deletion of Twist or Snail, two key transcription factors that induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in a mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma leads to an increase in cell proliferation, and a greater sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine, with no effect on invasion or metastasis.

doi: 10.1038/nature16064

ウイルス学:dsRNAウイルス内の分節化されたゲノムとRNAポリメラーゼ複合体のin situ構造

In situ structures of the segmented genome and RNA polymerase complex inside a dsRNA virus p.531

This study visualizes the interior of a dsRNA virus using cryo-electron microscopy, revealing the organization of the genome of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus together with its transcriptional enzyme complex in both quiescent and transcribing states.

doi: 10.1038/nature15767

構造生物学:CRISPR–Cas適応免疫の際の外来DNA獲得機構

Foreign DNA capture during CRISPR–Cas adaptive immunity p.535

The structure of the Cas1–Cas2 complex bound to a protospacer sequence illustrates how foreign DNA is captured and measured by bacterial proteins in preparation for integration into CRISPR loci.

doi: 10.1038/nature15760

構造生物学:α-ケトグルタル酸依存性単核非ヘム鉄酵素によるエンドペルオキシド形成

Endoperoxide formation by an α-ketoglutarate-dependent mononuclear non-haem iron enzyme p.539

Many peroxy-containing secondary metabolites have been isolated and shown to provide beneficial effects to human health. Yet, the mechanisms of most endoperoxide biosyntheses are not well understood. Although endoperoxides have been suggested as key reaction intermediates in several cases, the only well-characterized endoperoxide biosynthetic enzyme is prostaglandin H synthase, a haem-containing enzyme. Fumitremorgin B endoperoxidase (FtmOx1) from Aspergillus fumigatus is the first reported α-ketoglutarate-dependent mononuclear non-haem iron enzyme that can catalyse an endoperoxide formation reaction. To elucidate the mechanistic details for this unique chemical transformation, we report the X-ray crystal structures of FtmOx1 and the binary complexes it forms with either the co-substrate (α-ketoglutarate) or the substrate (fumitremorgin B). Uniquely, after α-ketoglutarate has bound to the mononuclear iron centre in a bidentate fashion, the remaining open site for oxygen binding and activation is shielded from the substrate or the solvent by a tyrosine residue (Y224). Upon replacing Y224 with alanine or phenylalanine, the FtmOx1 catalysis diverts from endoperoxide formation to the more commonly observed hydroxylation. Subsequent characterizations by a combination of stopped-flow optical absorption spectroscopy and freeze-quench electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy support the presence of transient radical species in FtmOx1 catalysis. Our results help to unravel the novel mechanism for this endoperoxide formation reaction.

doi: 10.1038/nature15519

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