目次

Editorials

科学者、学会主催者、メディアは、学会発表などの精査前の研究成果について慎重に扱うべきだ。

Abstract thoughts p.475

Scientists, meeting organizers and the media must take care with preliminary findings.

doi: 10.1038/526475b

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ロシアが研究分野で国家管理を強化しようとしているが、これは西側との協力関係を損ない、科学基盤を弱めることになる。

Russian roulette p.475

Attempts to keep foreign interests out of Russian research will only suppress the exchange of information, and risk damaging East–West relations.

doi: 10.1038/526475a

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食の安全性評価は難しい作業であり、データだけでなく評価手法についても透明性が重要だ。

Pick and mix p.476

Food regulators are right to place new forms of data on the safety menu.

doi: 10.1038/526756a

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News

太陽系外惑星観測の第一人者Geoffrey Marcyによるセクハラが発覚したことを契機に、米国の天文学界がセクハラ問題への取り組みに力を。

US astronomers rally to end sexual harassment p.483

Community takes action in wake of Geoffrey Marcy case.

doi: 10.1038/526483a

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GoogleやApple、IBMなど巨大テクノロジー企業が生命科学分野に参入し、科学者が次々とシリコンバレーに。

Why biomedical superstars are signing on with Google p.484

Tech firm’s ambitious goals and abundant resources attract life scientists.

doi: 10.1038/526484a

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ニュートリノの探索実験および加速器研究が、米国の核物理学の長期的な優先テーマに。

Neutrino study made key priority for US nuclear physics p.485

Wish list also includes new particle collider.

doi: 10.1038/526485a

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ロシア政府が、あらゆる科学的成果について、発表前に検閲する方針を。

Russian secret service to vet research papers p.486

Moscow biology department among the first to require that all manuscripts comply with law on state secrets.

doi: 10.1038/526486a

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遺伝性疾患である網膜色素変性症の遺伝子治療の動物実験および臨床試験で、期待の持てる結果が。

Success against blindness encourages gene therapy researchers p.487

Positive news buoys a beleaguered field, but treatment benefits may fade.

doi: 10.1038/526487a

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キューバのサメ保護活動が、米国との国交回復で大きく前進。

Cuba forges links with United States to save sharks p.488

Improved diplomatic relations feed a budding environmental partnership.

doi: 10.1038/526488a

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News Features

気候科学:「怪物」エルニーニョを追う

Hunting the Godzilla El Niño p.490

現在、史上最強クラスのエルニーニョが発生しつつあり、科学者たちは大きな被害をもたらすエルニーニョ現象の解明につなげようと、待ち構えている。

doi: 10.1038/526490a

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社会科学:時間研究室

The lab that knows where your time really goes p.492

現代の生活は、どうしてこう忙しいのだろうか? — 英国オックスフォード大学の生活時間研究所が、所有する世界最大の日誌コレクションを使って、その答えを見いだそうとしている。

doi: 10.1038/526492a

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News & Views

流体力学:乱流は燎原の火のように広がる

Fluid dynamics: Turbulence spreads like wildfire p.508

管の中の滑らかな流れが乱流に変わる際の重要な特徴が簡単なモデルによって明らかにされた。今回得られた知見は、もっと複雑なモデルへの道を開くものであり、また工業技術への影響も考えられる。

doi: 10.1038/526508a

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免疫学:急性感染の長期的影響

Immunology: Chronic effects of acute infections p.509

腸内病原体の1つへの急性感染が原因となって、腸内微生物によって維持されて長期間続く炎症が引き起こされることが、マウスで観察された。この観察結果は、感染歴が長期的な免疫機能に影響し得る経路の存在を明らかにしている。

doi: 10.1038/526509a

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気候科学:小さな氷河が海水準上昇に及ぼす大きな影響

Climate science: Small glacier has big effect on sea-level rise p.510

西南極氷床のモデルでは、今後数世紀にわたってかなりの量の氷が失われることだけでなく、海水準上昇に大きく寄与すると考えられている氷河の1つがすでに不安定化している可能性も予測されている。

doi: 10.1038/526510a

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生物学的手法:誘導性幹細胞から成長した腎臓組織

Biological techniques: Kidney tissue grown from induced stem cells p.512

あらゆる細胞種を生じさせることが可能なように操作を加えたヒト細胞から胚性腎臓に似た構造が誘導された。今回の進展は、移植可能な腎臓を培養によって成長させる道筋を示している。

doi: 10.1038/nature15639

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微生物学:導電性のコンソーシア

Microbiology: Conductive consortia p.513

生理学的解析、電子顕微鏡法、それに単一細胞を化学的に画像化する方法を併用して、メタン酸化を行う微生物コンソーシアに属するメンバー間では直接的な電子伝達が起こっていることが示唆された。

doi: 10.1038/526513a

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生態学:マングローブ林を維持する

Ecology: Mangrove maintenance p.515

インド太平洋地域にある27の観測地点についての評価から、海水準上昇に直面しつつある現在、マングローブ林の生存のカギを握るのは堆積物の累積であることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/526515a

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太陽系外惑星:地球の将来の運命を垣間見る

Exoplanets: A glimpse of Earth's fate p.515

ケプラー宇宙望遠鏡と地上の望遠鏡から得られたデータの解析から、白色矮星を巡る軌道上でバラバラになった状態にある小さな惑星が少なくとも1個(おそらく数個)見つかった。

doi: 10.1038/526515b

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進化:鳥類の爆発的進化

Evolution: An avian explosion p.516

現生鳥類198種のゲノム塩基配列から、データの範囲と深度の前例のない組み合わせが得られ、現生鳥類の進化早期における系統類縁関係について、これまでで最も確実な説明がもたらされた。

doi: 10.1038/nature15638

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Articles

がん:慢性リンパ性白血病における頻発性非コード変異

Non-coding recurrent mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia p.519

Genomic approaches in more than 500 patients are used to extend the number of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) driver alterations, and also identify novel recurrent mutations in non-coding regions, including an enhancer of PAX5 and the 3′ untranslated region of NOTCH1, which lead to aberrant splicing events, increased NOTCH1 protein stability and activity, and an adverse clinical outcome.

doi: 10.1038/nature14666

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

がん:CLLおよびそのプログレッションと再発の進化を駆動する変異群

Mutations driving CLL and their evolution in progression and relapse p.525

This study reports exome sequencing of samples from 538 individuals with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), including 278 collected as part of a prospective clinical trial; recurrently mutated genes are identified and pathways involved in CLL are highlighted, as well as their evolution in progression and disease relapse.

doi: 10.1038/nature15395

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

微生物学:単一細胞の活性から明らかになったメタン酸化細菌コンソーシアにおける直接的な電子伝達

Single cell activity reveals direct electron transfer in methanotrophic consortia p.531

The anaerobic oxidation of methane in marine sediments is performed by consortia of methane-oxidizing archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria; an examination of the role of interspecies spatial positioning on single cell activity reveals that interspecies electron transfer may overcome the requirement for close spatial proximity, a proposition supported by large multi-haem cytochromes in ANME-2 genomes as well as redox-active electron microscopy staining.

doi: 10.1038/nature15512

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

構造生物学:B12依存性光受容体による遺伝子調節の構造基盤

Structural basis for gene regulation by a B12-dependent photoreceptor p.536

Crystal structures are presented of Thermus thermophilus CarH, a photoreceptor that uses a vitamin B12 derivative, in all three relevant states: in the dark, both free and bound to operator DNA, and after light exposure.

doi: 10.1038/nature14950

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

Letters

高エネルギー宇宙物理学:大質量ブラックホールによる星の破壊を明らかにするX線ガス流

Flows of X-ray gas reveal the disruption of a star by a massive black hole p.542

High-resolution X-ray spectra reveal highly ionized X-ray gas flows in a nearby tidal disruption event, ASASSN-14li, near to the black hole of the galaxy PGC 043234.

doi: 10.1038/nature15708

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

太陽系外惑星:白色矮星をトランジットしている崩壊しつつある小さな惑星

A disintegrating minor planet transiting a white dwarf p.546

The atmospheres of white dwarfs often contain elements heavier than helium, even though these elements would be expected to settle into the stars’ interiors; observations of the white dwarf WD 1145+017 suggest that disintegrating rocky bodies are orbiting the star, perhaps contributing heavy elements to its atmosphere.

doi: 10.1038/nature15527

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

流体力学:完全乱流の発生

The rise of fully turbulent flow p.550

Experiments, asymptotic theory and computer simulations of wall-bounded shear flow uncover a bifurcation scenario that explains the transition from localized turbulent patches to fully turbulent flow.

doi: 10.1038/nature15701

日本語要約 | Full Text | PDF

量子物理学:カオス的な励起子ポラリトンビリヤードにおける非エルミート縮退の観測

Observation of non-Hermitian degeneracies in a chaotic exciton-polariton billiard p.554

Exciton-polaritons are hybrid light–matter quasiparticles formed by strongly interacting photons and excitons (electron–hole pairs) in semiconductor microcavities. They have emerged as a robust solid-state platform for next-generation optoelectronic applications as well as for fundamental studies of quantum many-body physics. Importantly, exciton-polaritons are a profoundly open (that is, non-Hermitian) quantum system, which requires constant pumping of energy and continuously decays, releasing coherent radiation. Thus, the exciton-polaritons always exist in a balanced potential landscape of gain and loss. However, the inherent non-Hermitian nature of this potential has so far been largely ignored in exciton-polariton physics. Here we demonstrate that non-Hermiticity dramatically modifies the structure of modes and spectral degeneracies in exciton-polariton systems, and, therefore, will affect their quantum transport, localization and dynamical properties. Using a spatially structured optical pump, we create a chaotic exciton-polariton billiard—a two-dimensional area enclosed by a curved potential barrier. Eigenmodes of this billiard exhibit multiple non-Hermitian spectral degeneracies, known as exceptional points. Such points can cause remarkable wave phenomena, such as unidirectional transport, anomalous lasing/absorption and chiral modes. By varying parameters of the billiard, we observe crossing and anti-crossing of energy levels and reveal the non-trivial topological modal structure exclusive to non-Hermitian systems. We also observe mode switching and a topological Berry phase for a parameter loop encircling the exceptional point. Our findings pave the way to studies of non-Hermitian quantum dynamics of exciton-polaritons, which may uncover novel operating principles for polariton-based devices.

doi: 10.1038/nature15522

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生物地球化学:海水準上昇に対するインド太平洋のマングローブ林の脆弱性

The vulnerability of Indo-Pacific mangrove forests to sea-level rise p.559

Assessment of mangrove forest surface elevation changes across the Indo-Pacific coastal region finds that almost 70 per cent of the sites studied do not have enough sediment availability to offset predicted sea-level rise; modelling indicates that such sites could be submerged as early as 2070.

doi: 10.1038/nature15538

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幹細胞:ヒトiPS細胞から作製した腎臓オルガノイドは複数の細胞系譜を含み、ヒト腎臓発生を再現する

Kidney organoids from human iPS cells contain multiple lineages and model human nephrogenesis p.564

The kidney arises from two types of progenitors; here, the signalling conditions that induce the production of collecting ducts and functional nephrons from human pluripotent stem cells are determined, and organoids that recapitulate the functional regionalization of the kidney are produced.

doi: 10.1038/nature15695

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進化学:標的領域を絞った次世代DNA塩基配列解読法による鳥類(鳥綱)の包括的な系統発生解析

A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing p.569

A phylogeny of birds is presented from targeted genomic sequencing of 198 species of living birds representing all major avian lineages; the results find five major clades forming successive sister taxa to the rest of Neoaves and do not support the recently proposed Neoavian clades of Columbea and Passerea.

doi: 10.1038/nature15697

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生態学:生物多様性は極端な気象イベントに対する生態系の生産力の抵抗性を強化する

Biodiversity increases the resistance of ecosystem productivity to climate extremes p.574

Data from experiments that manipulated grassland biodiversity across Europe and North America show that biodiversity increases an ecosystem’s resistance to, although not resilience after, climate extremes.

doi: 10.1038/nature15374

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細胞生物学:Hedgehogは成体の肺の静止状態を能動的に維持して修復と再生を調節する

Hedgehog actively maintains adult lung quiescence and regulates repair and regeneration p.578

It is generally thought that the quiescence of tissue is not actively maintained, but rather a state reflecting the absence of proliferative signal; here the authors find that quiescence is actively maintained by paracrine hedgehog signalling provided by the epithelium in the mouse adult lung, and that hedgehog is dynamically regulated during injury repair and resolution for proper restoration of tissue homeostasis after injury.

doi: 10.1038/nature14984

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がん:逆説的MAPK経路活性化を回避するRAF阻害剤

RAF inhibitors that evade paradoxical MAPK pathway activation p.583

Next-generation RAF inhibitors that inhibit oncogenic BRAF without inducing paradoxical pathway activation in cells with mutant RAS might yield improved safety and more durable efficacy.

doi: 10.1038/nature14982

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微生物学:細胞間の配線によって行われているメタン酸化アーキアと細菌の間での電子伝達

Intercellular wiring enables electron transfer between methanotrophic archaea and bacteria p.587

Marine anaerobic methanotrophic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria connect by pili-like nanowires, suggesting that direct interspecies exchange of electrons could be a fundamental mechanism in the anaerobic oxidation of methane.

doi: 10.1038/nature15733

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遺伝学:m6A mRNAの動的メチル化は熱ショック応答の翻訳制御を方向付ける

Dynamic m6A mRNA methylation directs translational control of heat shock response p.591

The most abundant mRNA post-transcriptional modification is N6-methyladenosine (m6A), which has broad roles in RNA biology. In mammalian cells, the asymmetric distribution of m6A along mRNAs results in relatively less methylation in the 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) compared to other regions. However, whether and how 5′UTR methylation is regulated is poorly understood. Despite the crucial role of the 5′UTR in translation initiation, very little is known about whether m6A modification influences mRNA translation. Here we show that in response to heat shock stress, certain adenosines within the 5′UTR of newly transcribed mRNAs are preferentially methylated. We find that the dynamic 5′UTR methylation is a result of stress-induced nuclear localization of YTHDF2, a well-characterized m6A ‘reader’. Upon heat shock stress, the nuclear YTHDF2 preserves 5′UTR methylation of stress-induced transcripts by limiting the m6A ‘eraser’ FTO from demethylation. Remarkably, the increased 5′UTR methylation in the form of m6A promotes cap-independent translation initiation, providing a mechanism for selective mRNA translation under heat shock stress. Using Hsp70 mRNA as an example, we demonstrate that a single m6A modification site in the 5′UTR enables translation initiation independent of the 5′ end N7-methylguanosine cap. The elucidation of the dynamic features of 5′UTR methylation and its critical role in cap-independent translation not only expands the breadth of physiological roles of m6A, but also uncovers a previously unappreciated translational control mechanism in heat shock response.

doi: 10.1038/nature15377

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