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Editorials

イラン核協議は、科学的根拠と賢明な外交によってようやく合意に手が届くところまで来ており、この歴史的機会を逃してはならない。

Close the deal p.263

Science-based evidence and enlightened diplomacy have brought within reach a historic opportunity for nuclear détente with Iran. It must be seized.

doi: 10.1038/520263a

動物実験で目的にかなう結果を確実に得るためには、統計学的な品質管理が重要だ。

Numbers matter p.263

Researchers need help in making the statistical power of animal experiments clear.

doi: 10.1038/520263b

誤認された細胞株が研究に使われているのは問題で、対策を講じるべきだ。

Announcement: Time to tackle cells’ mistaken identity p.264

doi: 10.1038/520264a

News

動物実験の個体数が少ないと検出力が欠如するという懸念から、英国の助成機関が、最小限かつ十分な数を使うようガイドラインを変更へ。

UK funders demand strong statistics for animal studies p.271

Move addresses concerns that some experiments are not using enough animals.

doi: 10.1038/520271a

カナダ保健研究機構(CIHR)の改革に、研究者たちから懸念が。

Canadians baulk at reforms to health-research agency p.272

Biomedical-funding revamp threatens to marginalize under-represented researchers.

doi: 10.1038/520272a

3Dプリンターで、細胞を「インク」にして骨や臓器を作れる時代に。

The printed organs coming to a body near you p.273

From kidneys to hands, 3D printers are churning out made-to-order bones and rudimentary organs.

doi: 10.1038/520273a

核協議がまとまれば、新しい研究施設の建設や国際協力が可能になると、イランの物理学界に期待が。

Iran nuclear deal raises hopes for science p.274

ranian physicists excited at prospects for a new physics lab and greater collaboration with the rest of the world.

doi: 10.1038/520274a

テニュアトラック採用に関する実験で、女性科学者の方が高い評価を得る結果に。

Leading scientists favour women in tenure-track hiring test p.275

US science and engineering professors preferred female job candidates by two to one.

doi: 10.1038/520275a

Nature Biotechnologyでは、コンピューターを使った研究についてソフトウェアも検証するよう、査読者へ要請を。

Rule rewrite aims to clean up scientific software p.276

Nature Biotechnology asks peer reviewers to check accessibility of code used in computational studies.

doi: 10.1038/520276a

News Features

がん:Rasの再興

Cancer: The Ras renaissance p.278

がんの原因となるRasタンパク質を狙った治療法の開発は、30年間失敗を重ねてきたが、最近になって進展の兆しが見えてきた。

doi: 10.1038/520278a

ハッブル25歳に:ハッブル宇宙望遠鏡の声

Biography of a space telescope: Voices of Hubble p.282

25周年を迎えるハッブル宇宙望遠鏡の輝かしい業績に隠れたさまざまな裏話を、科学者、技術者が語る。

doi: 10.1038/520282a

News & Views

がん:転移の種は複雑

Cancer: The complex seeds of metastasis p.298

前立腺がんの転移巣の解析から、細胞構成が複雑なことが明らかになり、二次転移部位は原発腫瘍とそれ以外の転移巣の両方に由来する複数の細胞集団によって播種されることがあるのが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature14377

惑星科学:地球を作るための新しいレシピ

Planetary science: A new recipe for Earth formation p.299

地球が当初、非常に還元が進んだ物質の集積によって大きくなったとするなら、地球の磁場をその歴史を通じて駆動するに十分な量のウラニウムがコアに含まれていた可能性があることを示唆する実験結果が得られた。

doi: 10.1038/520299a

がん:腫瘍細胞のための血管外経路

Cancer: An extravascular route for tumour cells p.300

マウスの原発腫瘍中にある乳がん細胞の集団を分子マーカーを使って追跡したところ、Serpine2とSlpiという2種類のタンパク質が働いて腫瘍細胞に血管に類似したネットワークを形成させ、灌流と転移を促進することが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature14382

有機化学:合理化された流れ作業で薬剤合成

Organic chemistry: Streamlining drug synthesis p.302

原料を一連の反応槽に送り込み、連続的に反応を行った最終産物として薬剤が出来上がるフロー合成は、薬剤製造に役立つだろう。固体触媒を使うフロー戦略の1つが、今回実現された。

doi: 10.1038/520302a

素粒子物理学:重要な質量の差異

Particle physics: A weighty mass difference p.303

中性子と陽子の質量の差異は物理学における最も重要なパラメーターの1つだが、これが今回基礎理論から計算された。この画期的な計算は、核物理学に大変革をもたらすような進歩の先触れとなるものだ。

doi: 10.1038/nature14381

生態学:サンゴ礁の潜在能力を回復させる

Ecology: Recovering the potential of coral reefs p.304

サンゴ礁での魚類生息数の減少の解析から、サンゴ礁生態系のレジリアンス(復元力)が回復するのを助けるには、単なる魚獲量制限と、海洋保護区の設定という処置だけで十分であるらしいことが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature14384

Analysis

細胞生物学:細胞株の認証、注釈付け、品質管理のための情報資源

A resource for cell line authentication, annotation and quality control p.307

Competing financial interests. The majority of authors are employees of Genentech Inc. and/or hold stock in Roche.

doi: 10.1038/nature14397

Articles

構造生物学:ヒトのアディポネクチン受容体の結晶構造

Crystal structures of the human adiponectin receptors p.312

The crystal structures of the human adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 are solved at 2.9 and 2.4 Å resolution, respectively; the structural and functional information may aid the development and optimization of adiponectin receptor agonists for the treatment of obesity-related diseases.

doi: 10.1038/nature14301

構造生物学:ヒトP2Y1受容体の、性質が異なる2つのリガンド結合部位

Two disparate ligand-binding sites in the human P2Y1 receptor p.317

Two X-ray crystal structures are presented of the human P2Y1 G-protein-coupled receptor, which is an important target for anti-thrombotic drugs; the structures unexpectedly reveal two ligand-binding sites.

doi: 10.1038/nature14287

Letters

宇宙物理学:爆発星Nova Vul 1670における核の灰とアウトフロー

Nuclear ashes and outflow in the eruptive star Nova Vul 1670 p.322

Observations of CK Vulpeculae reveal that it is surrounded by molecular gas and dust whose large mass and chemical composition cannot have come from a nova; the best explanation is that this object is the remnant of the merger of two stars.

doi: 10.1038/nature14257

電気化学:超高速で再充電可能なアルミニウムイオン電池

An ultrafast rechargeable aluminium-ion battery p.325

An aluminium-ion battery is reported that can charge within one minute, and offers improved cycle life compared to previous devices; it operates through the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of aluminium at the anode, and the intercalation/de-intercalation of chloroaluminate anions into a novel graphitic-foam cathode.

doi: 10.1038/nature14340

有機化学:不均一系触媒を用いた(R)-および(S)-ロリプラムの多段階連続フロー合成

Multistep continuous-flow synthesis of (R)- and (S)-rolipram using heterogeneous catalysts p.329

The continuous-flow synthesis of both enantiomers of a complex molecule, the anti-inflammatory drug rolipram, is described, using only columns packed with achiral and chiral heterogeneous catalysts, thus enabling batch processing to be avoided.

doi: 10.1038/nature14343

古気候学:氷山は北大西洋寒冷事象の誘因ではない

Icebergs not the trigger for North Atlantic cold events p.333

A delay between surface cooling and the arrival of ice-rafted debris at a site southwest of Iceland over the past four glacial cycles implies that icebergs typically arrived too late to have triggered cooling, although the freshwater derived from melting icebergs may provide a positive feedback for cold stadial conditions.

doi: 10.1038/nature14330

地球化学:初期地球の水星に似た成分は核のウランとマントルの高142Nd比をもたらす

A Mercury-like component of early Earth yields uranium in the core and high mantle 142Nd p.337

Recent 142Nd isotope data indicate that the silicate Earth (its crust plus the mantle) has a samarium to neodymium elemental ratio (Sm/Nd) that is greater than that of the supposed chondritic building blocks of the planet. This elevated Sm/Nd has been ascribed either to a ‘hidden’ reservoir in the Earth or to loss of an early-formed terrestrial crust by impact ablation. Since removal of crust by ablation would also remove the heat-producing elements—potassium, uranium and thorium—such removal would make it extremely difficult to balance terrestrial heat production with the observed heat flow. In the ‘hidden’ reservoir alternative, a complementary low-Sm/Nd layer is usually considered to reside unobserved in the silicate lower mantle. We have previously shown, however, that the core is a likely reservoir for some lithophile elements such as niobium. We therefore address the question of whether core formation could have fractionated Nd from Sm and also acted as a sink for heat-producing elements. We show here that addition of a reduced Mercury-like body (or, alternatively, an enstatite-chondrite-like body) rich in sulfur to the early Earth would generate a superchondritic Sm/Nd in the mantle and an 142Nd/144Nd anomaly of approximately +14 parts per million relative to chondrite. In addition, the sulfur-rich core would partition uranium strongly and thorium slightly, supplying a substantial part of the ‘missing’ heat source for the geodynamo.

doi: 10.1038/nature14350

生態学:世界のサンゴ礁魚類の回復能

Recovery potential of the world's coral reef fishes p.341

Continuing degradation of coral reef ecosystems has generated substantial interest in how management can support reef resilience. Fishing is the primary source of diminished reef function globally, leading to widespread calls for additional marine reserves to recover fish biomass and restore key ecosystem functions. Yet there are no established baselines for determining when these conservation objectives have been met or whether alternative management strategies provide similar ecosystem benefits. Here we establish empirical conservation benchmarks and fish biomass recovery timelines against which coral reefs can be assessed and managed by studying the recovery potential of more than 800 coral reefs along an exploitation gradient. We show that resident reef fish biomass in the absence of fishing (B0) averages ∼1,000 kg ha−1, and that the vast majority (83%) of fished reefs are missing more than half their expected biomass, with severe consequences for key ecosystem functions such as predation. Given protection from fishing, reef fish biomass has the potential to recover within 35 years on average and less than 60 years when heavily depleted. Notably, alternative fisheries restrictions are largely (64%) successful at maintaining biomass above 50% of B0, sustaining key functions such as herbivory. Our results demonstrate that crucial ecosystem functions can be maintained through a range of fisheries restrictions, allowing coral reef managers to develop recovery plans that meet conservation and livelihood objectives in areas where marine reserves are not socially or politically feasible solutions.

doi: 10.1038/nature14358

人間行動学:情緒的な学習によって関連事象の記憶が選択的かつ逆行的に強化される

Emotional learning selectively and retroactively strengthens memories for related events p.345

Initially weak episodic memories in humans can be selectively enhanced and consolidated following later emotional learning involving conceptually related information, suggesting a mechanism for how we can remember initially inconsequential information after a relevant later experience.

doi: 10.1038/nature14106

神経科学:喉の渇きを促進するシグナルと抑制するシグナルは脳内の異なるニューロン集団にコードされている

Thirst driving and suppressing signals encoded by distinct neural populations in the brain p.349

Two genetically distinct populations of neurons in the subfornical organ of mice can either induce thirst and water-seeking behaviour or suppress thirst, regardless of the hydration status of the animal.

doi: 10.1038/nature14108

がんゲノミクス:致死的な転移性前立腺がんの進化史

The evolutionary history of lethal metastatic prostate cancer p.353

The subclonal composition of human prostate tumours and their metastases has been mapped by whole-genome sequencing, thus establishing the evolutionary trees behind the development and spread of these cancers; an important observation was that metastases could be re-seeded multiple times, and spread from one tumour to another was frequently seen.

doi: 10.1038/nature14347

乳がん:乳がんの不均一性モデルが示す転移促進機構としての血管擬態

A model of breast cancer heterogeneity reveals vascular mimicry as a driver of metastasis p.358

Different clones of a mammary tumour cell line possess differential abilities to contribute to the formation of metastasis; the expression of Serpine2 and Slp1 proteins drives vascular mimicry and metastasis to the lung, with similar associations observed in human data sets, and these proteins also function as anticoagulants, thus further promoting extravasation of tumour cells.

doi: 10.1038/nature14403

がん:SHMT2は虚血環境における神経膠腫細胞の生存を促進するがグリシン除去に依存性にさせる

SHMT2 drives glioma cell survival in ischaemia but imposes a dependence on glycine clearance p.363

Tumours are a low-oxygen environment, in this study glioblastoma cells are found to overexpress the serine hydroxymethyltransferase SHMT2; SHMT acts to reduce oxygen consumption, which confers the tumour cells with a survival advantage.

doi: 10.1038/nature14363

がん治療学:治療で誘発される腫瘍セクレトームが、治療抵抗性と腫瘍のプログレッションを促進する

Therapy-induced tumour secretomes promote resistance and tumour progression p.368

Tumour cells respond to an effective, targeted drug treatment with BRAF, ALK or EGFR kinase inhibitors by inducing a complex network of secreted signals that promote tumour growth, dissemination and metastasis of drug-resistant cancer cell clones, and increase the survival of drug-sensitive tumour cells, potentially contributing to incomplete tumour regression.

doi: 10.1038/nature14336

腫瘍免疫学:放射線照射と二重のチェックポイント阻害はがんで重複していない免疫機構を活性化する

Radiation and dual checkpoint blockade activate non-redundant immune mechanisms in cancer p.373

In this study, involving melanoma patients and a mouse model for melanoma, an optimal anti-tumour response was induced by using a combination of radiation with anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD-L1 antibody therapies, each attacking the tumour from a different angle.

doi: 10.1038/nature14292

がんモデル:タイレリア属の寄生生物はプロリルイソメラーゼを分泌して宿主白血球の形質転換を維持する

Theileria parasites secrete a prolyl isomerase to maintain host leukocyte transformation p.378

Parasites of the Theileria genus infect cattle and transform their host cells, a transformation that can be reversed by treatment with the drug buparvaquone; here, a Theileria homologue of the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase PIN1 is shown to be secreted into the host cell, where it promotes transformation and can be directly inhibited by buparvaquone.

doi: 10.1038/nature14044

抗生物質:抗生物質の生合成の際に起こる、非リボソーム型ペプチドシンテターゼによるβ-ラクタム形成

β-Lactam formation by a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase during antibiotic biosynthesis p.383

Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases are giant enzymes composed of modules that house repeated sets of functional domains, which select, activate and couple amino acids drawn from a pool of nearly 500 potential building blocks. The structurally and stereochemically diverse peptides generated in this manner underlie the biosynthesis of a large sector of natural products. Many of their derived metabolites are bioactive such as the antibiotics vancomycin, bacitracin, daptomycin and the β-lactam-containing penicillins, cephalosporins and nocardicins. Penicillins and cephalosporins are synthesized from a classically derived non-ribosomal peptide synthetase tripeptide (from δ-(l-α-aminoadipyl)–l-cysteinyl–d-valine synthetase). Here we report an unprecedented non-ribosomal peptide synthetase activity that both assembles a serine-containing peptide and mediates its cyclization to the critical β-lactam ring of the nocardicin family of antibiotics. A histidine-rich condensation domain, which typically performs peptide bond formation during product assembly, also synthesizes the embedded four-membered ring. We propose a mechanism, and describe supporting experiments, that is distinct from the pathways that have evolved to the three other β-lactam antibiotic families: penicillin/cephalosporins, clavams and carbapenems. These findings raise the possibility that β-lactam rings can be regio- and stereospecifically integrated into engineered peptides for application as, for example, targeted protease inactivators.

doi: 10.1038/nature14100

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