Power struggle p.609

The UK government’s decision to subsidize a nuclear power station while cutting support for renewables is short-sighted.

doi: 10.1038/526609a

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Burst bubbles p.609

Two medical-technology companies illustrate the ups and downs of innovation.

doi: 10.1038/526609b

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Ghost story p.610

The problem of abandoned fishing gear and its effects on marine life deserve greater attention.

doi: 10.1038/526610a

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Malaria vaccine cautiously recommended for use in Africa p.617

World Health Organization advisory committee endorses use of the RTS,S vaccine in small-scale demonstrations.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18638

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Super-fast Antarctic drills ready to hunt for oldest ice p.618

Next-generation machines can penetrate kilometres below surface in days rather than years.

doi: 10.1038/526618a

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US astronomers stuck in grant-rejection cycle p.620

The plummeting success rates in grant applications in the last decade are linked to flat budgets and more resubmitted proposals.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18631

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Massive UK baby study cancelled p.620

Loss prompts rethink about design of future cradle-to-grave studies.

doi: 10.1038/526620a

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Incoming space junk a scientific opportunity p.621

Astronomers prepare to observe an impact off the coast of Sri Lanka.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18642

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Cancer-fighting viruses win approval p.622

US regulators clear a viral melanoma therapy, paving the way for a promising field with a chequered past.

doi: 10.1038/526622a

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News Features


Before we drown we may die of thirst p.624


doi: 10.1038/526624a

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How to make the most of carbon dioxide p.628


doi: 10.1038/526628a

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News & Views


Immunology: Caspase target drives pyroptosis p.642


doi: 10.1038/nature15632

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Photonics: Random sudoku light p.643


doi: 10.1038/526643a

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Plant biology: Pigments on the move p.644


doi: 10.1038/526644a

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Ecology: Foraging further p.646


doi: 10.1038/526646a

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Chemical biology: Protein modification in a trice p.646


doi: 10.1038/526646b

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Palaeoanthropology: Homo sapiens in China 80,000 years ago p.647


doi: 10.1038/nature15640

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Quantum physics: Death by experiment for local realism p.649


doi: 10.1038/nature15631

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Non-coding RNA: Antibiotic tricks a switch p.650


doi: 10.1038/nature15635

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Projections from neocortex mediate top-down control of memory retrieval p.653

Here, a sparse neuronal projection from a part of the prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate, to the hippocampus is identified that, when activated, can elicit memory retrieval in mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature15389

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Cleavage of GSDMD by inflammatory caspases determines pyroptotic cell death p.660

CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing screens identify gasdermin D as a substrate for inflammatory caspases, and its N-terminal cleavage fragment, as well as the equivalent regions in other gasdermins, is shown to be capable of inducing pyroptosis.

doi: 10.1038/nature15514

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Caspase-11 cleaves gasdermin D for non-canonical inflammasome signalling p.666

Gasdermin D is identified as the required substrate for pyroptosis, mediating caspase-11 function in the non-canonical inflammasome pathway; the cleaved N-terminal domain is shown to trigger pyroptosis.

doi: 10.1038/nature15541

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Selective small-molecule inhibition of an RNA structural element p.672

A novel drug, ribocil, is shown to mimic the binding of a natural ligand to a bacterial riboflavin riboswitch (a non-coding stretch of messenger RNA whose structure is affected by a ligand—usually one related to the function of the protein encoded by the messenger RNA) to cause inhibition of bacterial growth; the ability to target an RNA structural element with a synthetic small molecule may expand our view of the target space susceptible to therapeutic intervention.

doi: 10.1038/nature15542

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Abundant molecular oxygen in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko p.678

In situ measurement of O2 in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko shows local abundances ranging from one per cent to ten per cent relative to H2O; the spatial and temporal uniformity of the O2/H2O ratio suggests that primordial O2 was incorporated into the nucleus during the comet’s formation.

doi: 10.1038/nature15707

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Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres p.682

A Bell experiment that is ‘loophole’ free—leaving no room for explanations based on experimental imperfections—reveals a statistically significant conflict with local realism

doi: 10.1038/nature15759

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Organometallic palladium reagents for cysteine bioconjugation p.687

Palladium(ii) complexes can be used in efficient and highly selective cysteine conjugation reactions that are rapid and robust, and the resulting aryl bioconjugates are stable towards acids, bases, oxidants and external thiol nucleophiles.

doi: 10.1038/nature15739

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Decadal slowdown of a land-terminating sector of the Greenland Ice Sheet despite warming p.692

Whether or not an increase in meltwater will make ice sheets move more quickly has been contentious, because water lubricates the ice–rock interface and speeds up the ice, but also stimulates the development of efficient drainage; now, a long-term and large-area study of a land-terminating margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet finds that more meltwater does not equal higher velocity.

doi: 10.1038/nature15722

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The earliest unequivocally modern humans in southern China p.696

A collection of 47 unequivocally modern human teeth from a cave in southern China shows that modern humans were in the region at least 80,000 years ago, and possibly as long as 120,000 years ago, which is twice as long as the earliest known modern humans in Europe; the population exhibited more derived features than contemporaneous hominins in northern and central China, adding to the complexity of the human story.

doi: 10.1038/nature15696

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Telomerase activation by genomic rearrangements in high-risk neuroblastoma p.700

Activation of telomere maintenance mechanisms—caused by novel somatic rearrangements of TERT, by MYCN amplification, or ATRX mutations—is a hallmark of high-risk neuroblastomas.

doi: 10.1038/nature14980

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Thalamic control of sensory selection in divided attention p.705

The authors trained mice to attend to or suppress vision based on behavioral context and show, through novel and established techniques, that changes in visual gain rely on tunable feedforward inhibition of visual thalamus via innervating thalamic reticular neurons; these findings introduce a subcortical model of attention in which modality-specific thalamic reticular subnetworks mediate top-down and context-dependent control of sensory selection.

doi: 10.1038/nature15398

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CMT2D neuropathy is linked to the neomorphic binding activity of glycyl-tRNA synthetase p.710

Charcot–Marie–Tooth diseases are hereditary peripheral neuropathies for which there are currently no effective therapies; here the type 2D subtype of these diseases is shown to be caused by mutations impeding a signalling pathway necessary for motor neuron survival.

doi: 10.1038/nature15510

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Yap-dependent reprogramming of Lgr5+ stem cells drives intestinal regeneration and cancer p.715

The gut epithelium has remarkable self-renewal capacity that under homeostatic conditions is driven by Wnt signalling in Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells (ISCs). However, the mechanisms underlying ISC regeneration after injury remain poorly understood. The Hippo signalling pathway mediates tissue growth and is important for regeneration. Here we demonstrate in mice that Yap, a downstream transcriptional effector of Hippo, is critical for recovery of intestinal epithelium after exposure to ionizing radiation. Yap transiently reprograms Lgr5+ ISCs by suppressing Wnt signalling and excessive Paneth cell differentiation, while promoting cell survival and inducing a regenerative program that includes Egf pathway activation. Accordingly, growth of Yap-deficient organoids is rescued by the Egfr ligand epiregulin, and we find that non-cell-autonomous production of stromal epiregulin may compensate for Yap loss in vivo. Consistent with key roles for regenerative signalling in tumorigenesis, we further demonstrate that Yap inactivation abolishes adenomas in the ApcMin mouse model of colon cancer, and that Yap-driven expansion of Apc−/− organoids requires the Egfr module of the Yap regenerative program. Finally, we show that in vivo Yap is required for progression of early Apc mutant tumour-initiating cells, suppresses their differentiation into Paneth cells, and induces a regenerative program and Egfr signalling. Our studies reveal that upon tissue injury, Yap reprograms Lgr5+ ISCs by inhibiting the Wnt homeostatic program, while inducing a regenerative program that includes activation of Egfr signalling. Moreover, our findings reveal a key role for the Yap regenerative pathway in driving cancer initiation.

doi: 10.1038/nature15382

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Bacteriocin production augments niche competition by enterococci in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract p.719

The authors develop a mouse model of Enterococcus faecalis colonization to show that enterococci harbouring the bacteriocin-expressing plasmid pPD1 replace indigenous enterococci and have the ability to transfer the plasmid to other enterococci, which enhances the stability of the bacteriocin-expressing bacteria in the gut; this result suggests a therapeutic approach that leverages niche-specificity to eliminate antibiotic-resistant bacteria from infected individuals.

doi: 10.1038/nature15524

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構造生物学:500 kDaの酵母アセチルCoAカルボキシラーゼホロ酵素二量体の結晶構造

Crystal structure of the 500-kDa yeast acetyl-CoA carboxylase holoenzyme dimer p.723

Acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCs) are large, multi-domain enzymes with crucial functions in fatty acid metabolism and are potential drug targets; here the X-ray crystal structure of the full-length, 500-kDa holoenzyme dimer of the ACC from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is solved and reveals an organization quite different from that of other biotin-dependent carboxylases.

doi: 10.1038/nature15375

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