目次

Editorials

エボラ出血熱の感染拡大の勢いが鈍っており、この機会を捉えて、対策を進めるべきだ。

Ebola opportunity p.465

A slowdown in new cases offers a chance for control efforts to get ahead of the epidemic.

doi: 10.1038/515465b

米国と中国が温室効果ガス排出削減で合意したことで、国際的な協定の実現に希望が見えてきた。

Agree to agree p.465

The US–China emissions agreement raises hopes for international cooperation on a climate accord. But it does not go far enough.

doi: 10.1038/515465a

クラウド・ファンディングによる月探査計画は、見込みはそれほど大きくないものの、試みても損はない。

Moon on a stick p.466

A crowdfunded lunar mission might seem like a long shot — but there is no harm in trying.

doi: 10.1038/515466a

News

米中間での温室効果ガス排出削減に関する合意は、課題はまだ残るが、来年開催される国連気候変動会議に向けた明るい希望に。

US–China climate deal raises hopes for Lima talks p.473

But challenges remain for United Nations meeting in run-up to a new 2015 emissions treaty.

doi: 10.1038/515473a

米国の海洋観測計画(OOI)に、データ管理の荒波が。

Ocean observatory project hits rough water p.474

Problems with data management challenge US effort to monitor seas in real time.

doi: 10.1038/515474a

脳内埋め込み型治療装置が目覚ましい進歩を見せ、米食品医薬品局(FDA)が適切な規制方法を検討へ。

Regulators assess brain-linked devices p.476

Robotic limb advances are attracting serious attention from the FDA.

doi: 10.1038/515476a

米国立衛生研究所(NIH)とFDAは、臨床試験結果のデータ公開が進むよう、報告要件に関する規則を強化へ。

Clinical-trial rules to improve access to results p.477

US agencies propose expanded reporting of drug-test data.

doi: 10.1038/515477a

PLOS(公共科学図書館)は今年3月、論文に関わる全データのオープン化を義務付ける新方針を施行したが、全ての著者がこの方針に従っているわけではないという調査結果が。

Confusion over open-data rules p.478

The Public Library of Science’s open-data mandate has prompted scientists to share more data online, but not everyone is complying with the regulations.

doi: 10.1038/515478a

ガラパゴス島の保全を進めるチャールズ・ダーウィン財団の研究拠点が、ギフトショップの閉店で財政難に。

Key Galapagos research station in trouble p.479

Local government’s closure of gift shop could doom Charles Darwin Foundation.

doi: 10.1038/515479a

News Features

論文出版:査読詐欺

Publishing: The peer-review scam p.480

別の研究者になりすまして論文を自己査読する不正行為が発覚し、査読システムの弱点が浮き彫りになった。

doi: 10.1038/515480a

原子力:プルトニウムが足りない

Nuclear power: Desperately seeking plutonium p.484

深宇宙探査計画に使用できるプルトニウム238の量が残りわずかとなり、NASAは計画の再検討を余儀なくされている。

doi: 10.1038/515484a

News & Views

気候科学:変幻自在なエルニーニョの歴史

Climate science: El Niño's variable history p.494

過去2万1000年間に起こったエルニーニョ現象についての研究は、エルニーニョは気候変動に対して複雑な応答を示してきたことを示唆している。こうした応答には複数の競合する因子が関わっていて、エルニーニョの強度を変化させているらしい。

doi: 10.1038/515494a

哺乳類の進化:南の大陸に居た獣

Mammalian evolution: A beast of the southern wild p.495

白亜紀の地層で今回新たに発見された頭蓋骨は、大型で動きが速い、珍しい哺乳類のものである。この化石は哺乳類の進化に関する長い間の謎を解き、矛盾を解決する助けとなりそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/nature13940

がん:後押しされる抗腫瘍免疫

Cancer: Antitumour immunity gets a boost p.496

今週号に掲載されている5報の論文によって、PD-1経路を遮断することで抗腫瘍免疫を回復させる治療法に反応性を示すがんの種類が増え、この治療法に最も高い反応性を示す患者の特徴が明らかにされた。

doi: 10.1038/515496a

天文学:宇宙の三角測量とブラックホールの質量

Astronomy: Cosmic triangles and black-hole masses p.498

近傍の銀河までの距離の幾何学的測定から、銀河の中心にあるブラックホールの質量が以前に計算されたよりも大きいことが示された。その結果として、他のこのようなブラックホールのほとんどについても、質量が増大することになりそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/515498a

発生生物学:極性によって伸長する

Developmental biology: Polarize to elongate p.499

ショウジョウバエの胚を使った研究で、Tollファミリーの受容体タンパク質が、発生中の頭尾軸の伸長に必要な方向性を持った細胞再編成を誘導していることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13937

食餌:健康と地球のための食物選び

Diet: Food choices for health and planet p.501

今夜のご飯は何にしよう? データ解析によって、ある種の食物を選択することが、本人の健康と環境の両方を大きく益することが明らかになった。だが、こうした証拠をどう生かすかは社会に投げ掛けられた難問であり、答えが得られていない。

doi: 10.1038/nature13943

免疫学:寛容はタイミングにあり

Immunology: Tolerance lies in the timing p.502

免疫細胞の発生の際には、自己反応性となりそうなT細胞は除去される。T細胞受容体に結合した共受容体のLck酵素による補充が、この負の選択における律速段階となっていることが明らかにされた。

doi: 10.1038/515502a

Review

生態学:地下の生物多様性と生態系機能

Belowground biodiversity and ecosystem functioning p.505

Growing evidence points to belowground biota as a significant contributor to aboveground diversity and functioning as well as impacting eco-evolutionary responses to environmental change; this review explores such evidence and proposes further research directions.

doi: 10.1038/nature13855

Articles

進化学:ゴンドワナテリウム類哺乳類初の頭蓋化石は顕著なモザイク状態を示している

First cranial remains of a gondwanatherian mammal reveal remarkable mosaicism p.512

The gondwanatherians were mammals known only from teeth and some jaw fragments that lived in the southern continents alongside dinosaurs; here the entire cranium of a bizarre and badger-sized fossil mammal from the Cretaceous of Madagascar shows that gondwanatherians were related to the better-known multituberculates, a long-lived and successful group of now-extinct rodent-like mammals.

doi: 10.1038/nature13922

食餌:世界全体の食生活は環境の持続可能性とヒトの健康を結び付ける

Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health p.518

As incomes grow, diets change, with varying impacts on human health and the environment; here the links are examined and suggestions made for diets that both improve health and minimize environmental impacts.

doi: 10.1038/nature13959

発生生物学:Toll受容体による位置コードがショウジョウバエにおける収斂伸長を指示する

A positional Toll receptor code directs convergent extension in Drosophila p.523

Body axis elongation from head to tail is essential for animal development, however, the spatial cues that direct cell rearrangements relative to the anterior–posterior axis were unknown; this Drosophila study of convergent extension reveals that three Toll family receptors, expressed in overlapping stripes, modulate the contractile properties of cells to generate the polarized cell rearrangements that lead to body axis elongation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13953

Letters

天文学:NGC 4151内の超巨大ブラックホールまでの距離を19メガパーセクと算出したダスト視差

A dust-parallax distance of 19 megaparsecs to the supermassive black hole in NGC 4151 p.528

The active galaxy NGC 4151 has a crucial role as one of only two active galactic nuclei for which black hole mass measurements based on emission line reverberation mapping can be calibrated against other dynamical techniques. Unfortunately, effective calibration requires accurate knowledge of the distance to NGC 4151, which is not at present available. Recently reported distances range from 4 to 29 megaparsecs. Strong peculiar motions make a redshift-based distance very uncertain, and the geometry of the galaxy and its nucleus prohibit accurate measurements using other techniques. Here we report a dust-parallax distance to NGC 4151 of megaparsecs. The measurement is based on an adaptation of a geometric method that uses the emission line regions of active galaxies. Because these regions are too small to be imaged with present technology, we use instead the ratio of the physical and angular sizes of the more extended hot-dust emission as determined from time delays and infrared interferometry. This distance leads to an approximately 1.4-fold increase in the dynamical black hole mass, implying a corresponding correction to emission line reverberation masses of black holes if they are calibrated against the two objects with additional dynamical masses.

doi: 10.1038/nature13914

宇宙物理学:ヴァンアレン放射帯の超相対論的電子に対する進入不可能な障壁

An impenetrable barrier to ultrarelativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts p.531

Analysis of data obtained by probe spacecraft shows that ultrarelativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts are prevented from entering a sharply defined region around the Earth, possibly owing to a combination of slow natural inward diffusion and pitch angle scattering.

doi: 10.1038/nature13956

材料科学:大きなフォノンエントロピーに駆動される二酸化バナジウムの金属化

Metallization of vanadium dioxide driven by large phonon entropy p.535

X-ray and neutron scattering measurements and ab initio molecular dynamics calculations show that the transition from an insulating phase to a metallic phase in vanadium dioxide is driven primarily by the entropic effects of soft anharmonic lattice vibrations, or phonons, which stabilize the metallic phase.

doi: 10.1038/nature13865

エネルギー工学:直射日光の下での周囲大気温度未満への受動的放射冷却

Passive radiative cooling below ambient air temperature under direct sunlight p.540

A multilayer photonic structure is described that strongly reflects incident sunlight while emitting heat selectively through an atmospheric transparency window to outer space; this leads to passive cooling under direct sunlight of 5 degrees Celsius below ambient air temperature, which has potential applications in air-conditioning and energy efficiency.

doi: 10.1038/nature13883

分子電子工学:ナノスケールのポリオキソメタレート・クラスターに基づくメモリーデバイスの設計と製作

Design and fabrication of memory devices based on nanoscale polyoxometalate clusters p.545

Flash memories are essential for modern electronics; here a selenium-templated polyoxometalate is used to engineer new metal–oxide–semiconductor devices.

doi: 10.1038/nature13951

古気候学:過去2万1000年間にわたるエルニーニョの進展と強制力のメカニズム

Evolution and forcing mechanisms of El Niño over the past 21,000 years p.550

A simulation of the evolution of El Niño Southern Oscillation in the past 21,000 years in a state-of-the-art climate model shows the complex response mechanisms of El Niño to external climate forcings and poses further challenges to our understanding and projection of El Niño in the future.

doi: 10.1038/nature13963

生物物理学:DNAバーコードを付けたタンパク質の単一分子相互作用の多重プロファイリング

Multiplex single-molecule interaction profiling of DNA-barcoded proteins p.554

Single-molecular-interaction-sequencing involves attaching DNA barcodes to proteins, assaying these barcoded proteins en masse in an aqueous solution, followed by immobilization in a polyacrylamide film and amplifying and analysing the barcoding DNAs—the method allows for precise protein quantification and simultaneous interrogation of molecular binding affinity and specificity.

doi: 10.1038/nature13761

がん:MPDL3280A(抗PD-L1抗体)治療は転移性膀胱がんに対する臨床活性につながる

MPDL3280A (anti-PD-L1) treatment leads to clinical activity in metastatic bladder cancer p.558

The results of a clinical phase I study in metastatic urothelial bladder cancer treated with the MPDL3280A antibody show that expression of PD-L1 on tumour-infiltrating immune cells is relevant for the therapeutic response.

doi: 10.1038/nature13904

がん:抗PD-L1抗体MPDL3280Aに対するがん患者の反応の予測相関

Predictive correlates of response to the anti-PD-L1 antibody MPDL3280A in cancer patients p.563

Clinical and correlative biomarker results from a phase 1 clinical trial in patients with different solid tumours are presented; the findings indicate that PD-L1 expression on tumour-infiltrating immune cells is associated with clinical response to MPDL3280A (anti-PD-L1).

doi: 10.1038/nature14011

がん:PD-1の阻害は適応免疫耐性の抑制によって治療反応を誘導する

PD-1 blockade induces responses by inhibiting adaptive immune resistance p.568

The dynamics of T-cell responses are investigated in tumour tissue from patients with advanced melanoma who were treated with a PD-1-blocking monoclonal antibody, revealing that clinical efficacy of the treatment correlates with increased frequencies of pre-existing CD8+ T cells and PD-1 and PD-L1 expression.

doi: 10.1038/nature13954

がん:質量分析とエキソーム塩基配列解読の併用による腫瘍免疫原性変異の予測

Predicting immunogenic tumour mutations by combining mass spectrometry and exome sequencing p.572

A combination of genome-wide exome and transcriptome analysis, mass spectrometry and computational structural modelling are used here to identify immunogenic neo-antigens in two mouse tumour cancer cell lines; mice vaccinated with predicted immunogenic peptides yielded therapeutically useful cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses.

doi: 10.1038/nature14001

がん:がんのチェックポイント阻害免疫療法は腫瘍特異的な変異抗原を標的にする

Checkpoint blockade cancer immunotherapy targets tumour-specific mutant antigens p.577

A carcinogen-induced mouse tumour model is used here to show that mutant tumour-specific antigens are targets for CD8+ T-cell responses, mediating tumour regression after checkpoint blockade immunotherapy, and that these antigens can be used effectively in therapeutic vaccines; this advance potentially opens the door to personalized cancer vaccines.

doi: 10.1038/nature13988

神経科学:ヒストンH2A.Zサブユニット交換が近時および遠隔記憶の固定を制御する

Histone H2A.Z subunit exchange controls consolidation of recent and remote memory p.582

The authors identify a specific histone variant as a memory-suppressor that is initially reduced in expression within the hippocampus during memory formation; as a memory is consolidated to the cortex, reduced histone association with specific plasticity genes is observed, promoting stabilization of the memory.

doi: 10.1038/nature13707

植物科学:春化状態の継代遺伝を防ぐエピジェネティックな再プログラム化

Epigenetic reprogramming that prevents transgenerational inheritance of the vernalized state p.587

The Arabidopsis thaliana floral repressor FLC is epigenetically silenced by prolonged cold in a process called vernalization and then is reactivated before the completion of seed development; a histone demethylase, ELF6, is now shown to be involved in reactivating FLC in reproductive tissues, allowing the resetting of FLC expression and thus the requirement for vernalization in each generation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13722

構造生物学:プライマーアニーリングの際に起こるtRNAとレトロウイルスRNAのリモデリングのための構造を基盤とする機構

A structure-based mechanism for tRNA and retroviral RNA remodelling during primer annealing p.591

To prime reverse transcription of Moloney murine leukaemia virus, a transfer RNA molecule must bind two regions of the retroviral RNA, the primer binding site (PBS) and primer activation signal within the U5-PBS; here, the NMR structures of the U5-PBS RNA and tRNA primer are solved, with and without the retroviral nucleocapsid protein, which remodels these regions.

doi: 10.1038/nature13709

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