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Editorials

技術の進歩によって市民科学者の活動が盛んになっているが、そうした活動の動機など、懸念すべき問題もある。

Rise of the citizen scientist p.265

From the oceans to the soil, technology is changing the part that amateurs can play in research. But this greater involvement raises concerns that must be addressed.

doi: 10.1038/524265a

研究ポートフォリオ分析は、研究の経済性を高めるだけでなく、より広範な目的の達成にも役立ちそうだ。

Portfolio boost p.265

People who fund or manage many research projects could do it better with mindful analysis.

doi: 10.1038/524265b

News

ギリシャへの新たな金融支援が承認され、EUの構造基金から支給される2つの大型研究資金に期待が。

Greek bailout set to free up research funds p.273

Research minister says two chunks of money from the European Union can now be released.

doi: 10.1038/524273a

国立感染症研究所が、日本初のバイオセーフティレベル(BSL)-4施設を条件付きで稼働へ。

Ebola spurs creation of Japan's first maximum-security biolab p.274

Fears about the virus helped forge deal to elevate existing facility to BSL-4 status.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18179

職場でカミングアウトしている性的少数者の割合は、研究業界で特に多いことが明らかに。

Most gay and lesbian researchers are out in the lab p.275

Fields with more women found to be more welcoming.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18187

中国の炭素排出量は過大評価されていたという研究成果が。

China’s carbon emissions overestimated p.276

Analysis could force climate scientists to revisit estimates of global cycle.

doi: 10.1038/524276a

硫化水素が−70°Cで超伝導を示すという画期的な発見によって、室温超電導に大きな期待が。

Superconductivity record sparks wave of follow-up physics p.277

Researchers strive to reproduce and understand landmark result.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18191

2022年冬季五輪の開催都市に決まった北京で、予定されている競技会場の一部が自然保護区域内にあると生物学者が抗議の声を。

Chinese biologists lead outcry over Winter Olympics ski site p.278

Proposed alpine ski area lies within nature reserve, prompting fears of development in other conservation areas.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18174

News Features

保健:大麻の影響を調べる

The cannabis experiment p.280

大麻は、さまざまな国や地域で規制が緩和されているが、その長期使用の影響など重要な疑問点については、まだあまり明らかになっていない。

doi: 10.1038/524280a

News & Views

細胞生物学:タグ付きタグは廃棄を保証

Cell biology: Tagged tags engage disposal p.294

細胞内小器官のミトコンドリアは、損傷を受けた場合には単一のシグナル伝達カスケードの働きによって処理されると考えられていた。だが今回、複雑な分子間相互作用のネットワークによって廃棄作業が開始されることが、細胞を使った解析によって明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature15199

デングウイルス:治療用抗体を引っ掛けるでこぼこ

Dengue virus: Bumps in the road to therapeutic antibodies p.295

デングウイルス血清型2に対するヒト抗体は、マウスを病気にかかりにくくすることが示されている。ウイルスに結合した抗体の構造から、この抗体が多様な形態のウイルスに結合してウイルスの細胞侵入を防止する仕組みが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/524295a

有機化学:光が開くニッケル触媒への道

Organic chemistry: Light opens pathways for nickel catalysis p.297

通常は得られにくいニッケル中間体を生じる光活性化触媒が報告されたことによって、困難な触媒反応を実現する可能性のある一般的戦略が得られた。

doi: 10.1038/nature15200

構造生物学:低酸素応答の性質がくまなく明らかに

Structural biology: Hypoxia response becomes crystal clear p.298

組織の酸素濃度の低下に応答するタンパク質である、2種類の低酸素誘導因子の結晶構造から、これらの機能について手掛かりが得られ、合理的な薬剤設計に適した部位が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature14641

生物多様性:山地の生物の多様な起源

Biodiversity: Multiple origins of mountain life p.300

ボルネオ島にあるキナバル山に生息する1800種類を超える生物のDNA塩基配列についての研究によって、山地に見られる高度で独特な生物多様性につながる進化的機序が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature14645

宇宙物理学:超大質量ブラックホールとの遭遇で生き残ったガス雲の謎

Astrophysics: Mystery survivor of a supermassive black hole p.301

天の川銀河の中心部に存在するガス雲G2は、銀河中心のブラックホールに接近遭遇した際に吸い込まれずに生き残り、ブラックホールの活動における主要なフレアアップを引き起こせなかったことが分かった。このガス雲の性質を説明できる有力な理論が提案されている。

doi: 10.1038/524301a

Articles

構造生物学:低酸素誘導因子の構造的統合

Structural integration in hypoxia-inducible factors p.303

This study describes the long-awaited crystal structures for hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) heterodimers, including complexes bound to small molecules and DNA; the HIF–ARNT architecture is distinct from the bHLH-PAS-containing CLOCK–BMAL1 heterodimer, and HIF mutations linked to cancer can be mapped to important structural regions, with the structures providing future reference for small-molecule drug discovery efforts.

doi: 10.1038/nature14883

細胞生物学:ユビキチンキナーゼPINK1がオートファジー受容体を誘導してマイトファジーを引き起こす

The ubiquitin kinase PINK1 recruits autophagy receptors to induce mitophagy p.309

The PINK1 ubiquitin kinase is shown to recruit the two autophagy receptors NDP52 and OPTN to mitochondria to activate mitophagy directly, independently of the ubiquitin ligase parkin; once recruited to mitochondria, NDP52 and OPTN recruit autophagy initiation components, and parkin may amplify the phospho-ubiquitin signal generated by PINK1, resulting in robust autophagy induction.

doi: 10.1038/nature14893

構造生物学:μオピオイド受容体活性化についての構造的考察

Structural insights into µ-opioid receptor activation p.315

X-ray crystallography and molecular dynamics simulations of the μ-opioid receptor reveal the conformational changes in the extracellular and intracellular domains of this G-protein-coupled receptor that are associated with its activation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14886

Letters

惑星科学:小石の段階的な集積によって成長する巨大ガス惑星

Growing the gas-giant planets by the gradual accumulation of pebbles p.322

Gas-giant planets are widely thought to form from solid ‘cores’ of roughly ten Earth masses; simulations now show that such cores can be produced from ‘pebbles’ (centimetre-to-metre-sized objects) provided that the pebbles form sufficiently slowly, leading to the formation of one to four gas giants in agreement with the observed structure of the Solar System.

doi: 10.1038/nature14675

量子物理学:熱デコヒーレンス速度での測定に基づく機械振動子の制御

Measurement-based control of a mechanical oscillator at its thermal decoherence rate p.325

A position sensor is demonstrated that is capable of resolving the zero-point motion of a nanomechanical oscillator in the timescale of its thermal decoherence; it achieves an imprecision that is four orders of magnitude below that at the standard quantum limit and is used to feedback-cool the oscillator to a mean photon number of five.

doi: 10.1038/nature14672

有機化学:光酸化還元触媒反応を用いて実現困難な有機金属機構を始動させる

Switching on elusive organometallic mechanisms with photoredox catalysis p.330

Despite advances in carbon–carbon fragment couplings, the ability to forge carbon–oxygen bonds in a general fashion via nickel catalysis has been largely unsuccessful; here, visible-light-excited photoredox catalysts are shown to provide transient access to Ni(iii) species that readily participate in reductive elimination, leading to carbon–oxygen coupling.

doi: 10.1038/nature14875

気候:中国における化石燃料の燃焼とセメント生産による炭素排出見積もり量の減少

Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China p.335

A revised estimate of Chinese carbon emissions from fossil fuel burning and cement production is presented, based on updated energy consumption and clinker production data and two new sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal.

doi: 10.1038/nature14677

地球化学:流体に富むダイヤモンドの供給源としての沈み込むスラブからの高濃度の塩水

Highly saline fluids from a subducting slab as the source for fluid-rich diamonds p.339

Geochemical data from inclusions within diamonds from the Northwest Territories, Canada, indicate that saline fluids are parental to silicic and carbonatitic deep mantle melts, via fluid–rock interaction; a subducting plate under western North America is suggested to be the source of the fluids.

doi: 10.1038/nature14857

古生物学:エディアカラの巨視的生物の生殖様式を推測する

Reconstructing the reproductive mode of an Ediacaran macro-organism p.343

The Ediacaran macrofossil Fractofusus reveals a complex life history of multigenerational, stolon-like asexual reproduction, interspersed with dispersal of waterborne propagules.

doi: 10.1038/nature14646

生態学:熱帯の新しい山における生物相の固有性の進化

Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain p.347

Investigating the evolutionary origins of montane biodiversity by sampling the entire biota from a single mountain, Mount Kinabalu in Borneo, allows for a better understanding not only of the origins of endemism, but also of this biota’s forecasted response to environmental change.

doi: 10.1038/nature14949

細胞生物学:自己組織化された生体力学的ネットワークが組織の形態形成中の形状変化を促す

A self-organized biomechanical network drives shape changes during tissue morphogenesis p.351

Feedbacks between the dissociation and advection of myosin II result in self-organized behaviour of actomyosin networks that drives shape changes during tissue morphogenesis.

doi: 10.1038/nature14603

心疾患:亜鉛トランスポーターZIP12が慢性低酸素に対する肺血管の応答を調節する

The zinc transporter ZIP12 regulates the pulmonary vascular response to chronic hypoxia p.356

Zinc transporter ZIP12 expression is increased in many cell types in remodelled mammalian pulmonary arterioles in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.

doi: 10.1038/nature14620

がん:オートファジー–リソソーム機能の転写制御は膵臓がんの代謝を駆動する

Transcriptional control of autophagy–lysosome function drives pancreatic cancer metabolism p.361

The MiT/TFE family of transcription factors is found to coordinate constitutive activation of autophagy and lysosome biogenesis to drive the metabolic programming and malignant growth of pancreatic cancer.

doi: 10.1038/nature14587

光合成:珪藻では色素体とミトコンドリア間のエネルギー共役がCO2固定を推進している

Energetic coupling between plastids and mitochondria drives CO2 assimilation in diatoms p.366

Diatoms optimize their photosynthetic efficiency via extensive energetic exchanges between plastids and mitochondria.

doi: 10.1038/nature14599

構造生物学:リン酸化ユビキチンが引き起こすパーキン活性化の仕組み

Mechanism of phospho-ubiquitin-induced PARKIN activation p.370

This study provides insights into conformational changes that lead to phospho-ubiquitin-induced PARKIN activation and how PARKIN is recruited to phospho-ubiquitin chains on mitochondria; the crystal structure of PARKIN in complex with phospho-ubiquitin also indicates that the pocket within PARKIN where phospho-ubiquitin binds carries amino acid residues that are mutated in patients with autosomal-recessive juvenile Parkinsonism.

doi: 10.1038/nature14879

構造生物学:μオピオイド受容体活性化の際に起こるコンホメーション変化の伝播

Propagation of conformational changes during μ-opioid receptor activation p.375

µ-Opioid receptors (µORs) are G-protein-coupled receptors that are activated by a structurally diverse spectrum of natural and synthetic agonists including endogenous endorphin peptides, morphine and methadone. The recent structures of the μOR in inactive and agonist-induced active states (Huang et al., ref. 2) provide snapshots of the receptor at the beginning and end of a signalling event, but little is known about the dynamic sequence of events that span these two states. Here we use solution-state NMR to examine the process of μOR activation using a purified receptor (mouse sequence) preparation in an amphiphile membrane-like environment. We obtain spectra of the μOR in the absence of ligand, and in the presence of the high-affinity agonist BU72 alone, or with BU72 and a G protein mimetic nanobody. Our results show that conformational changes in transmembrane segments 5 and 6 (TM5 and TM6), which are required for the full engagement of a G protein, are almost completely dependent on the presence of both the agonist and the G protein mimetic nanobody, revealing a weak allosteric coupling between the agonist-binding pocket and the G-protein-coupling interface (TM5 and TM6), similar to that observed for the β2-adrenergic receptor. Unexpectedly, in the presence of agonist alone, we find larger spectral changes involving intracellular loop 1 and helix 8 compared to changes in TM5 and TM6. These results suggest that one or both of these domains may play a role in the initial interaction with the G protein, and that TM5 and TM6 are only engaged later in the process of complex formation. The initial interactions between the G protein and intracellular loop 1 and/or helix 8 may be involved in G-protein coupling specificity, as has been suggested for other family A G-protein-coupled receptors.

doi: 10.1038/nature14680

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