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Editorials

英国におけるゴールドオープンアクセスの進捗状況の検証は、助成機関、出版社、科学者にとって有益であり、他国にも大いに参考になる。

All that glitters p.131

A review of the United Kingdom’s progress towards ‘gold’ open-access research is instructive — for funders, publishers and scientists both at home and abroad.

doi: 10.1038/520131a

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遺伝子編集などの次世代植物育種技術の規制をめぐり、EUは大きな課題に直面している。

Seeds of change p.131

The European Union faces a fresh battle over next-generation plant-breeding techniques.

doi: 10.1038/520131b

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知っているつもりだった月の生い立ちについて、思いがけない新たな発見があった。

Lunar affairs p.132

A study in Nature adds a dramatic twist to the backstory of a neighbour we thought we knew.

doi: 10.1038/520132a

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News

貧困国を苦しめているヒツジやヤギの伝染病、小反芻獣疫の根絶を目標に、国連が取り組みを。

Race to stamp out animal plague begins p.139

Killer disease that is scourge of world’s poorest ruminant farmers is ripe for elimination.

doi: 10.1038/520139a

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雲の謎を提示して、物理学者の気候変動研究への関心を高めようとの試みが。

Climatologists to physicists: your planet needs you p.140

Climate scientists highlight cloud mysteries in a bid to compete with astronomy and cosmology.

doi: 10.1038/520140a

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急激に発展する合成生物学分野に必要な規格作成に向けて、会合が。

Synthetic biologists seek standards for nascent field p.141

Common language and methods are needed to fulfil biofactory dream.

doi: 10.1038/520141a

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アフリカが、自律的な研究戦略作成と援助資金管理を目指し、地域機構を。

African hub set up to boost research autonomy p.142

Fledgling alliance will manage international grants and develop science strategy.

doi: 10.1038/520142a

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News Features

キャリア:ポスドク研究者の未来

The future of the postdoc p.144

ポスドク研究者が増え続け、飽和状態に近づきつつあるが、学界には今後どのような変化が考えられるだろうか。

doi: 10.1038/520144a

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材料科学:穴の物語

Materials science: The hole story p.148

高機能の分子ふるいや触媒として期待されてきた金属有機構造体と呼ばれる多孔質材料が、いよいよ実用化されようとしている。

doi: 10.1038/520148a

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News & Views

心臓学:健康な心臓を得るための運動

Cardiology: Race for healthy hearts p.160

高齢の母親から生まれた仔では先天性心臓疾患のリスクが増大しているが、これは卵の老化によるものではなく、母親の齢が原因であり、母親の運動によってリスクを減らせることが、マウスを使った移植実験によって明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature14379

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惑星科学:岩石上の前生物化学

Planetary science: Prebiotic chemistry on the rocks p.161

若い星の周辺の物質中にニトリルと呼ばれる有機化合物が検出された。この知見は、こうした周辺物質中には大量の氷や揮発性物質が貯蔵されていて、それらが岩石からなる若い星や衛星の表面にばらまかれる可能性があることを示唆している。

doi: 10.1038/520161a

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分子生物学:危険にさらされているRNA干渉

Molecular biology: RNA interference hangs by a thread p.162

分裂酵母のPaf1タンパク質複合体は、新生転写産物のDNAからの解離を促進することで、RNAが仲介する転写サイレンシングによる阻害からタンパク質コード遺伝子を守ることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature14376

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材料科学:IDタグとなる独特のしわ

Materials science: Unique wrinkles as identity tags p.164

微小粒子の被覆に自然に生じるランダムなしわに、指紋に似た使い道があることが分かった。こうしたしわの持つ、波のような形の独自のパターンは、偽造防止目的のコピー不可能なタグとして使用できる。

doi: 10.1038/nature14380

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代謝:肥満の危険の中で成長

Metabolism: Growth in the fat lane p.165

血管形成に関わっている内皮細胞についての研究から、この種の細胞の増殖がDNA合成を助けるための脂肪酸酸化に依存しているという予想外の事実が明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature14375

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核化学:ローレンシウム原子によって埋まった周期表の隙間

Nuclear chemistry: Lawrencium bridges a knowledge gap p.166

ローレンシウムは重い元素でごく少量しか得られない。そのため、この原子の特性の1つの測定は非常に困難な実験となっていた。しかし、この測定は重元素の理論モデルの正しさを立証するのに不可欠である。

doi: 10.1038/520166a

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神経科学:暴飲と脳のストレス系

Neuroscience: Binge drinking and brain stress systems p.168

2種類のストレス関連神経ペプチドホルモン間の相互作用がマウスでは暴飲を調節していることが分かり、暴飲の繰り返しの基盤となる生物学的機序についての手掛かりが得られた。

doi: 10.1038/520168a

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太陽系:存在の信じられない類似

Solar System: An incredible likeness of being p.169

地球と月は化学的に似た性質を多数共有しているが、その理由は謎である。新たに行われた解析によって、地球に衝突した最後の惑星サイズの天体の組成が地球とよく似ていて、そのために月が地球に似たものとなったことが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/520169a

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Review

生物地球化学:気候変動と永久凍土の炭素のフィードバック

Climate change and the permafrost carbon feedback p.171

A large amount of organic carbon stored in frozen Arctic soils (permafrost) could be released as carbon dioxide and methane in a warming climate, which would accelerate the pace of climate change; this review suggests that release of greenhouse gas emissions will be gradual but prolonged.

doi: 10.1038/nature14338

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Articles

神経科学:分枝特異的な樹状突起Ca2+スパイクが持続的シナプス可塑性を引き起こす

Branch-specific dendritic Ca2+ spikes cause persistent synaptic plasticity p.180

Ca2+ spikes are generated on different dendritic branches in the primary motor cortex of mice performing different motor learning tasks, causing long-lasting potentiation of postsynaptic dendritic spines; inactivation of a population of interneurons disrupts the spatial separation of Ca2+ spikes and persistent dendritic spine potentiation, suggesting that the generation of Ca2+ spikes on different dendritic branches is crucial for storing information in individual neurons.

doi: 10.1038/nature14251

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生物工学:黄色ブドウ球菌のCas9を用いたin vivoでのゲノム編集

In vivo genome editing using Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 p.186

The physical size of the commonly used Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes poses challenges for CRISPR-Cas genome editing systems that use the adeno-associated virus as a delivery vehicle; here, smaller Cas9 orthologues are characterized, and Cas9 from Staphylococcus aureus allowed targeting of the cholesterol regulatory gene Pcsk9 in the mouse liver.

doi: 10.1038/nature14299

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代謝:内皮細胞でのdNTP合成には、脂肪酸炭素が不可欠である

Fatty acid carbon is essential for dNTP synthesis in endothelial cells p.192

This study identifies a crucial role for fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in endothelial cells during angiogenesis, and reveals that fatty-acid-derived carbons are used for the de novo synthesis of nucleotides, and hence FAO stimulates vessel sprouting by increasing endothelial cell proliferation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14362

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Letters

宇宙物理学:複雑なシアン化物によって明らかにされた原始惑星系円盤の彗星に似た組成

The comet-like composition of a protoplanetary disk as revealed by complex cyanides p.198

The detection of complex cyanides in the protoplanetary disk around the young star MWC 480, and the similarity of their abundance ratios to those found in comets, implies that the rich organic chemistry of our solar nebula was not unique.

doi: 10.1038/nature14276

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惑星科学:土星の重力場と扁平率から決定された土星の高速な自転

Saturn’s fast spin determined from its gravitational field and oblateness p.202

The alignment of Saturn’s magnetic pole with its rotation axis precludes the use of magnetic field measurements to determine its rotation period. The period was previously determined from radio measurements by the Voyager spacecraft to be 10 h 39 min 22.4 s (ref. 2). When the Cassini spacecraft measured a period of 10 h 47 min 6 s, which was additionally found to change between sequential measurements, it became clear that the radio period could not be used to determine the bulk planetary rotation period. Estimates based upon Saturn’s measured wind fields have increased the uncertainty even more, giving numbers smaller than the Voyager rotation period, and at present Saturn’s rotation period is thought to be between 10 h 32 min and 10 h 47 min, which is unsatisfactory for such a fundamental property. Here we report a period of 10 h 32 min 45 s ± 46 s, based upon an optimization approach using Saturn’s measured gravitational field and limits on the observed shape and possible internal density profiles. Moreover, even when solely using the constraints from its gravitational field, the rotation period can be inferred with a precision of several minutes. To validate our method, we applied the same procedure to Jupiter and correctly recovered its well-known rotation period.

doi: 10.1038/nature14278

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非線形光学:極端紫外線過渡回折格子による四波混合実験

Four-wave mixing experiments with extreme ultraviolet transient gratings p.205

Four-wave mixing processes are achieved at suboptical wavelengths by using a free-electron laser as a source to generate extreme ultraviolet pulses that produce transient gratings.

doi: 10.1038/nature14341

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超重元素:103番元素ローレンシウムの第一イオン化ポテンシャル測定

Measurement of the first ionization potential of lawrencium, element 103 p.209

Lawrencium, with atomic number 103, has an isotope with a half-life of 27 seconds; even so, its first ionization potential has now been measured on an atom-at-a-time scale and agrees well with state-of-the-art theoretical calculations that include relativistic effects.

doi: 10.1038/nature14342

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惑星科学:地球と月の組成の類似性は始原的起源である

A primordial origin for the compositional similarity between the Earth and the Moon p.212

The Moon is thought to have formed mainly from a giant impactor striking the Earth but it has seemed odd that the Earth and its impactor (and hence the Moon) had such similar compositions; here simulations of planetary accretion show that although the different planets have distinct compositions, the composition of each giant impactor is indeed often very similar to that of the planet it strikes.

doi: 10.1038/nature14333

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人類学:イスラエル・マノット洞窟のレバント人頭蓋骨はヨーロッパにおける最初の現生人類を予示している

Levantine cranium from Manot Cave (Israel) foreshadows the first European modern humans p.216

A partial skull from northern Israel dated to be from around 55,000 years ago sheds light on a crucial but little-known period of prehistory: the spread of anatomically modern humans from Africa.

doi: 10.1038/nature14134

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神経科学:証拠の蓄積に対して頭頂皮質と前前頭皮質は異なる関係を持つ

Distinct relationships of parietal and prefrontal cortices to evidence accumulation p.220

A method to measure the precise relationship between neuronal firing rates and the representation of accumulated evidence is described; results in the parietal and prefrontal cortex of rats, together with transient optogenetic inactivation of the prefrontal cortex, challenge the prevailing view that the prefrontal cortex is part of the neural circuit for accumulating evidence, and suggest that neurons in parietal and prefrontal areas have distinct relationships to evidence accumulation in decision-making.

doi: 10.1038/nature14066

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神経科学:ありふれた遺伝的バリアントがヒトの脳の皮質下構造に影響を及ぼす

Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures p.224

Genome-wide association studies are used to identify common genetic variants that affect the structure of selected subcortical regions of the human brain; their identification provides insight into the causes of variability in brain development and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.

doi: 10.1038/nature14101

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健康科学:母親の年齢に関連する先天性心疾患のリスクは修正可能である

The maternal-age-associated risk of congenital heart disease is modifiable p.230

Increased maternal age is known to increase the risk of congenital heart disease in offspring; here, this link is investigated by transplanting ovaries between young and old mice, revealing that the maternal-age-associated risk is independent of the age of the ovaries but depends on the age of the mother, and that this risk can be mitigated by maternal genetic background or exercise.

doi: 10.1038/nature14361

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細胞生物学:小胞体–エンドソーム間の接触の繰り返しはエンドソームの移動と神経突起進展を促進する

Repeated ER–endosome contacts promote endosome translocation and neurite outgrowth p.234

Repeated contacts between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and a subset of endosomes called late endosomes (LEs) is shown to promote microtubule-dependent translocation of LEs to the cell periphery and their subsequent fusion with the plasma membrane to induce outgrowth of neuronal protrusions.

doi: 10.1038/nature14359

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がん:BRG1EGFRに変異を持つ肺腫瘍はEZH2の阻害によりTopoII阻害剤感受性となる

EZH2 inhibition sensitizes BRG1 and EGFR mutant lung tumours to TopoII inhibitors p.239

A subset of lung cancer cells with EGFR or BRG1 mutations shows selective sensitivity to a combination of EZH2 inhibitors with topoisomerase II inhibitors such as the commonly used chemotherapeutic drug etoposide.

doi: 10.1038/nature14122

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エピジェネティクス:DNAメチルトランスフェラーゼのゲノムプロファイリングにより、遺伝子メチル化におけるDNMT3Bの役割が明らかになった

Genomic profiling of DNA methyltransferases reveals a role for DNMT3B in genic methylation p.243

Genome-wide localization and activity analysis of the de novo DNA methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B in mouse embryonic stem cells identifies overlapping and individual targeting preferences to the genome, including a role for DNMT3B in gene body methylation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14176

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分子生物学:Paf1複合体は低分子RNAを介したエピジェネティックな遺伝子サイレンシングを抑制する

The Paf1 complex represses small-RNA-mediated epigenetic gene silencing p.248

The fission yeast is shown to have a mechanism to prevent small RNAs from inducing heterochromatin and epigenetic gene silencing; this protective model involves the highly conserved Paf1 complex, which is known to promote transcription and processing of pre-mRNA, and protects protein-coding genes from unwanted silencing by spurious transcripts.

doi: 10.1038/nature14337

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