目次

Editorials

動物実験の全面禁止を求めるEU指令案に、強力な抵抗が巻き起こったのは当然だ。

Challenging times p.125

A European initiative to ban animal research has galvanized resistance.

doi: 10.1038/521125b

インドの科学は目覚ましい伸びを見せているが、潜在能力を最大限に発揮するには、異論を封じないようにすべきだ。

A nation with ambition p.125

India is making great strides in improving its science, but it needs to look carefully at its approach and work with the rest of the world if it is to realize its full potential.

doi: 10.1038/521125a

英国総選挙での世論調査の大外れは、変則データの扱い方に関する良い教訓となる。

Polls apart p.126

The UK voter opinion polls show that an anomalous answer can be the correct one.

doi: 10.1038/521126a

News

ネパールの大地震では、地すべりの危険性が長く残る恐れも。

Mappers rush to pinpoint landslide risk in Nepal p.133

Geologists say hazard posed by earthquake-loosened earth could linger for years.

doi: 10.1038/521133a

英総選挙は保守党の圧勝、スコットランド民族党の躍進、民主党の大敗に終わり、科学にもさまざまな影響が。

What the UK election results mean for science p.134

A surprise Conservative majority and the rise of the Scottish National Party have implications for research policy.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2015.17506

雷雲の内部から、既知の反物質生成では説明できない奇妙なシグナルが。

Rogue antimatter found in thunderclouds p.135

Aeroplane detects signature spike in photons that does not fit any known source of antiparticles.

doi: 10.1038/521135a

マイクロバイオームの解析によって個人を特定できる可能性があり、プライバシーの問題が。

Microbiomes raise privacy concerns p.136

DNA from microbes living on the human body can be used to identify individuals.

doi: 10.1038/521136a

WHOが、エボラ出血熱への対応の失敗を踏まえ、緊急対策のあり方を再検討へ。

Ebola failures prompt WHO rethink p.137

Health agency’s annual meeting will address shortcomings in outbreak response highlighted by West Africa crisis.

doi: 10.1038/521137a

遺伝子組換え(GM)作物の野外試験に対するインドの厳しい姿勢に変化が。

India eases stance on GM crop trials p.138

States begin to permit field tests of transgenic plants.

doi: 10.1038/521138a

News Features

インドの科学

Science in India p.141

南アジアの超大国インドの、計り知れない可能性と大きな課題を探る。

doi: 10.1038/521141a

数字で見るインド

India by the numbers p.142

インドの科学研究の置かれた状況を、さまざまなデータから見る。

doi: 10.1038/521142a

インドの科学テスト

India: The fight to become a science superpower p.144

インドは一部の研究開発分野で長足の進歩を遂げているが、前途はまだ遠い。

doi: 10.1038/521144a

反官僚主義

Indian bioscience: The anti-bureaucrat p.148

インド・バイオテクノロジー局長官のKrishnaswamy VijayRaghavanは、自国の生物科学を煩雑な形式主義から解放しようと、大胆な計画を打ち出した。

doi: 10.1038/521148a

News & Views

宇宙物理学:赤色銀河の緩やかな死

Astrophysics: The slow death of red galaxies p.164

ほとんどの銀河で、星形成の停止は40億年ほどかかるゆっくりした過程だった。2万7000個近くの銀河の解析から、その原因は周辺環境による「ストランギュレーション」である可能性が最も高いことが示唆された。

doi: 10.1038/521164a

神経科学:ショウジョウバエをその居場所に導く内在コンパス

Neuroscience: Internal compass puts flies in their place p.165

ショウジョウバエの神経は、ハエの居る環境からの手掛かりに対応して自身を特定の方向に向かわせることが明らかにされ、ショウジョウバエの脳に周辺環境の認知地図を描くための重要な成分が含まれることの証拠が得られた。

doi: 10.1038/521165a

顕微鏡:自由電子の量子制御

Microscopy: Quantum control of free electrons p.166

電子顕微鏡のビーム中の電子を決まったエネルギー状態にするのに、光パルスがこれまで使われていた。今回、このような電子を量子的に重なり合ったエネルギー状態にすることに成功した。

doi: 10.1038/521166a

微生物学:壁に阻まれる真菌

Microbiology: Fungus against the wall p.168

植物細胞の細胞壁成分に由来し、バイオ燃料を製造する際の廃棄物である化合物が、殺真菌活性を持つことが分かった。この物質はβ1,3グルカンと呼ばれる糖と相互作用して真菌細胞の完全性を損なうのである。

doi: 10.1038/521168a

進化:真核生物に至る道筋

Evolution: Steps on the road to eukaryotes p.169

有核細胞を持つ全ての生物からなる真核生物に最も近縁と考えられる古細菌門が新たに見つかった。この発見は、真核生物の起源の解明を進めるのに役立つと期待される。

doi: 10.1038/nature14522

分子生物学:X染色体を黙らすタンパク質群

Molecular biology: Rap and chirp about X inactivation p.170

2つの新しい手法を使って、タンパク質をコードしていないXistと呼ばれるRNAと直接結合して、雌の哺乳類での1本のX染色体不活性化に関わるタンパク質群が明らかにされた。

doi: 10.1038/521170a

Articles

進化:原核生物と真核生物の間の溝を埋める複雑なアーキア

Complex archaea that bridge the gap between prokaryotes and eukaryotes p.173

This study identifies a clade of archaea that is the immediate sister group of eukaryotes in phylogenetic analyses, and that also has a repertoire of proteins otherwise characteristic of eukaryotes—proteins that would have provided the first eukaryotes with a ‘starter kit’ for the genomic and cellular complexity characteristic of the eukaryotic cell.

doi: 10.1038/nature14447

神経科学:飢餓と口渇に関わるニューロンは負の情動価を持つ教師信号を伝達する

Neurons for hunger and thirst transmit a negative-valence teaching signal p.180

Cell-type-specific electrical activity manipulations and deep-brain imaging in mice of neuronal populations associated with homeostasis of nutrient or fluid intake reveals that learning is conditioned by a negative-valence signal from the hunger-mediating AGRP neurons and also from the thirst-mediating neurons in the subfornical organ.

doi: 10.1038/nature14416

神経科学:目印の方位と角経路統合の神経動態

Neural dynamics for landmark orientation and angular path integration p.186

Calcium imaging of the brain of tethered flies walking in a virtual reality arena showed that a population of neurons with dendrites that tile the ‘ellipsoid body’ use information from visual landmarks and the fly's own rotation to compute heading; this suggests insects possess neurons with similarities to ‘head direction cells’ known to contribute to spatial navigation in mammalian brains.

doi: 10.1038/nature14446

Letters

宇宙物理学:銀河における星形成を停止させる主要な機構としてのストランギュレーション

Strangulation as the primary mechanism for shutting down star formation in galaxies p.192

An analysis of the stellar metallicity of local galaxies reveals that strangulation (halting of cold gas supply) rather than sudden removal of gas (through outflows or stripping) is the primary mechanism responsible for the quenching of star formation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14439

超伝導:超伝導を伴わない電子対形成

Electron pairing without superconductivity p.196

Evidence is presented for electron pairing in strontium titanate far above the superconducting transition temperature; such pairs are thought to be the long-sought pre-formed pairs that condense at lower temperatures to give rise to the unconventional superconducting state in this system.

doi: 10.1038/nature14398

量子物理学:超高速透過電子顕微鏡における量子コヒーレント光学位相変調

Quantum coherent optical phase modulation in an ultrafast transmission electron microscope p.200

The coherent manipulation of electron quantum states using light, commonly employed in atoms and molecules, is extended to the case of free electron beams using ultrafast transmission electron microscopy; this approach may enable a range of applications in ultrafast electron imaging and spectroscopy down to attosecond precision.

doi: 10.1038/nature14463

生物地球化学:浸食に支配される陸上生物圏からの全球炭素移出

Global carbon export from the terrestrial biosphere controlled by erosion p.204

Particulate organic carbon export from the terrestrial biosphere is primarily controlled by physical erosion, and tectonic and climatic forcing of physical erosion may favour biospheric particulate organic carbon sequestration over silicate weathering as a long-term atmospheric carbon dioxide sink.

doi: 10.1038/nature14400

環境微生物学:永久凍土、活動層およびサーモカルスト湿原の土壌マイクロバイオームのマルチオミクス解析

Multi-omics of permafrost, active layer and thermokarst bog soil microbiomes p.208

A multi-omics approach, integrating metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics, determines the phylogenetic composition of the microbial community and assesses its functional potential and activity along a thaw transition from intact permafrost to thermokast bog.

doi: 10.1038/nature14238

植物科学:病原体が分泌するプロテアーゼによって活性化される、植物の新規免疫経路

Pathogen-secreted proteases activate a novel plant immune pathway p.213

In Arabidopsis thaliana, pathogen-secreted proteases trigger a previously unknown defence response involving heterotrimeric G-protein complexes upstream of a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade.

doi: 10.1038/nature14243

発生生物学:YAPは脊椎動物の三次元的な体の形態を確保する組織張力に不可欠である

YAP is essential for tissue tension to ensure vertebrate 3D body shape p.217

D’Arcy Thompson predicted a century ago that animal body shape is conditioned by gravity, but there has been no animal model to study how cellular forces are coordinated to generate body shapes that withstand gravity; the hirame medaka fish mutant, with pronounced body flattening, reveals how the hirame/YAP gene controls gravity-resisting cellular forces to produce complex 3D organs and body shapes.

doi: 10.1038/nature14215

自己免疫疾患:インターロイキン23の特異的標的治療による乾癬の臨床症状の改善

Clinical improvement in psoriasis with specific targeting of interleukin-23 p.222

A proof-of-concept phase I clinical trial demonstrates that targeting interleukin (IL)-23 with an antibody that binds to the p19 subunit leads to clinical improvement of disease in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis.

doi: 10.1038/nature14175

分子生物学:HIV-1の組み込み部位の選択を指令しているのは核の構造である

Nuclear architecture dictates HIV-1 integration site selection p.227

HIV-1 integration into the host cell genome occurs in the outer shell of the nucleus in close correspondence with the nuclear pore, in which a series of cellular genes are preferentially targeted by the virus.

doi: 10.1038/nature14226

分子生物学:Xist lncRNAはSHARPと直接相互作用することでHDAC3を介して転写サイレンシングを行う

The Xist lncRNA interacts directly with SHARP to silence transcription through HDAC3 p.232

The mechanisms by which Xist, a long non-coding RNA, silences one X chromosome in female mammals are unknown; here a mass spectrometry-based approach is developed to identify several proteins that interact directly with Xist, including the transcriptional repressor SHARP that is required for transcriptional silencing through the histone deacetylase HDAC3.

doi: 10.1038/nature14443

構造生物学:F型ATP合成酵素の固定子aサブユニット中の、膜に内在する水平なαヘリックス

Horizontal membrane-intrinsic α-helices in the stator a-subunit of an F-type ATP synthase p.237

ATP, the universal energy currency of cells, is produced by F-type ATP synthases, which are ancient, membrane-bound nanomachines. F-type ATP synthases use the energy of a transmembrane electrochemical gradient to generate ATP by rotary catalysis. Protons moving across the membrane drive a rotor ring composed of 8–15 c-subunits. A central stalk transmits the rotation of the c-ring to the catalytic F1 head, where a series of conformational changes results in ATP synthesis. A key unresolved question in this fundamental process is how protons pass through the membrane to drive ATP production. Mitochondrial ATP synthases form V-shaped homodimers in cristae membranes. Here we report the structure of a native and active mitochondrial ATP synthase dimer, determined by single-particle electron cryomicroscopy at 6.2 Å resolution. Our structure shows four long, horizontal membrane-intrinsic α-helices in the a-subunit, arranged in two hairpins at an angle of approximately 70° relative to the c-ring helices. It has been proposed that a strictly conserved membrane-embedded arginine in the a-subunit couples proton translocation to c-ring rotation. A fit of the conserved carboxy-terminal a-subunit sequence places the conserved arginine next to a proton-binding c-subunit glutamate. The map shows a slanting solvent-accessible channel that extends from the mitochondrial matrix to the conserved arginine. Another hydrophilic cavity on the lumenal membrane surface defines a direct route for the protons to an essential histidine–glutamate pair. Our results provide unique new insights into the structure and function of rotary ATP synthases and explain how ATP production is coupled to proton translocation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14185

構造生物学:真核生物V型ATPアーゼの回転状態の低温電子顕微鏡による観察

Electron cryomicroscopy observation of rotational states in a eukaryotic V-ATPase p.241

Electron cryomicroscopy shows structures of three distinct rotational states of the V-ATPase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

doi: 10.1038/nature14365

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