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Editorials

「遺伝子ドライブ(gene drive)」技術は環境に予想外の大きな影響を与える可能性があり、規制の議論を早急に始めるべきだ。

Driving test p.5

‘Gene drive’ techniques have the potential to alter whole populations. Regulators must catch up.

doi: 10.1038/524005b

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エボラワクチンの臨床試験の成功は、政治・規制当局の強い意志があれば困難な状況下でも臨床試験が実施できることを示している。

Trial and triumph p.5

The success of an Ebola vaccine trial shows that clinical trials can be done under the difficult field conditions of an epidemic — if there is enough political and regulatory will.

doi: 10.1038/524005a

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News

エボラワクチン臨床試験の成功は、流行終結への期待だけでなく、今後の臨床試験のあり方への教訓にも。

How Ebola-vaccine success could reshape clinical-trial policy p.13

Rapid result has implications for outbreak preparedness as well as West Africa’s epidemic.

doi: 10.1038/524013a

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米国立がん研究所の「物理学によるがん研究」計画が当初の目的を見失っていると、批判の声が。

Trailblazing cancer–physics project accused of losing ambition p.14

Physical oncologists complain that US National Cancer Institute programme has lost sight of its mission.

doi: 10.1038/524014a

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遺伝子ドライブ技術がCRIPSR法によってより容易に行えることが示されたが、DNA編集した生物の野外放出は、集団全体を急激に変えて生態系を損なうと、懸念が。

Caution urged over editing DNA in wildlife (intentionally or not) p.16

Rapid alteration of gene pools could fight disease – and harm ecosystems.

doi: 10.1038/524016a

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マウスの脳の一部についての3Dマップが完成し、ヒト脳の再構築の地ならしに。

Crumb of mouse brain reconstructed in full detail p.17

Digital map is step towards reconstructing a whole human brain.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18105

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スズ版グラフェンの「スタネン」が登場。

Physicists announce graphene’s latest cousin: stanene p.18

First observation of 2D tin can't confirm whether material can conduct electricity without heat loss.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.18113

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海洋酸性化のシミュレーション研究の大半に、方法論の不備があるとの分析結果が。

Crucial ocean-acidification models come up short p.18

Poorly designed studies leave future uncertain for sea dwellers.

doi: 10.1038/524018a

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News Features

グリーンな合成:スローな化学

The slow-chemistry movement p.20

じっくりと進む固相反応は、環境に優しい化学に役立つ可能性があると注目を集めている。

doi: 10.1038/524020a

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エボラ:次に向けて

How to beat the next Ebola p.22

次の感染症大流行に対する世界の備えは十分ではないが、西アフリカのエボラ大発生の恐ろしさが、状況を変えてくれることにつながるかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/524022a

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News & Views

ネットワーク科学:破壊は完了

Network science: Destruction perfected p.38

除去することでネットワークが極めて効果的に破壊されるノードを正確に狙うのは、効率の良いアルゴリズムの開発よりずっと容易になってきている。こうした作戦を適用できるものとしては、サイバーセキュリティーや疾病対策などが挙げられるだろう。

doi: 10.1038/524038a

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糖尿病:スマート・インスリンパッチ

Diabetes: A smart insulin patch p.39

血糖値の上昇を感知し、それに応じてインスリンを放出するように設計された、微細な針の付いた貼付吸収薬(パッチ)は、糖尿病患者が症状を管理するための、痛みがより少なく信頼性のより高い方法となるだろう。

doi: 10.1038/524039a

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分子生物学:ゲノムヌクレオチドの再利用経路

Molecular biology: Salvaging the genome p.40

酵素のシチジンデアミナーゼが過剰発現されると、異常な修飾を受けたヌクレオチドがDNAに取り込まれるようになって、細胞死につながる。この知見は一部のがんの治療法につながるかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/nature14638

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材料化学:非磁性金属に磁性を持たせる「整形術」

Materials chemistry: A magnetic facelift for non-magnetic metals p.42

銅とマンガンは、加工して薄膜にしてから有機分子と界面で接する形にすると、室温で磁性を示すようになることが分かった。この知見は新しい磁性材料の開発を期待させるものだ。

doi: 10.1038/524042a

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微生物学:シアン酸塩は窒素サイクルのエネルギー源

Microbiology: Cyanate fuels the nitrogen cycle p.43

尿素やシアン化物の分解産物であるシアン酸塩は、全球的な窒素サイクルに重要な役割を持つ微生物群の増殖と栄養の相互供給の基質として、単独で十分であることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature14639

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気候科学:植被の未来は不確実

Climate science: Uncertain future for vegetation cover p.44

地球の植被は気候変動にどのように応答し、そうした応答は人類の土地利用に伴う変化とどのように比べられるのだろうか。モデル研究から、我々の知識はまだ極めて少ないことが明らかになった。こうした結果は、さらなる研究の必要性を知らせる呼び掛けとなる。

doi: 10.1038/524044a

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合成生物学:サブユニットを繋いだ人工リボソーム

Synthetic biology: Ribosomal ties that bind p.45

リボソームは細胞のタンパク質とRNA分子からなる複合体で、タンパク質合成を行っている。リボソームの2つの主要なサブユニットが繋ぎ合わされた人工リボソームは、タンパク質合成過程に手を加えることを可能にしそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/nature14642

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Articles

がん:小細胞肺がんの包括的なゲノムプロファイル

Comprehensive genomic profiles of small cell lung cancer p.47

Genomic sequencing of 110 human small cell lung cancers identifies genomic signatures including nearly ubiquitous bi-allelic inactivation of TP53 and RB1, a role for NOTCH family genes, and somatic rearrangements that create an oncogenic version of TP73.

doi: 10.1038/nature14664

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分子生物学:12サブユニット核エキソソーム複合体におけるRNA分解経路

RNA degradation paths in a 12-subunit nuclear exosome complex p.54

Solving the crystal structure of an exosome complex from yeast, bound to different RNA substrates, offers insights into how the exosome can be utilized for precise processing of some 3′ ends, such as that of the 5.8S rRNA, while other RNAs are degraded to completion.

doi: 10.1038/nature14865

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構造生物学:HipBA–プロモーター複合体の構造から明らかになった遺伝性多剤耐性の基盤

HipBA–promoter structures reveal the basis of heritable multidrug tolerance p.59

The molecular basis of multidrug tolerance in chronic urinary tract infections is mediated by mutations in the N-subdomain-1 of the Escherichia coli HipA protein kinase.

doi: 10.1038/nature14662

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Letters

統計物理学:最適パーコレーションを通した複雑ネットワークにおける影響最大化

Influence maximization in complex networks through optimal percolation p.65

A rigorous method to determine the most influential superspreaders in complex networks is presented—involving the mapping of the problem onto optimal percolation along with a scalable algorithm for big-data social networks—showing, unexpectedly, that many weak nodes can be powerful influencers.

doi: 10.1038/nature14604

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磁性材料:分子界面を用いてストーナー基準を打ち破る

Beating the Stoner criterion using molecular interfaces p.69

By harnessing the charge transfer that takes place at the interface between a metal and a layer of molecules, the usually non-magnetic materials copper and manganese are made magnetic at room temperature.

doi: 10.1038/nature14621

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多孔性材料:構造複雑性を広げ、埋め込み等細網状構造を持つゼオライト族

A zeolite family with expanding structural complexity and embedded isoreticular structures p.74

The complex structure of zeolite ZSM-25 is determined and a family of related structures are identified by using electron diffraction to uncover the structural ‘coding’ within them; this enabled the synthesis of two more-complex zeolites in the family.

doi: 10.1038/nature14575

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有機化学:ニッケル触媒を用いたアミドC–N結合の活性化によるアミドからエステルへの変換

Conversion of amides to esters by the nickel-catalysed activation of amide C–N bonds p.79

Amides are common functional groups that have been studied for more than a century. They are the key building blocks of proteins and are present in a broad range of other natural and synthetic compounds. Amides are known to be poor electrophiles, which is typically attributed to the resonance stability of the amide bond. Although amides can readily be cleaved by enzymes such as proteases, it is difficult to selectively break the carbon–nitrogen bond of an amide using synthetic chemistry. Here we demonstrate that amide carbon–nitrogen bonds can be activated and cleaved using nickel catalysts. We use this methodology to convert amides to esters, which is a challenging and underdeveloped transformation. The reaction methodology proceeds under exceptionally mild reaction conditions, and avoids the use of a large excess of an alcohol nucleophile. Density functional theory calculations provide insight into the thermodynamics and catalytic cycle of the amide-to-ester transformation. Our results provide a way to harness amide functional groups as synthetic building blocks and are expected to lead to the further use of amides in the construction of carbon–heteroatom or carbon–carbon bonds using non-precious-metal catalysis.

doi: 10.1038/nature14615

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地球化学:地質学的二酸化炭素シンクとしての北極における有機炭素の浸食

Erosion of organic carbon in the Arctic as a geological carbon dioxide sink p.84

Measurements of sediments eroded by the Mackenzie River reveal the widespread export of permafrost-derived biospheric carbon that is several thousand years old, and demonstrate its burial in the Arctic Ocean, suggesting that high-latitude rivers can act as important carbon dioxide sinks.

doi: 10.1038/nature14653

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神経科学:ウイルス遺伝学を利用した中枢ノルアドレナリン性回路の入出力構造の追跡

Viral-genetic tracing of the input–output organization of a central noradrenaline circuit p.88

To better understand the relationship between input and output connectivity for neurons of interest in specific brain regions, a viral-genetic tracing approach is used to identify input based on a combination of neurons’ projection and cell type, as illustrated in a study of locus coeruleus noradrenaline neurons.

doi: 10.1038/nature14600

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エボラウイルス:シエラレオネにおけるエボラウイルスの遺伝的多様性と進化動態

Genetic diversity and evolutionary dynamics of Ebola virus in Sierra Leone OPEN p.93

The genome sequences of 175 Ebola virus from five districts in Sierra Leone, collected during September–November 2014, show that the rate of virus evolution seems to be similar to that observed during previous outbreaks and that the genetic diversity of the virus has increased substantially, with the emergence of several novel lineages.

doi: 10.1038/nature14490

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エボラウイルス:西アフリカにおける2014〜2015年のエボラウイルス大発生の時空間的解析

Temporal and spatial analysis of the 2014–2015 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa OPEN p.97

Analysis of 179 new Ebola virus sequences from patient samples collected in Guinea between March 2014 and January 2015 shows how different lineages evolved and spread in West Africa.

doi: 10.1038/nature14594

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エボラウイルス:2014年の西アフリカでの流行の際にギニアで見られた複数系統のエボラウイルス

Distinct lineages of Ebola virus in Guinea during the 2014 West African epidemic OPEN p.102

An analysis of 85 Ebola virus sequences collected in Guinea from July to November 2014 provides insight into the evolution of the Ebola virus responsible for the epidemic in West Africa; the results show sustained transmission of three co-circulating lineages, each defined by multiple mutations.

doi: 10.1038/nature14612

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環境微生物学:シアン酸塩は硝化細菌のエネルギー源である

Cyanate as an energy source for nitrifiers p.105

The ammonia-oxidizing archaeon Nitrososphaera gargensis can utilize cyanate as the only source of energy for growth due to the presence of a cyanase enzyme, and cyanase-encoding nitrite-oxidizing bacteria can work together with cyanase-negative ammonia oxidizers to collectively grow on cyanate via reciprocal feeding; cyanases are widespread in the environment according to metagenomic data sets, pointing to the potential importance of cyanate in the nitrogen cycle.

doi: 10.1038/nature14856

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細胞生物学:半分裂中間体は膜分裂の機構的に異なる2つの段階を連結している

A hemi-fission intermediate links two mechanistically distinct stages of membrane fission p.109

The GTPase dynamin provides the driving force for fission of membrane-bound vesicular structures; here, it is shown that dynamin-driven membrane fission proceeds in two mechanistically distinct stages that are separated by a metastable hemi-fission intermediate that requires GTP hydrolysis for progression to full fission.

doi: 10.1038/nature14509

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がん:シチジンデアミナーゼはエピジェネティックなヌクレオシドの代謝を指示し、がんの治療手段を明らかにする

CDA directs metabolism of epigenetic nucleosides revealing a therapeutic window in cancer p.114

Enzymes of the nucleotide salvage pathway are shown to have substrate selectivity that protects newly synthesized DNA from random incorporation of epigenetically modified forms of cytosine; a subset of cancer cell lines that overexpress cytidine deaminase (CDA) are sensitive to treatment with 5hmdC or 5fdC (oxidized forms of 5-methyl-cytosine), which leads to DNA damage and cell death, indicating the chemotherapeutic potential of these nucleoside variants for CDA-overexpressing cancers.

doi: 10.1038/nature14948

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分子生物学:サブユニットをつないだリボソームによるタンパク質合成

Protein synthesis by ribosomes with tethered subunits p.119

A ribosome with tethered subunits, ‘Ribo-T’, is engineered by making a hybrid RNA composed of ribosomal RNA of large and small subunits; Ribo-T can support cell growth in vivo in the absence of wild-type ribosomes, and is used to establish a fully orthogonal ribosome–mRNA system.

doi: 10.1038/nature14862

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