目次

Editorials

米国カリフォルニア州はこの数年干ばつに苦しめられており、しっかりした生態系戦略を練るべきだ。

Parched California p.5

Drought highlights the state’s lack of an ecological strategy.

doi: 10.1038/525005b

米国が推進している「プレシジョン・メディシン・イニシアティブ」では、参加者へのデータ開示を慎重に行う必要がある。

Personal responsibility p.5

The US Precision Medicine Initiative needs to tread carefully when revealing health and genetic data to participants.

doi: 10.1038/525005a

News

冥王星の大気圧について、探査機ニュー・ホライズンズが測定した結果と地球からの測定結果とに大きな差が。

Pluto snow forecast poses atmospheric conundrum p.13

Discrepancy arises between New Horizons and Earth-based measurements.

doi: 10.1038/525013a

アインシュタインが忌み嫌った「不可解な遠隔作用」をこれまでで最も厳密に検証したとの報告が。

Quantum ‘spookiness’ passes toughest test yet p.14

Experiment plugs loopholes in previous demonstrations of 'action at a distance', against Einstein's objections — and could make data encryption safer.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18255

スウェーデンのMAX IV研究所で第四世代のシンクロトロンが稼働し、X線科学に新たな道が。

Next-generation X-ray source fires up p.15

Swedish synchrotron promises to open up new avenues for researchers.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18253

プレシジョン・メディシン・イニシアティブに参加する被験者への遺伝情報の開示をめぐって、論争が。

Giant study poses DNA data-sharing dilemma p.16

US Precision Medicine Initiative must decide how much data to release to participants.

doi: 10.1038/525016a

News Features

化学:ナノマシンが続々と

The tiniest Lego: a tale of nanoscale motors, rotors, switches and pumps p.18

生物学から着想を得たスイッチやモーター、ポンプなどさまざまな分子部品が、化学者によって作り出されており、それらをどう応用するかが現在盛んに研究されている。

doi: 10.1038/525018a

技術:ウェアラブルのトラブル

What could derail the wearables revolution? p.22

体に装着したり埋め込んだりできる電子機器が急増しているが、データを安全に伝送できるかが今後の大きな課題である。

doi: 10.1038/525022a

News & Views

神経変性:核膜孔に問題あり

Neurodegeneration: Problems at the nuclear pore p.36

DNA反復配列の伸長は神経変性と関連している。今回3つの研究により、核への物質の出入りに関わる遺伝子で、反復配列の伸長が引き起こす毒性を仲介している可能性があるものが見つかった。

doi: 10.1038/nature15208

ソフトマター:細菌のチームワークから生じる摩擦のない液体

Soft matter: Frictionless fluids from bacterial teamwork p.37

すでに確立されている技術の1つの感度を向上させることにより、遊泳中の細菌が液体の粘性が低下した摩擦のない液体を作り出していることが示された。これはマイクロ流体工学などの分野での応用が期待できる。

doi: 10.1038/525037a

生態学:植物の帰化に見られる全球的な傾向

Ecology: Global trends in plant naturalization p.39

帰化した外来植物の多くは生態学的な、また経済的な脅威を与えるものになっている。帰化植物の全球的分布の定量的解析によって、予想された傾向の一部が確認され、新しいパターンが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature15206

超伝導:従来とは大きく異なる従来型

Superconductivity: Extraordinarily conventional p.40

高温超伝導に対する考え方は、当初の否定的なものから、「非従来型」でのみ出現するという確信へと変化してきた。ところが今回、従来型超伝導で新記録となる高温が報告されたのである。

doi: 10.1038/nature15203

遺伝学:胞子形成には位置が影響する

Genetics: Location affects sporulation p.42

細菌では、DNA複製の間の1個の遺伝子のコピー数変化を監視することで芽胞形成の時期が制御されている。この知見は、染色体中の遺伝子の位置が細胞の形質に影響を与え得るという考え方と複製とを結び付けるものだ。

doi: 10.1038/nature15207

水文学:土壌水は多様である

Hydrology: The diversified economics of soil water p.43

蒸発したり、あるいは植物に吸い上げられたりする土壌水は、河川流に流れ込んだり、地下水に吸収されたりする土壌水とはほぼ別物といえる。この知見は、水循環に関する我々の考え方に大きく関わってくる。

doi: 10.1038/525043a

分子生物学:クラススイッチ切り替えは成功の頻度が大幅に高くなっている

Molecular biology: Unequal opportunity during class switching p.44

多様なクラスの抗体を生じさせるDNA切断・修復機構が正しく働くかどうかの確率は、理論的には50%である。だが、この組換えは抗体が生産される過程の方に大きく偏って起こることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature15209

Review

気候科学:数値気象予報の静かな革命

The quiet revolution of numerical weather prediction p.47

The cumulative progress of numerical weather prediction represents one of the most remarkable successes of modern science; here the many technological and scientific advances that have brought NWP to its present level are reviewed, as are the considerable challenges for the future.

doi: 10.1038/nature14956

Articles

神経科学:C9orf72の反復配列の伸長は核–細胞質間輸送を崩壊させる

The C9orf72 repeat expansion disrupts nucleocytoplasmic transport p.56

doi: 10.1038/nature14973

神経科学:ニューロンのエキソサイトーシスを担うシナプトタグミン–SNARE装置の構造

Architecture of the synaptotagmin–SNARE machinery for neuronal exocytosis p.62

The first crystal structures of complexes between synaptotagmin-1 and neuronal SNARE, bound to either Ca2+ or Mg2+, are described, and show that Ca2+-triggered neurotransmitter release relies on a large, Ca2+-independent interface.

doi: 10.1038/nature14975

構造生物学:細菌の炭素–リンリアーゼ装置の構造的知見

Structural insights into the bacterial carbon–phosphorus lyase machinery p.68

The crystal structure of the 240-kilodalton C–P lyase core complex from the bacterium E. coli offers insights into the relatively unknown mechanisms of the enzymatic machinery that allows some microbes to extract phosphate from phosphonate compounds.

doi: 10.1038/nature14683

Letters

超伝導:硫化水素系における高圧かつ203ケルビンでの従来型の超伝導

Conventional superconductivity at 203 kelvin at high pressures in the sulfur hydride system p.73

Conventional superconductivity is observed at 203 kelvin in the sulfur hydride system, well above the highest superconducting transition temperature obtained in the copper oxides, raising hopes that even higher transition temperatures will be discovered in other hydrogen-rich systems.

doi: 10.1038/nature14964

メタマテリアル:単一の負メタマテリアルにおける多重散乱による負の屈折率と音響スーパーレンズ

Negative refractive index and acoustic superlens from multiple scattering in single negative metamaterials p.77

A negative refractive index, a property that does not exist in natural materials, can be produced in so-called metamaterials by combining two building blocks; here it is shown that it is possible to design and fabricate a metamaterial with a negative refractive index that consists of only one type of building block by taking advantage of its crystalline structure, and this approach is demonstrated through an acoustic superlens.

doi: 10.1038/nature14678

DNAナノ構造:DNA折り紙の折りたたみ経路を誘導する

Guiding the folding pathway of DNA origami p.82

Probing the assembly process that occurs when single-stranded DNA is folded into desired shapes by ‘DNA origami’ shows that it can be guided by controlling the strengths of local and long-range interactions, enabling more reproducible synthesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature14860

化学:ヘテロアレーンC–H官能基化におけるアルキル化剤としてのアルコール

Alcohols as alkylating agents in heteroarene C–H functionalization p.87

The biochemical process of spin-centre shift is used to accomplish mild, non-traditional alkylation reactions using alcohols as radical precursors; this represents the first broadly applicable use of unactivated alcohols as latent alkylating reagents, achieved via the successful merger of photoredox and hydrogen atom transfer catalysis.

doi: 10.1038/nature14885

気候科学:植物の蒸散と地下水や河川流の全球分離

Global separation of plant transpiration from groundwater and streamflow p.91

Soil water is usually assumed to be equally available for all purposes, supplying plant transpiration as well as groundwater and streamflow; however, a study of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes from 47 globally distributed sites shows that in fact the water used by plants tends to be isotopically distinct from the water that feeds streamflow.

doi: 10.1038/nature14983

地球力学:主要なホットスポット下の地球マントル底部を起源とする広がったプリューム

Broad plumes rooted at the base of the Earth's mantle beneath major hotspots p.95

Plumes of hot upwelling rock rooted in the deep mantle have been proposed as a possible origin of hotspot volcanoes, but this idea is the subject of vigorous debate. On the basis of geodynamic computations, plumes of purely thermal origin should comprise thin tails, only several hundred kilometres wide, and be difficult to detect using standard seismic tomography techniques. Here we describe the use of a whole-mantle seismic imaging technique—combining accurate wavefield computations with information contained in whole seismic waveforms—that reveals the presence of broad (not thin), quasi-vertical conduits beneath many prominent hotspots. These conduits extend from the core–mantle boundary to about 1,000 kilometres below Earth’s surface, where some are deflected horizontally, as though entrained into more vigorous upper-mantle circulation. At the base of the mantle, these conduits are rooted in patches of greatly reduced shear velocity that, in the case of Hawaii, Iceland and Samoa, correspond to the locations of known large ultralow-velocity zones. This correspondence clearly establishes a continuous connection between such zones and mantle plumes. We also show that the imaged conduits are robustly broader than classical thermal plume tails, suggesting that they are long-lived, and may have a thermochemical origin. Their vertical orientation suggests very sluggish background circulation below depths of 1,000 kilometres. Our results should provide constraints on studies of viscosity layering of Earth’s mantle and guide further research into thermochemical convection.

doi: 10.1038/nature14876

生物地理学:外来植物の全球的な移出入と蓄積

Global exchange and accumulation of non-native plants p.100

A global database of alien plants, showing that over 13,000 species, nearly 4% of the global flora, have become naturalized in a new location.

doi: 10.1038/nature14910

遺伝学:南北アメリカ大陸の2つの先住民創始者集団を示す遺伝学的証拠

Genetic evidence for two founding populations of the Americas p.104

Previous genetic studies have suggested that the Americas were peopled by a single founding population of Eurasian origin, but a genome-wide study of 30 Native American groups shows that Amazonian Native Americans also have a second source of ancestry that is deeply related to indigenous Australians, New Guineans and Andaman Islanders.

doi: 10.1038/nature14895

心疾患:DCHS1変異が僧帽弁逸脱を引き起こす

Mutations in DCHS1 cause mitral valve prolapse p.109

Two mutations in the gene DCHS1 are shown to cause non-syndromic mitral valve prolapse (MVP), a common cardiac valve disease; understanding the role of DCHS1 in mitral valve development and MVP pathogenesis holds therapeutic potential.

doi: 10.1038/nature14670

がん:PIK3CAH1047Rは多能性かつ多系譜の乳腺腫瘍を誘導する

PIK3CAH1047R induces multipotency and multi-lineage mammary tumours p.114

The adult mouse mammary epithelium contains self-sustained cell lineages that form the inner luminal and outer basal cell layers, with stem and progenitor cells contributing to its proliferative and regenerative potential. A key issue in breast cancer biology is the effect of genomic lesions in specific mammary cell lineages on tumour heterogeneity and progression. The impact of transforming events on fate conversion in cancer cells of origin and thus their contribution to tumour heterogeneity remains largely elusive. Using in situ genetic lineage tracing and limiting dilution transplantation, we have unravelled the potential of PIK3CAH1047R, one of the most frequent mutations occurring in human breast cancer, to induce multipotency during tumorigenesis in the mammary gland. Here we show that expression of PIK3CAH1047R in lineage-committed basal Lgr5-positive and luminal keratin-8-positive cells of the adult mouse mammary gland evokes cell dedifferentiation into a multipotent stem-like state, suggesting this to be a mechanism involved in the formation of heterogeneous, multi-lineage mammary tumours. Moreover, we show that the tumour cell of origin influences the frequency of malignant mammary tumours. Our results define a key effect of PIK3CAH1047R on mammary cell fate in the pre-neoplastic mammary gland and show that the cell of origin of PIK3CAH1047R tumours dictates their malignancy, thus revealing a mechanism underlying tumour heterogeneity and aggressiveness.

doi: 10.1038/nature14669

がん:発がん性PIK3CAによる多能性の回復が乳がんの不均一性を誘導する

Reactivation of multipotency by oncogenic PIK3CA induces breast tumour heterogeneity p.119

PIK3CA mutations are associated with distinct types of human breast cancers but the cellular origin and mechanisms responsible for this heterogeneity were unclear; here, using a genetic approach in mice, PIK3CA mutations are shown to activate a genetic program directing multiple cell fates in normally lineage-restricted cell types.

doi: 10.1038/nature14665

細胞生物学:TFR1のステアロイル化によるミトコンドリアの形態および機能の調節

Regulation of mitochondrial morphology and function by stearoylation of TFR1 p.124

Mitochondria have essential functions within cells, and their dysfunction is linked to various disorders; here, the fatty acid stearic acid (C18:0), which is a dietary component, and the transferrin receptor (TFR1) are shown to regulate mitochondrial function.

doi: 10.1038/nature14601

神経科学:C9orf72遺伝子内のGGGGCC反復配列の伸長は核–細胞質間輸送を妨げる

GGGGCC repeat expansion in C9orf72 compromises nucleocytoplasmic transport p.129

An unbiased genetic screen in Drosophila expressing G4C2-repeat-containing transcripts (repeats that in human cause pathogenesis in C9orf72-related neurological disease) finds genes that encode components of the nuclear pore and nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery, and reveals that G4C2 expanded-repeat-induced alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport contribute to C9orf72 pathology and neurodegeneration.

doi: 10.1038/nature14974

免疫学:AIDによって開始されるDNA切断の方向性特異的な連結は抗体のクラススイッチを促進する

Orientation-specific joining of AID-initiated DNA breaks promotes antibody class switching p.134

High-throughput genome-wide sequencing reveals why class switch recombination in the IgH locus, an essential step in the process of antibody generation, has a directional joining bias towards deletion rather than inversion.

doi: 10.1038/nature14970

化学生物学:4本ヘリックスバンドルはメタン酸化のための銅を貯蔵する

A four-helix bundle stores copper for methane oxidation p.140

Csp1, a novel copper-binding protein that is exported from the cytosol of the methanotroph Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b and stores copper ions for particulate methane monooxygenase, is identified and characterized.

doi: 10.1038/nature14854

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