目次

Editorials

再生可能エネルギーへの助成を削減するという英国政府の決定は、近視眼的だ。

Power struggle p.609

The UK government’s decision to subsidize a nuclear power station while cutting support for renewables is short-sighted.

doi: 10.1038/526609a

Full Text

評価の激しい浮き沈みを経験したバイオ企業の例を見ると、データに関する秘密主義は利益にならないことは明らかだ。

Burst bubbles p.609

Two medical-technology companies illustrate the ups and downs of innovation.

doi: 10.1038/526609b

Full Text

廃棄・放置された漁具が海洋生物に与える悪影響に、もっと注意を向けるべきだ。

Ghost story p.610

The problem of abandoned fishing gear and its effects on marine life deserve greater attention.

doi: 10.1038/526610a

Full Text

News

初のマラリアワクチンの、アフリカでの小規模なパイロット実証研究に慎重なゴーサインが。

Malaria vaccine cautiously recommended for use in Africa p.617

World Health Organization advisory committee endorses use of the RTS,S vaccine in small-scale demonstrations.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18638

Full Text

超高速の氷床掘削装置がさまざま開発されており、より古い氷床の迅速な調査に期待が。

Super-fast Antarctic drills ready to hunt for oldest ice p.618

Next-generation machines can penetrate kilometres below surface in days rather than years.

doi: 10.1038/526618a

Full Text

米国の天文学分野の研究助成が、予算の削減や提案書の再提出などによって悪循環に。

US astronomers stuck in grant-rejection cycle p.620

The plummeting success rates in grant applications in the last decade are linked to flat budgets and more resubmitted proposals.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18631

Full Text

米国に続き、英国でも大規模な出生コホート研究が中止に。

Massive UK baby study cancelled p.620

Loss prompts rethink about design of future cradle-to-grave studies.

doi: 10.1038/526620a

Full Text

地球に向けて落下中の正体不明の宇宙ゴミに、科学者たちの注目が。

Incoming space junk a scientific opportunity p.621

Astronomers prepare to observe an impact off the coast of Sri Lanka.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18642

Full Text

がんを攻撃する腫瘍溶解性ウイルス療法が、ヨーロッパや米国で認可間近に。

Cancer-fighting viruses win approval p.622

US regulators clear a viral melanoma therapy, paving the way for a promising field with a chequered past.

doi: 10.1038/526622a

Full Text

News Features

気候変動:溺れる前に、飲料水の危機が

Before we drown we may die of thirst p.624

太平洋のキリバス共和国は、温暖化による海面上昇に脅かされているが、脅威はそれだけではない。

doi: 10.1038/526624a

Full Text

化学:二酸化炭素を最大限に活用する方法

How to make the most of carbon dioxide p.628

二酸化炭素の工業原料としての活用が、気候変動対策の1つになり得ることを示そうと、産業界で盛んな研究が行われている。

doi: 10.1038/526628a

Full Text

News & Views

免疫学:カスパーゼの標的がピロトーシスを促進

Immunology: Caspase target drives pyroptosis p.642

炎症性カスパーゼは、ピロトーシスによる細胞死を引き起こすことで病原体の複製の制御を助けている。カスパーゼが基質であるガスダーミンDを切断するだけでピロトーシスの誘導には十分であることが今回明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature15632

Full Text

フォトニクス:ランダム数独ルールを使う光

Photonics: Random sudoku light p.643

賢い方法を使って、レーザービームに位相パターンがインプリントされた。このパターンは各点でランダムであるだけでなく、パターンの別の場所に蓄えられている情報にも依存している。

doi: 10.1038/526643a

Full Text

植物学:移動する色素

Plant biology: Pigments on the move p.644

植物細胞では、色素のアントシアニンは膜に結合している液胞という小器官に送られて、そこに蓄えられる。この過程は、液胞膜の伸長が関わるこれまで知られていなかった輸送経路によって行われていることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/526644a

Full Text

生態学:遠のく餌場

Ecology: Foraging further p.646

キングペンギンについての16年間にわたる研究で、この鳥の採餌行動と個体群動態は、海面温度を上昇させ、ペンギンの餌場を南下させるような気候異常によって変化していることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/526646a

Full Text

化学生物学:タンパク質を直ちに修飾

Chemical biology: Protein modification in a trice p.646

タンパク質やペプチドをシステイン残基特異的に化学修飾する有機金属試薬が開発された。これは治療に使える化合物を合成する一般的な反応経路となると考えられる。

doi: 10.1038/526646b

Full Text

古人類学:8万年前の中国にいたホモ・サピエンス

Palaeoanthropology: Homo sapiens in China 80,000 years ago p.647

8万年以上前のものと思われるヒトの歯が中国南部で見つかったことは、ホモ・サピエンス(現生人類)が、これまで考えられていたよりかなり早く、この地域に居住していたことを示している。

doi: 10.1038/nature15640

Full Text

量子物理学:実験によって否定された局所実在性

Quantum physics: Death by experiment for local realism p.649

局所実在性と呼ばれる、基本的な科学的仮説は、量子力学でのいくつかの予測と相いれない。以前の試験結果の信頼性を危うくしていたループホールが全く存在しない実験によって、今回こうした予測が確証された。

doi: 10.1038/nature15631

Full Text

非コードRNA:抗生物質でスイッチをだます

Non-coding RNA: Antibiotic tricks a switch p.650

細菌の生合成経路を遮断する化合物を探索するスクリーニングにより、調節性RNAの構造中に含まれる分子スイッチを標的とすることで病原体の増殖を食い止める抗生物質のリード化合物が見つかった。

doi: 10.1038/nature15635

Full Text

Articles

学習と記憶:新皮質からの投射が記憶検索のトップダウン制御を仲介する

Projections from neocortex mediate top-down control of memory retrieval p.653

Here, a sparse neuronal projection from a part of the prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate, to the hippocampus is identified that, when activated, can elicit memory retrieval in mice.

doi: 10.1038/nature15389

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

免疫学:炎症性カスパーゼによるGSDMDの切断はピロトーシス細胞死の開始を決定付ける

Cleavage of GSDMD by inflammatory caspases determines pyroptotic cell death p.660

CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing screens identify gasdermin D as a substrate for inflammatory caspases, and its N-terminal cleavage fragment, as well as the equivalent regions in other gasdermins, is shown to be capable of inducing pyroptosis.

doi: 10.1038/nature15514

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

免疫学:カスパーゼ-11は非古典的インフラマソームシグナル伝達でガスダーミンDを切断する

Caspase-11 cleaves gasdermin D for non-canonical inflammasome signalling p.666

Gasdermin D is identified as the required substrate for pyroptosis, mediating caspase-11 function in the non-canonical inflammasome pathway; the cleaved N-terminal domain is shown to trigger pyroptosis.

doi: 10.1038/nature15541

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

創薬:RNA構造エレメントを低分子によって選択的に抑制

Selective small-molecule inhibition of an RNA structural element p.672

A novel drug, ribocil, is shown to mimic the binding of a natural ligand to a bacterial riboflavin riboswitch (a non-coding stretch of messenger RNA whose structure is affected by a ligand—usually one related to the function of the protein encoded by the messenger RNA) to cause inhibition of bacterial growth; the ability to target an RNA structural element with a synthetic small molecule may expand our view of the target space susceptible to therapeutic intervention.

doi: 10.1038/nature15542

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

Letters

惑星科学:67P/チュリュモフ・ゲラシメンコ彗星のコマに豊富にある酸素分子

Abundant molecular oxygen in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko p.678

In situ measurement of O2 in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko shows local abundances ranging from one per cent to ten per cent relative to H2O; the spatial and temporal uniformity of the O2/H2O ratio suggests that primordial O2 was incorporated into the nucleus during the comet’s formation.

doi: 10.1038/nature15707

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

量子物理学:1.3キロメートル離れた電子スピンによるループホールのないベル不等式破れ

Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres p.682

A Bell experiment that is ‘loophole’ free—leaving no room for explanations based on experimental imperfections—reveals a statistically significant conflict with local realism

doi: 10.1038/nature15759

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

化学:システイン・バイオコンジュゲーション用の有機金属パラジウム試薬

Organometallic palladium reagents for cysteine bioconjugation p.687

Palladium(ii) complexes can be used in efficient and highly selective cysteine conjugation reactions that are rapid and robust, and the resulting aryl bioconjugates are stable towards acids, bases, oxidants and external thiol nucleophiles.

doi: 10.1038/nature15739

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

気候科学:温暖化にもかかわらず10年間減速しているグリーンランド氷床の陸上終端部

Decadal slowdown of a land-terminating sector of the Greenland Ice Sheet despite warming p.692

Whether or not an increase in meltwater will make ice sheets move more quickly has been contentious, because water lubricates the ice–rock interface and speeds up the ice, but also stimulates the development of efficient drainage; now, a long-term and large-area study of a land-terminating margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet finds that more meltwater does not equal higher velocity.

doi: 10.1038/nature15722

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

古人類学:中国南部で見つかった現生人類であることが明らかな最古の化石

The earliest unequivocally modern humans in southern China p.696

A collection of 47 unequivocally modern human teeth from a cave in southern China shows that modern humans were in the region at least 80,000 years ago, and possibly as long as 120,000 years ago, which is twice as long as the earliest known modern humans in Europe; the population exhibited more derived features than contemporaneous hominins in northern and central China, adding to the complexity of the human story.

doi: 10.1038/nature15696

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

がん:高リスク型の神経芽細胞種におけるゲノム再編成によるテロメラーゼの活性化

Telomerase activation by genomic rearrangements in high-risk neuroblastoma p.700

Activation of telomere maintenance mechanisms—caused by novel somatic rearrangements of TERT, by MYCN amplification, or ATRX mutations—is a hallmark of high-risk neuroblastomas.

doi: 10.1038/nature14980

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

神経生物学:注意分割課題での感覚選択に対する視床の制御

Thalamic control of sensory selection in divided attention p.705

The authors trained mice to attend to or suppress vision based on behavioral context and show, through novel and established techniques, that changes in visual gain rely on tunable feedforward inhibition of visual thalamus via innervating thalamic reticular neurons; these findings introduce a subcortical model of attention in which modality-specific thalamic reticular subnetworks mediate top-down and context-dependent control of sensory selection.

doi: 10.1038/nature15398

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

神経科学:CMT2DニューロパチーはグリシルtRNA合成酵素の新形態の結合活性と関連している

CMT2D neuropathy is linked to the neomorphic binding activity of glycyl-tRNA synthetase p.710

Charcot–Marie–Tooth diseases are hereditary peripheral neuropathies for which there are currently no effective therapies; here the type 2D subtype of these diseases is shown to be caused by mutations impeding a signalling pathway necessary for motor neuron survival.

doi: 10.1038/nature15510

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

がん:Lgr5+幹細胞のYap依存的再プログラム化は腸の再生とがんを駆動する

Yap-dependent reprogramming of Lgr5+ stem cells drives intestinal regeneration and cancer p.715

The gut epithelium has remarkable self-renewal capacity that under homeostatic conditions is driven by Wnt signalling in Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells (ISCs). However, the mechanisms underlying ISC regeneration after injury remain poorly understood. The Hippo signalling pathway mediates tissue growth and is important for regeneration. Here we demonstrate in mice that Yap, a downstream transcriptional effector of Hippo, is critical for recovery of intestinal epithelium after exposure to ionizing radiation. Yap transiently reprograms Lgr5+ ISCs by suppressing Wnt signalling and excessive Paneth cell differentiation, while promoting cell survival and inducing a regenerative program that includes Egf pathway activation. Accordingly, growth of Yap-deficient organoids is rescued by the Egfr ligand epiregulin, and we find that non-cell-autonomous production of stromal epiregulin may compensate for Yap loss in vivo. Consistent with key roles for regenerative signalling in tumorigenesis, we further demonstrate that Yap inactivation abolishes adenomas in the ApcMin mouse model of colon cancer, and that Yap-driven expansion of Apc−/− organoids requires the Egfr module of the Yap regenerative program. Finally, we show that in vivo Yap is required for progression of early Apc mutant tumour-initiating cells, suppresses their differentiation into Paneth cells, and induces a regenerative program and Egfr signalling. Our studies reveal that upon tissue injury, Yap reprograms Lgr5+ ISCs by inhibiting the Wnt homeostatic program, while inducing a regenerative program that includes activation of Egfr signalling. Moreover, our findings reveal a key role for the Yap regenerative pathway in driving cancer initiation.

doi: 10.1038/nature15382

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

微生物学:バクテリオシン産生は哺乳類消化管での腸球菌のニッチ競争を増大する

Bacteriocin production augments niche competition by enterococci in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract p.719

The authors develop a mouse model of Enterococcus faecalis colonization to show that enterococci harbouring the bacteriocin-expressing plasmid pPD1 replace indigenous enterococci and have the ability to transfer the plasmid to other enterococci, which enhances the stability of the bacteriocin-expressing bacteria in the gut; this result suggests a therapeutic approach that leverages niche-specificity to eliminate antibiotic-resistant bacteria from infected individuals.

doi: 10.1038/nature15524

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

構造生物学:500 kDaの酵母アセチルCoAカルボキシラーゼホロ酵素二量体の結晶構造

Crystal structure of the 500-kDa yeast acetyl-CoA carboxylase holoenzyme dimer p.723

Acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCs) are large, multi-domain enzymes with crucial functions in fatty acid metabolism and are potential drug targets; here the X-ray crystal structure of the full-length, 500-kDa holoenzyme dimer of the ACC from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is solved and reveals an organization quite different from that of other biotin-dependent carboxylases.

doi: 10.1038/nature15375

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

「Journal home」に戻る

プライバシーマーク制度