目次

Editorials

ポスドク研究者は、ヨーロッパでも米国でも苛酷な状況に置かれており、改善が必要だ。

Harsh reality p.7

Two reports highlight the plight of postdocs on both sides of the pond aiming for academia.

doi: 10.1038/516007b

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米国などの国々は、水圧破砕法による天然ガス生産に巨額な投資をしているが、その生産量を過大に予測している恐れがある。

The uncertain dash for gas p.7

The United States and other countries have made huge investments in fracking, but forecasts of production may be vastly overestimated.

doi: 10.1038/516007a

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気候変動への地球工学的対策は、たとえ使われないとしても、研究しておくのが賢明だ。

Look ahead p.8

Research into climate engineering must proceed — even if it turns out to be unnecessary.

doi: 10.1038/516008a

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News

エボラワクチンの臨床試験が進展しており、実用化に向けた模索が。

Ebola vaccine race begins p.15

With trials under way, scientists are working out how to give vaccines in affected regions.

doi: 10.1038/516015a

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カロリンスカ研究所の胸部外科医Paolo Macchiariniが行った人工気管移植手術について、その効果や倫理に関する問題が指摘されており、研究所が調査を。

Artificial tracheas under scrutiny p.16

The Karolinska Institute is carrying out two inquiries into an experimental transplant procedure.

doi: 10.1038/516016a

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新たな化石の発見で「最初の鳥」の座を奪われつつある始祖鳥だが、鳥類進化の研究では依然として大きな存在感を。

Rival species recast significance of ‘first bird’ p.18

Archaeopteryx’s status is changing, but the animal is still key to the dinosaur–bird transition.

doi: 10.1038/516018a

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地球工学手法による種々の気候変動対策の研究に関する指針を整備すべく、その専門家たちが一堂に会し、議論を。

Climate tinkerers thrash out a plan p.20

Geoengineers meet to work out what research is acceptable.

doi: 10.1038/516020a

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米国では抗がん剤の適応外使用が非常に多く、その効果を大規模に調べる2つの研究計画が。

Projects seek hidden effects of cancer drugs p.21

Researchers gather data on innovative uses of cancer treatments.

doi: 10.1038/516021a

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News Features

物理学:量子コンピューターの探求

Physics: Quantum computer quest p.24

量子の奇妙な性質をコンピューターに利用しようという30年間にわたる苦闘が、いよいよ実を結びそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/516024a

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天然ガス:水圧破砕法の誤算?

Natural gas: The fracking fallacy p.28

米国は、豊富な天然ガスを経済再生に活用しようと見込んでいるが、それは希望的観測に過ぎない可能性がある。

doi: 10.1038/516028a

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News & Views

細胞の代謝:オートファジーの転写制御

Cell metabolism: Autophagy transcribed p.40

オートファジーと呼ばれている細胞内品質管理機構が、オートファジーに関連する遺伝子の発現を支配している核内受容体タンパク質によって調節されていることが2つの研究から明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13939

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地球科学:雨における同位体勾配の制御

Earth science: Controls on isotopic gradients in rain p.41

雨水に含まれる水素と酸素の重い同位体の濃度は、嵐が陸上を移動するにつれて低下する。こうした影響を生じさせる水蒸気の輸送がモデルで調べられ、過去と現在の気候に関する手掛かりが得られた。

doi: 10.1038/516041a

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微生物学:細菌のバックアップとなるウイルス

Microbiology: A backup for bacteria p.42

腸管のウイルスは腸内細菌の代理として、哺乳類宿主の健康を促進することがあるという知見は、腸内のウイルスが、特定の環境条件下ではヒトの役に立つ可能性を示している。

doi: 10.1038/nature13938

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天体物理学:星たちの逆襲

Astrophysics: Stars fight back p.44

銀河内の星の数は予想されたよりも少ない。星形成速度が天の川銀河の100倍程度のコンパクトな銀河で、分子ガスの大量のアウトフローが見つかったことは、このことを説明する助けとなりそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/516044a

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神経生物学:うつ病を切り刻む分子ナイフ

Neurobiology: A molecular knife to dice depression p.45

慢性的なストレスは一部の人たちでうつ病の原因となるが、全く影響を受けない人もいる。小型のRNA断片の産生を制御する分子経路の関与がこうした違いを説明する役に立ちそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/nature13942

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科学技術:新設計の超高速撮像法

Technology: Ultrafast imaging takes on a new design p.46

非反復性の超高速現象を、ストロボやフラッシュなしで記録できる撮像技術が開発された。この技術は生物医学やセキュリティー技術へ応用できそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/516046a

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行動経済学:職業的アイデンティティーは不誠実さを増す?

Behavioural economics: Professional identity can increase dishonesty p.48

銀行員は平均して誠実にふるまうが、自己の職業的アイデンティティーを思い出すような質問をされてから決定を下す際には不誠実さが増してくることが、実験で明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature14068

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糖尿病:脂肪だって悪者ばかりじゃない

Diabetes: The good in fat p.49

食物に含まれ、哺乳類の組織で合成される新種の脂肪酸は、血液からのグルコースの取り込みを増し、炎症を軽減させる。つまり、このような脂肪は糖尿病の治療に使えるかもしれない。

doi: 10.1038/nature14070

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Articles

神経科学:βカテニンはDicer1やマイクロRNAの調節を介してストレスへのレジリエンスに関与する

β-catenin mediates stress resilience through Dicer1/microRNA regulation p.51

Here β-catenin, which has been implicated in neurological and psychiatric diseases, including depression, is shown to mediate resilience to chronic stress in mice through induction of Dicer and microRNAs in nucleus accumbens, a key brain reward region.

doi: 10.1038/nature13976

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幹細胞:多能性幹細胞の転写不均一性の解明

Deconstructing transcriptional heterogeneity in pluripotent stem cells p.56

This study uses single-cell expression profiling of pluripotent stem cells after various perturbations, and uncovers a high degree of variability that can be inherited through cell divisions—modulating microRNA or external signalling pathways induces a ground state with reduced gene expression heterogeneity and a distinct chromatin profile.

doi: 10.1038/nature13920

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細胞生物学:コレラ菌のNa+輸送型NADH-キノン酸化還元酵素の構造

Structure of the V. cholerae Na+-pumping NADH:quinone oxidoreductase p.62

Here the structure of the membrane protein complex sodium-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) is described; as Na+-NQR is a component of the respiratory chain of various bacteria, including pathogenic ones, this structure may serve as the basis for the development of new antibiotics.

doi: 10.1038/nature14003

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Letters

宇宙物理学:スターバースト銀河における広がった分子ガスのアウトフローの起源である、星からのフィードバック

Stellar feedback as the origin of an extended molecular outflow in a starburst galaxy p.68

A high-velocity outflow of molecular gas from a starburst galaxy has been observed to extend about ten kiloparsecs; its velocity is consistent with the momentum flux from stellar radiation pressure, showing that bursts of star formation can eject large amounts of cold gas from the central regions of galaxies, curtailing star formation.

doi: 10.1038/nature14012

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超伝導:YBa2Cu3O6.5の超伝導特性向上の根拠としての非線形格子ダイナミクス

Nonlinear lattice dynamics as a basis for enhanced superconductivity in YBa2Cu3O6.5 p.71

Terahertz-frequency optical pulses can resonantly drive selected vibrational modes in solids and deform their crystal structures. In complex oxides, this method has been used to melt electronic order, drive insulator-to-metal transitions and induce superconductivity. Strikingly, coherent interlayer transport strongly reminiscent of superconductivity can be transiently induced up to room temperature (300 kelvin) in YBa2Cu3O6+x (refs 9, 10). Here we report the crystal structure of this exotic non-equilibrium state, determined by femtosecond X-ray diffraction and ab initio density functional theory calculations. We find that nonlinear lattice excitation in normal-state YBa2Cu3O6+x at above the transition temperature of 52 kelvin causes a simultaneous increase and decrease in the Cu–O2 intra-bilayer and, respectively, inter-bilayer distances, accompanied by anisotropic changes in the in-plane O–Cu–O bond buckling. Density functional theory calculations indicate that these motions cause drastic changes in the electronic structure. Among these, the enhancement in the character of the in-plane electronic structure is likely to favour superconductivity.

doi: 10.1038/nature13875

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技術:1千億フレーム/秒のシングルショット超高速圧縮写真撮影法

Single-shot compressed ultrafast photography at one hundred billion frames per second p.74

A technique based on compressed imaging with a streak camera is reported that can videotape transient events in two dimensions with temporal resolution down to tens of picoseconds, and its usefulness is demonstrated using single laser shots applied to a variety of physical phenomena.

doi: 10.1038/nature14005

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材料科学:体積静電容量の高い導電性二次元炭化チタン「粘土」

Conductive two-dimensional titanium carbide ‘clay’ with high volumetric capacitance p.78

Two-dimensional titanium carbide has been produced by etching out aluminium in a lithium fluoride and hydrochloric acid mixture; it is hydrophilic and mouldable like clay and has excellent volumetric capacitance and cyclability, properties that are desirable for portable electronics.

doi: 10.1038/nature13970

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気候科学:エルニーニョによる海洋亜表層の熱輸送によって強まる東太平洋の熱帯低気圧

Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones intensified by El Niño delivery of subsurface ocean heat p.82

El Niño events can transfer subsurface heat to the eastern North Pacific with a delay of several months, causing the intensification of tropical cyclones; the mechanism may lead to insights into past variations in tropical cyclone intensity and enhance seasonal predictions.

doi: 10.1038/nature13958

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行動経済学:銀行業界の企業風土と不正行為

Business culture and dishonesty in the banking industry p.86

According to popular opinion, unethical business practices are common in the financial industry; here, the employees of a large, international bank are shown to behave, on average, honestly in a laboratory game to reveal dishonest behaviour, but when their professional identity as bank employees was rendered salient, the prevalence of dishonest behaviour increased.

doi: 10.1038/nature13977

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植物科学:微小管に対するABP1を介した迅速なオーキシン作用による細胞容積増大の阻害

Inhibition of cell expansion by rapid ABP1-mediated auxin effect on microtubules p.90

In roots and dark-grown hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana, ABP1-mediated auxin signalling induces swift re-orientation of the microtubule cytoskeleton from transverse to longitudinal, thus inhibiting cell expansion.

doi: 10.1038/nature13889

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微生物学:共生細菌の有益な機能を代替できる腸内ウイルス

An enteric virus can replace the beneficial function of commensal bacteria p.94

Commensal bacteria are known to have an important role in keeping the host healthy, but the role of eukaryotic viruses has been unknown; now, persistent infection in mice with various strains of enteric norovirus is shown to provide similar host protection.

doi: 10.1038/nature13960

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細胞生物学:ESCRT機構はヘッジホッグの分泌と長距離活性を調節する

The ESCRT machinery regulates the secretion and long-range activity of Hedgehog p.99

A new role for the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) is identified in fly larvae, where it is shown to be essential for the secretion and long-range signalling of the embryonic development morphogen Hedgehog.

doi: 10.1038/nature13847

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細胞生物学:多繊毛細胞では、母中心小体による中心小体増幅と娘中心小体による中心小体増幅に違いがある

Centriole amplification by mother and daughter centrioles differs in multiciliated cells p.104

Using advanced microscopy techniques, the process of centriole amplification in multiciliated cells is explored, and the daughter centriole identified as the primary nucleation site of more than 90% of the new centrioles, contesting existing de novo theories of centriolar amplification and highlighting a new centrosome asymmetry.

doi: 10.1038/nature13770

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細胞生物学:FXR–CREB経路によるオートファジーの転写制御

Transcriptional regulation of autophagy by an FXR–CREB axis p.108

The FXR–CREB axis is identified as a key physiological switch that regulates autophagy during feeding/fasting cycles; in the fed state, the nuclear receptor FXR is shown to suppress autophagy in the liver by inhibiting autophagy-associated lipid breakdown triggered under fasting conditions by the transcriptional activator CREB.

doi: 10.1038/nature13949

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細胞生物学:栄養を感知する核内受容体がオートファジーを調整する

Nutrient-sensing nuclear receptors coordinate autophagy p.112

The nuclear receptors FXR and PPARα are shown to regulate autophagy by competing for binding to shared sites in the promoters of autophagic genes; in the fed state FXR suppresses hepatic autophagy, whereas in the fasted state PPARα is activated and reverses the normal suppression of autophagy.

doi: 10.1038/nature13961

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がん:新しいヒストンH2AユビキチンリガーゼTRIM37は乳がんのがんタンパク質である

TRIM37 is a new histone H2A ubiquitin ligase and breast cancer oncoprotein p.116

The RING finger protein TRIM37 is encoded by a gene that is amplified in certain breast cancers, but its function is unknown; here, it is shown to mono-ubiquitinate histone H2A and repress gene expression, and to function as a breast cancer oncoprotein.

doi: 10.1038/nature13955

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神経科学:Piezo2はマウスの触覚における主要な機械力変換器である

Piezo2 is the major transducer of mechanical forces for touch sensation in mice p.121

Mice lacking the mechanically activated ion channel Piezo2 in both sensory neurons and Merkel cells are almost totally incapable of light-touch sensation while other somatosensory functions, such as mechanical nociception, remain intact, implying that other mechanically activated ion channels must now be identified to account for painful touch sensation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13980

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神経科学:ヒトTRAAK K+チャネルのゲーティングと機械感受性の物理的機構

Physical mechanism for gating and mechanosensitivity of the human TRAAK K+ channel p.126

Activation of mechanosensitive ion channels by physical force underlies many physiological processes including the sensation of touch, hearing and pain. TRAAK (also known as KCNK4) ion channels are neuronally expressed members of the two-pore domain K+ (K2P) channel family and are mechanosensitive. They are involved in controlling mechanical and temperature nociception in mice. Mechanosensitivity of TRAAK is mediated directly through the lipid bilayer—it is a membrane-tension-gated channel. However, the molecular mechanism of TRAAK channel gating and mechanosensitivity is unknown. Here we present crystal structures of TRAAK in conductive and non-conductive conformations defined by the presence of permeant ions along the conduction pathway. In the non-conductive state, a lipid acyl chain accesses the channel cavity through a 5 Å-wide lateral opening in the membrane inner leaflet and physically blocks ion passage. In the conductive state, rotation of a transmembrane helix (TM4) about a central hinge seals the intramembrane opening, preventing lipid block of the cavity and permitting ion entry. Additional rotation of a membrane interacting TM2–TM3 segment, unique to mechanosensitive K2Ps, against TM4 may further stabilize the conductive conformation. Comparison of the structures reveals a biophysical explanation for TRAAK mechanosensitivity—an expansion in cross-sectional area up to 2.7 nm2 in the conductive state is expected to create a membrane-tension-dependent energy difference between conformations that promotes force activation. Our results show how tension of the lipid bilayer can be harnessed to control gating and mechanosensitivity of a eukaryotic ion channel.

doi: 10.1038/nature14013

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