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Editorials

野生の集団を大きく改変する技術である遺伝子ドライブの研究者が、自身の研究計画を公開して広く議論を求めるのは賢明な姿勢である。

Defensive drives p.275

Researchers exploring ways to genetically alter wild populations are wise to air their plans.

doi: 10.1038/527275b

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米国立衛生研究所(NIH)の助成における人種格差を解消するには、正の偏見と負の偏見の両方をなくす必要がある。

Research for all p.275

Numbers on racial bias in research grants awarded by the US National Institutes of Health show that science has more to learn about inclusiveness.

doi: 10.1038/527275a

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正しいガバナンスがあってこそ、科学はアンチドーピングに大きな力を発揮する。

Dope rules p.276

Science is beside the point when an entrenched culture in a sport supports scoundrels.

doi: 10.1038/527276a

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News

中国の研究チームが、動物の磁気感覚を担う「生体コンパス」を発見したとの報告を。

Long-sought biological compass discovered p.283

Protein complex offers explanation for how animals sense Earth's magnetic pull.

doi: 10.1038/527283a

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宇宙重力波望遠鏡の実現を目指した技術実証機であるESAのLISAパスファインダーの打ち上げが間近に。

Freefall space cubes are test for gravitational wave spotter p.284

Europe’s long-awaited LISA Pathfinder spacecraft has two metal cubes at its heart, which it will attempt to isolate from every force except for gravity.

doi: 10.1038/527284a

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NIHの助成に関し、依然として人種的マイノリティーが不利なことが明らかに。

Racial bias continues to haunt NIH grants p.286

Minorities still less likely to win biomedical funding.

doi: 10.1038/527286a

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軌道投入に失敗したガリレオ測位衛星2基を、一般相対性理論の精密な検証に再利用するという計画が。

Wayward satellites repurposed to test general relativity p.286

Scientists will use wonky orbit to test Einstein’s theories.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18780

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図で見る、太陽系外惑星探査のこれから

The exoplanet files p.288

What we know about alien worlds — and what’s coming next.

doi: 10.1038/527288a

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News Features

量子の不思議:空間と時間とエンタングルメント

The quantum source of space-time p.290

「量子の奇妙さ」の根底にあると信じられている量子エンタングルメントが、「時空概念」の根底にもあると考える物理学者がいる。

doi: 10.1038/527290a

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News & Views

画像化技術:骨構造解析の手法が拡大

Imaging techniques: Extra dimension for bone analysis p.308

コンピュータートモグラフィー法とX線小角散乱法という2つの手法を併用し、これにさらに非常に高度な計算能力を組み合わせて使うことで、骨と歯の組織のマルチスケールでの三次元解析が今回、可能になった。

doi: 10.1038/527308a

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抗生物質:細菌の「アジト」を目指す抗生物質

Antibiotics: Homed to the hideout p.309

黄色ブドウ球菌の一部は、宿主細胞中に「隠れ潜む」ことで標準的な抗生物質治療を行った後にも生き残ると考えられている。だが、マウスモデルでこのような細菌を標的とする、武装抗体とも呼ばれる抗体–抗生物質抱合体が、今回開発された。

doi: 10.1038/nature15647

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宇宙物理学:形成途中の惑星が見つかった

Astrophysics: Growing planet brought to light p.310

太陽系外惑星は数千個が見つかっているが、非常に若い惑星はまだ1つも見つかっていなかった。今回、誕生した場所で形成の途上にある若い惑星が観測によってついに見つかり、さらに多くのこうした発見への糸口が開かれた。

doi: 10.1038/527310a

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進化:脊椎動物になるための堤が作られるまで

Evolution: On the crest of becoming vertebrate p.311

脊椎動物の神経堤細胞といくつかの性質が共通する細胞が、無脊椎動物で今回見つかった。この発見は、神経堤細胞という脊椎動物の重要な細胞集団の進化過程についての手掛かりを与えてくれそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/nature15645

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がん:標的臓器を探し出す小胞

Cancer: Organ-seeking vesicles p.312

がん細胞は、標的臓器を探し出す細胞外小胞を送り出して遠く離れた転移部位を準備しておき、がんを臓器特異的に拡大していくことが、新たな解析によって明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature15642

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リハビリテーション:動きを後押しする

Rehabilitation: Boost for movement p.314

脊椎損傷を受けたラットの運動ニューロンを、それらのニューロンが随意運動指令を受ける時に合わせて電気バーストで刺激してやると、機能の回復が改善されることが示された。

doi: 10.1038/527314a

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生態学:極端な気象現象への生態系の応答

Ecology: Ecosystem responses to climate extremes p.315

極端な干ばつ、あるいは極端な多雨は生態系の植生成長に強い影響を与えることが今回明らかになった。半乾燥地域が最も大きな影響を受けるため、将来起こると考えられる、長期にわたる干ばつに対するこうした地域の生態系の脆弱性が懸念されている。

doi: 10.1038/527315a

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Articles

発生:Dppの拡散は翅原基の中央部の成長には必要だが側方部の成長には必要でない

Dpp spreading is required for medial but not for lateral wing disc growth p.317

The morphogen Decapentaplegic (Dpp) has been implicated in both wing patterning and growth in fruitflies; here, a nanobody-based morphotrap approach has been developed that rules out a role for the Dpp gradient in regulating lateral wing growth.

doi: 10.1038/nature15712

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抗生物質:新規な抗体–抗生物質抱合体は細胞内の黄色ブドウ球菌を排除する

Novel antibody–antibiotic conjugate eliminates intracellular S. aureus p.323

Antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, such as MRSA, are proving increasingly difficult to treat; here, one reason for this is confirmed to be the fact that S. aureus bacteria can reside in intracellular reservoirs where they are protected from antibiotics, but a new strategy—based on an antibody–antibiotic conjugate—can specifically target these reservoirs.

doi: 10.1038/nature16057

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がん:腫瘍のエキソソームのインテグリンが臓器向性転移を決定する

Tumour exosome integrins determine organotropic metastasis p.329

Exosomes originating from lung-, liver- and brain-tropic tumour cells are preferentially incorporated by specific resident cells of the target organs, thus preparing the site for metastasis; the expression of distinct combinations of exosomal integrin proteins determines the exosomal targeting to each of the three organs, and blocking these integrins reduces organotropic exosome uptake by the target organs, thereby reducing the likelihood of organotropic metastasis.

doi: 10.1038/nature15756

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構造生物学:低温電子顕微鏡によって明らかにされたInsP3Rチャネルのゲート開閉装置

Gating machinery of InsP3R channels revealed by electron cryomicroscopy p.336

This study has determined the electron cryomicroscopy structure of the mammalian type 1 InsP3 receptor in a ligand-free state at 4.7 Å resolution; although the central Ca2+-conduction pathway is similar to other ion channels, the unique architecture of the C-terminal domains of the tetrameric channel suggests that a distinctive allosteric mechanism underlies the activation of InsP3 gating.

doi: 10.1038/nature15249

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Letters

天文学:LkCa 15の遷移円盤内にある降着を受けている原始惑星

Accreting protoplanets in the LkCa 15 transition disk p.342

Transition disks are natural laboratories for the study of planet formation, with inner clearings explained by the influence of accreting planets, but attempts to observe directly accretion onto protoplanets have proven unsuccessful so far; here the authors detect infrared emission from multiple companions of the LkCa 15 system and Ha emission from the innermost (LkCa 15 b), showing hot (~10,000 K) gas falling deep into the potential well of an accreting protoplanet.

doi: 10.1038/nature15761

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素粒子物理学:反陽子間の相互作用の測定

Measurement of interaction between antiprotons p.345

The interaction between antiprotons, produced by colliding high-energy gold ions, is shown to be attractive, and two important parameters of this interaction are measured, namely the scattering length and the effective range.

doi: 10.1038/nature15724

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画像化法:小角散乱テンソルトモグラフィーによる巨視的試料のナノ構造の調査

Nanostructure surveys of macroscopic specimens by small-angle scattering tensor tomography p.349

An imaging method that combines small-angle X-ray scattering with tensor tomography to probe nanoscale structures in macroscopic samples is introduced and demonstrated by measuring the main orientation and the degree of orientation of nanoscale mineralized collagen fibrils in a human trabecula bone sample.

doi: 10.1038/nature16056

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画像化法:六次元の実空間と逆空間のX線小角散乱トモグラフィー

Six-dimensional real and reciprocal space small-angle X-ray scattering tomography p.353

A small-angle X-ray scattering computed tomography method that reduces the amount of data that needs to be collected and analysed to reconstruct the three-dimensional scattering distribution in reciprocal space of a three-dimensional sample in real space is demonstrated by measuring the orientation of collagen fibres within a human tooth.

doi: 10.1038/nature16060

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材料科学:固有の熱管理機能を備えた柔軟な金属有機構造体におけるメタン貯蔵

Methane storage in flexible metal–organic frameworks with intrinsic thermal management p.357

Two flexible metal-organic frameworks are presented as solid adsorbents for methane that undergo reversible phase transitions at specific methane pressures, enabling greater storage capacities of usable methane than have been achieved previously, while also providing internal heat management of the system.

doi: 10.1038/nature15732

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気候科学:急激な海洋温暖化と関連した北太平洋退氷期の低酸素事象

North Pacific deglacial hypoxic events linked to abrupt ocean warming p.362

The processes responsible for driving the expansion of the ocean's oxygen minimum zones remain uncertain; here sediment core data from the Gulf of Alaska suggest that reduced oxygen solubility was a result of ocean warming initiating the expansion of the North Pacific oxygen minimum zone, leading to increased marine productivity and carbon export and, in turn, further reductions in dissolved oxygen levels.

doi: 10.1038/nature15753

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進化学:雌雄の羽衣の配色に生活史と性選択が与える影響

The effects of life history and sexual selection on male and female plumage colouration p.367

By quantifying the colouration of all approximately 6,000 species of passerine birds, certain life-history traits such as large body size and tropical distribution are found to increase ornamentation in both male and female birds, whereas cooperative breeding increases it in females only, and sexual selection diminishes it in females more than it increases it in males.

doi: 10.1038/nature15509

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進化学:遊走性のニューロン前駆細胞は尾索動物の神経板境界部から生じる

Migratory neuronal progenitors arise from the neural plate borders in tunicates p.371

Neuronal precursor cells in the tunicate Ciona intestinalis are shown to delaminate and undergo directed cell migration along either side of the neural tube before differentiating into bipolar neurons, suggesting that vertebrate neural-crest-derived sensory neurons have much deeper evolutionary roots.

doi: 10.1038/nature15758

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発生:発生中のショウジョウバエの翅におけるデカペンタプレジックと成長制御

Decapentaplegic and growth control in the developing Drosophila wing p.375

The morphogen Decapentaplegic (Dpp) has been implicated in both wing patterning and growth in fruitflies; here, a CRISPR–Cas9 approach is used to rule out the Dpp gradient driving wing growth.

doi: 10.1038/nature15730

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がん:ASS1欠損腫瘍でのアスパラギン酸の転用がde novoピリミジン合成を促進する

Diversion of aspartate in ASS1-deficient tumours fosters de novo pyrimidine synthesis p.379

ASS1, a urea cycle enzyme, promotes cancer cell proliferation by facilitating pyrimidine synthesis via CAD (carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase complex) activation.

doi: 10.1038/nature15529

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遺伝学:DNA依存的転写因子ペアの形成が結合特異性を変化させる

DNA-dependent formation of transcription factor pairs alters their binding specificity p.384

A high-throughput analysis of DNA binding in over 9,000 interacting transcription factor pairs reveals that the interactions are often actively mediated by the DNA itself and the composite DNA sites recognized are different from the individual motifs of each transcription factor.

doi: 10.1038/nature15518

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分子生物学:ヒストンH1はDNA損傷後のユビキチンシグナル伝達の開始と増幅を連動させる

Histone H1 couples initiation and amplification of ubiquitin signalling after DNA damage p.389

At the initiation of DNA double-strand break repair, a number of ubiquitylation events occur; here, the RNF8 ubiquitin E3 ligase and the ubiquitin-conjugating E2 enzyme, UBC13, are shown to primarily modify H1-type linker histones, via a K63 linkage.

doi: 10.1038/nature15401

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構造生物学:ヒドラジンシンターゼ多タンパク質複合体の内部の仕組み

The inner workings of the hydrazine synthase multiprotein complex p.394

Hydrazine is an intermediate in the process of anaerobic ammonium oxidation which has a major role in the Earth’s nitrogen cycle; the crystal structure of a hydrazine synthase enzyme provides insights into the mechanism of hydrazine synthesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature15517

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