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Editorials

イタリアの学芸員は、博物館の貴重な収蔵品を守るために連帯すべきだ。

Save the museums p.311

Italy’s curators must band together to preserve their valuable collections.

doi: 10.1038/515311b

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国際科学会議(ICSU)は、加盟団体の納得が得られるよう、活動の意義と方向性を明確にする必要がある。

A global vision p.311

The International Council for Science needs to define its mission and show its members that it is worth their membership fees.

doi: 10.1038/515311a

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NatureおよびNature関連誌では、データの再利用を促すためにScientific Dataとの相互関係を強化し、データをより使いやすいものにする。

Data-access practices strengthened p.312

doi: 10.1038/515312a

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News

彗星に着陸した探査機フィラエは予期せぬトラブルで休眠状態に入ったものの、活動可能だったわずか64時間で貴重な成果を。

Philae’s 64 hours of science p.319

Comet lander is now hibernating, but has already altered our understanding of these objects.

doi: 10.1038/515319a

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市民科学者がオンラインで行う災害被害調査について、信頼性向上のための試みが。

Crisis mappers find an ally p.321

Crowdsourced disaster surveys strive for more reliability in online collaboration.

doi: 10.1038/515321a

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国際自然保護連合(IUCN)が、保護の成功例として「グリーンリスト」を発表。

Green List promotes conservation hotspots p.322

Project puts spotlight on protected reserves that boost biodiversity.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2014.16350

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ヒトゲノムの未解読領域の解読が進み、ほぼ完全な「プラチナ配列」が。

‘Platinum’ genome shapes up p.323

Disease sites targeted in assembly of more-complete version of the human genome sequence.

doi: 10.1038/515323a

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米国の2つの国立研究所が、次世代スーパーコンピューターの活用に向け、共同体制を。

Joint effort nabs next wave of US supercomputers p.324

National laboratories collaborate to purchase top-flight machines.

doi: 10.1038/nature.2014.16347

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News Features

研究資金:明かりをともし続けるには

Indirect costs: Keeping the lights on p.326

Natureは、米国の研究機関が受け取る多額の助成金について、間接費の実態を調査した。

doi: 10.1038/515326a

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発展途上国:大きく広がる物理学

Developing world: Far-flung physics p.330

途上国の科学の育成を目指して設立された国際理論物理学センターは、世界中で10万人を超す研究者を育ててきた。

doi: 10.1038/515330a

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News & Views

ゲノミクス:マウスにスポットライトを当てたENCODE論文

Genomics: Mice in the ENCODE spotlight p.346

ヒトとモデル無脊椎動物でのENCODE計画に続いて、マウスENCODEプロジェクトは今回、この重要なモデル哺乳類動物のゲノム調節についての包括的なデータセットを公表した。

doi: 10.1038/515346a

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生命の起源:自身の鏡像に似せて作られたRNA

Origins of life: RNA made in its own mirror image p.347

自身の鏡像であるRNAを組み立てられるRNA酵素が作られた。この結果は、RNA分子が生命の誕生以前の地球上でどうやって増殖できたのかというずっと以前からの謎を解く助けとなりそうだ。

doi: 10.1038/nature13935

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材料物理学:反応性の壁

Materials physics: Reactive walls p.348

分域壁は、強磁性、強誘電性、強弾性の材料中に存在する天然の境界である。これらは反応性の領域になることもあり、バルク材料ではこれまで観察されたことがない結晶相を作り出すらしい。

doi: 10.1038/515348a

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生化学:コハク酸で大打撃

Biochemistry: Succinate strikes p.350

卒中や心臓発作の際に組織傷害性の活性酸素種の濃度が高くなるのは、代謝中間体であるコハク酸の蓄積を介していることが明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13941

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生物地球化学:農業と全球規模の炭素循環

Biogeochemistry: Agriculture and the global carbon cycle p.351

20世紀には、農業の発展によって穀物生産量が急激に増加した。だが、これによって大気中二酸化炭素の季節的なフラックスが変化したことが、2つの研究により明らかになった。

doi: 10.1038/515351a

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植物科学:葉脈を流れる時は共通

Plant science: Leaf veins share the time of day p.352

葉の細胞を種類別に単離して調べる手法が開発され、植物の脈管系に当たる維管束の細胞に存在する概日時計が、近隣の細胞の概日時計と連絡し合ってそれを調節していることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13936

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Articles

ゲノミクス:マウスゲノムのDNAエレメントの比較百科事典

A comparative encyclopedia of DNA elements in the mouse genome OPEN p.355

The Mouse ENCODE Consortium has mapped transcription, DNase I hypersensitivity, transcription factor binding, chromatin modifications and replication domains throughout the mouse genome in diverse cell and tissue types; these data were compared with those from human to confirm substantial conservation in the newly annotated potential functional sequences and to reveal pronounced divergence of other sequences involved in transcriptional regulation, chromatin state and higher order chromatin organization.

doi: 10.1038/nature13992

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ゲノミクス:哺乳類の遺伝子調節の進化を通じてのトランス作動性回路の保存

Conservation of trans-acting circuitry during mammalian regulatory evolution OPEN p.365

Mouse genomic footprinting reveals conservation of transcription factor (TF) recognition repertoires and trans-regulatory circuitry despite massive turnover of DNA elements that contact TFs in vivo.

doi: 10.1038/nature13972

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ゲノミクス:マウスとヒト間での調節情報保存の原理

Principles of regulatory information conservation between mouse and human OPEN p.371

As part of the mouse ENCODE project, genome-wide transcription factor (TF) occupancy repertoires and co-association patterns in mice and humans are studied; many aspects are conserved but the extent to which orthologous DNA segments are bound by TFs in mice and humans varies both among TFs and genomic location, and TF-occupied sequences whose occupancy is conserved tend to be pleiotropic and enriched for single nucleotide variants with known regulatory potential.

doi: 10.1038/nature13985

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Letters

宇宙物理学:相対論的ジェットの仕事率は降着円盤の光度よりも大きい

The power of relativistic jets is larger than the luminosity of their accretion disks p.376

Blazars are quasars with a jet pointing towards Earth; analysis of archival observations of a sample of blazars reveals that jet power is larger than, and correlates with, the accretion luminosity, in agreement with numerical simulations.

doi: 10.1038/nature13856

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ナノ材料:エピタキシャル酸化物の分域壁における人工的な化学的・磁気的構造

Artificial chemical and magnetic structure at the domain walls of an epitaxial oxide p.379

The strain induced on the walls between ferroelastic domains of a thin film of terbium manganite grown on a substrate of strontium titanate can generate an unusual two-dimensional ferromagnetic phase that is yet to be produced by conventional chemical means.

doi: 10.1038/nature13918

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材料科学:高移動度共役高分子において「乱れのない」輸送に近づく

Approaching disorder-free transport in high-mobility conjugated polymers p.384

Measurements and simulations of several high-mobility conjugated polymers show that their charge transport properties reflect an almost complete lack of disorder in the polymers, despite their amorphous microstructures, resulting from the resilience of the planar polymer backbone conformations to side-chain disorder.

doi: 10.1038/nature13854

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有機化学:配向基を用いるヘテロ環C–H官能基化の限界を克服する

Overcoming the limitations of directed C–H functionalizations of heterocycles p.389

A robust and synthetically useful method is reported that overcomes the complications associated with performing C–H functionalization reactions on heterocycles; a reactive PdX2 (X = ArCONOMe) species is generated in situ, and is directed to the appropriate C–H bond by an N-methoxy amide group.

doi: 10.1038/nature13885

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生物地球化学:大気中CO2の季節振幅の増大の要因としての農業の緑の革命

Agricultural Green Revolution as a driver of increasing atmospheric CO2 seasonal amplitude p.394

The increase in amplitude of the atmospheric carbon dioxide cycle over the past fifty years can be attributed in part to the intensification of agriculture in the Northern Hemisphere.

doi: 10.1038/nature13893

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生物地球化学:耕作地の生産性向上による大気中CO2の季節性に対する直接的なヒトの影響

Direct human influence on atmospheric CO2 seasonality from increased cropland productivity p.398

Increases in agricultural productivity are shown, using production statistics and a carbon accounting model, to explain as much as a quarter of the observed increase in the seasonal amplitude of the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric carbon dioxide cycle.

doi: 10.1038/nature13957

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ゲノミクス:トポロジカル関連ドメインは複製タイミング調節の安定な単位である

Topologically associating domains are stable units of replication-timing regulation OPEN p.402

A study of DNA replication timing in mouse and human cells reveals that replication domains (domains of the genome which replicate at the same time) share a correlation with topologically associating domains; these results reconcile cell-type-specific sub-nuclear compartmentalization with developmentally stable chromosome domains and offer a unified model for large scale chromosome structure and function.

doi: 10.1038/nature13986

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進化学:熱帯での種分化の推進要因

The drivers of tropical speciation p.406

Diversification of Neotropical birds is not directly linked to the Andean uplift, the major landscape change of the Neogene period; instead, most diversification is post-Neogene and species diversity is dependent on how long lineages have persisted in the landscape and how easily they disperse.

doi: 10.1038/nature13687

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生態学:個体の能力向上と選択的死亡が生涯にわたる渡り能力を形作る

Individual improvements and selective mortality shape lifelong migratory performance p.410

A cross-sectional study of migrating raptors aged from 1 to 27 years old shows that migratory performance gradually improves with age and is driven both by selective mortality and individual improvement, with younger birds leaving progressively earlier as they age and becoming more proficient at coping with adverse environmental conditions, such as unfavourable winds.

doi: 10.1038/nature13696

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神経科学:精神疾患のヒトiPS細胞モデルにおけるシナプスの調節異常

Synaptic dysregulation in a human iPS cell model of mental disorders p.414

Generation and neural differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) from patients enables new ways to investigate the cellular pathophysiology of mental disorders; this approach was used with samples from a family with a schizophrenia pedigree and a DISC1 mutation, revealing synaptic abnormalities and large-scale transcriptional dysregulation.

doi: 10.1038/nature13716

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植物科学:シロイヌナズナの組織特異的な概日時計は非対称的にカップリングしている

Tissue-specific clocks in Arabidopsis show asymmetric coupling p.419

A detailed analysis of Arabidopsis leaf tissues using two new versatile techniques reveals that within vasculature tissue circadian clocks have characteristics distinct from those in other tissues, and that the vasculature clocks affect circadian clock regulation in other tissues; indicating that plants, like mammals, have a dual clock system.

doi: 10.1038/nature13919

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微生物学:コレラ菌感染からの回復に関与するヒト腸内微生物相構成種

Members of the human gut microbiota involved in recovery from Vibrio cholerae infection p.423

Recovery from cholera is characterized by a pattern of accumulation of bacterial taxa that shows similarities to the pattern of maturation of the gut microbiota in healthy children, raising the possibility that some of these taxa may be useful for ‘repair’ of the gut microbiota in individuals whose gut communities have been ‘wounded’ through a variety of insults.

doi: 10.1038/nature13738

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免疫学:赤血球ベイシジンおよび阻止抗体と結合したマラリア侵入タンパク質RH5の構造

Structure of malaria invasion protein RH5 with erythrocyte basigin and blocking antibodies p.427

Reticulocyte-binding protein homologue 5 (PfRH5) of Plasmodium falciparum, the malaria parasite, is known to be necessary for red blood cell invasion, making PfRH5 a promising vaccine candidate; here the X-ray crystallographic structure of PfRH5 in complex with basigin and with inhibitory antibodies is determined.

doi: 10.1038/nature13715

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生化学:虚血が引き起こすコハク酸の蓄積はミトコンドリアROSを介して再灌流傷害を制御する

Ischaemic accumulation of succinate controls reperfusion injury through mitochondrial ROS p.431

A metabolomics study on the ischaemic heart identifies succinate as a metabolite that drives the production of reactive oxygen species and contributes to ischaemia-reperfusion injury; pharmacological inhibition of succinate accumulation ameliorates ischaemia-reperfusion injury in a mouse model of heart attack and a rat model of stroke.

doi: 10.1038/nature13909

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分子生物学:転写産物RNAを鋳型としたDNAの組換えと修復

Transcript-RNA-templated DNA recombination and repair p.436

Endogenous RNA transcripts are shown to mediate recombination with yeast chromosomal DNA; as the level of RNAs in the nucleus is quite high, these results may open up new understanding of the plasticity of repair and genome instability mechanisms.

doi: 10.1038/nature13682

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生化学:クロスキラルRNAポリメラーゼリボザイム

A cross-chiral RNA polymerase ribozyme p.440

Here, a cross-chiral RNA polymerase is developed—an RNA enzyme that can catalyse the templated polymerization of activated mononucleotides that are of the opposite handedness—shedding light on how RNA-based life could have emerged.

doi: 10.1038/nature13900

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がん:GTPアーゼのRalを標的とする複数の小分子の発見と特徴付け

Discovery and characterization of small molecules that target the GTPase Ral p.443

Using a structure-based approach, small molecule inhibitors that selectively target the GTPase Ral are identified and characterized; these first-generation inhibitors will be valuable tools for elucidating the Ral signalling pathway and constitute a step towards developing Ral-specific agents for cancer therapy.

doi: 10.1038/nature13713

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構造生物学:SWEET輸送体細菌ホモログの2種類のコンホメーション

Structures of bacterial homologues of SWEET transporters in two distinct conformations p.448

The X-ray crystal structures of two bacterial homologues of the SWEET sugar transporters are solved in two conformational states, and comparison of these states suggests that transport occurs via a ‘rocker-switch’ mechanism.

doi: 10.1038/nature13670

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