目次

Editorials

エボラ出血熱の感染制御のために、科学が力を発揮すべきときだ。

Call to action p.535

Time to ramp up science’s contribution to controlling the Ebola outbreak.

doi: 10.1038/514535b

中国が計画する研究助成システムの見直しは、科学的基盤の弱点改革の重要な柱となるだろう。

Pillars of reform p.535

The Chinese government’s planned overhaul of its core research-funding system is vital if the country is to achieve its potential on the global scientific stage.

doi: 10.1038/514535a

Nature およびNature 関連誌では、掲載論文中に、コンピューターコードをできるだけ公開するよう求めていく。

Code share p.536

Papers in Nature journals should make computer code accessible where possible.

doi: 10.1038/514536a

News

アイスランドのバールダンブンガ火山の噴火では、予想に反して驚くほど多くのイオウの放出が。

Icelandic volcano stuns scientists p.543

Sulphur-rich eruption defies preparations for an ashy blast.

doi: 10.1038/514543a

米国立衛生研究所(NIH)に長期間「放置」されていた天然痘ウイルスの廃棄が、しばらくの間先送りに。

‘Forgotten’ NIH smallpox virus languishes on death row p.544

World Health Organization lacks resources to witness destruction of stocks.

doi: 10.1038/514544a

クラゲの大量発生には、沿岸部での人間の活動が関係することが明らかに。

Coastal havoc boosts jellies p.545

Five-year Chinese study suggests that human activity made gelatinous outbreaks worse.

doi: 10.1038/514545a

抗加齢薬に関する試験が、イヌを使って行われることに。

Pet dogs set to test anti-ageing drug p.546

Trials would study extension of lifespan in domestic setting.

doi: 10.1038/514546a

中国が、上海にトランスレーショナル医学研究センターを設立へ。

China opens translational medicine centre in Shanghai p.547

First of five linked institutes aims to capitalize on basic-research investments.

doi: 10.1038/514547a

ヒトのゲノム塩基解読で見つかる、自然発生的なノックアウト変異が、病気の手掛かりに。

Geneticists tap human knockouts p.548

Sequenced genomes reveal mutations that disable single genes and can point to new drugs.

doi: 10.1038/514548a

News Features

出版:科学論文のトップ100

The top 100 papers p.550

引用索引の考案から50年を記念して、Natureでは、これまでに最も多く引用された論文トップ100をリストアップする。

doi: 10.1038/514550a

感染症:エボラをめぐる疑問

The Ebola questions p.554

エボラ出血熱の原因となるウイルスの解明は大きく進んでいるが、それでもまだ多くの謎が残っている。

doi: 10.1038/514554a

News & Views

進化発生生物学:見えてきたゴースト遺伝子

Evolutionary developmental biology: Ghost locus appears p.570

海綿類2種のゲノム塩基配列が解読され、ParaHox発生遺伝子の起源が以前に考えられていたよりも古いことを示す証拠が得られた。これは動物の分類と発生生物学や進化生物学に関係してくる。

doi: 10.1038/514570a

宇宙物理学:秘密の要因が明らかに

Astrophysics: Secret ingredient exposed p.571

若い恒星への物質の降着では磁場が重要な要因なのではないかと、天文学研究者はしばらく前から感じていた。そして新たな観測により、磁場の働きが明らかになり始めた。

doi: 10.1038/nature13932

構造生物学:酵素–クロマチン複合体の可視化

Structural biology: Enzyme–chromatin complex visualized p.572

ヌクレオソームは周囲にDNAが巻き付いたタンパク質複合体である。ヌクレオソームに結合したある酵素の構造から、この2つの間の接触により酵素の配置方向が決まって、この酵素が特定のアミノ酸残基を修飾できるようになる仕組みが明らかにされた。

doi: 10.1038/514572a

材料科学:磁性ゲルの集合を促進するラジカル

Materials science: Radicals promote magnetic gel assembly p.574

複雑な組織の加工には、材料や細胞の三次元パターンをハイスループットで作る必要がある。小型のゲル成分を、カプセルに入れたラジカルの磁力によって集合させる方法がこれに適している可能性が出てきた。

doi: 10.1038/514574a

心臓生物学:細胞の可塑性は心臓修復を助ける

Cardiac biology: Cell plasticity helps hearts to repair p.575

損傷を受けた心臓の構造の修復に繊維芽細胞が重要な役割を持つことは知られている。新たな知見により、繊維芽細胞は損傷によって内皮細胞になるように誘導され、損傷した血管の修復を助けていることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13928

免疫学:熱には絶食、そして微生物にごちそうを

Immunology: Starve a fever, feed the microbiota p.576

腸の内表面を覆っている細胞は全身性の感染に応じて修飾され、宿主の感染に対する耐性を増すようになるが、これは腸内に住み着いている微生物に依存して行われることが分かった。

doi: 10.1038/nature13756

Articles

古生物学:ジュラ紀の真ハラミヤ類の新種3種が裏付ける哺乳類の初期の分岐

Three new Jurassic euharamiyidan species reinforce early divergence of mammals p.579

Three new euharamiyidan species from the Jurassic period of China are described, cementing the alliance with multituberculates and showing that the initial divergence between groups of extant mammals—monotremes on the one side, marsupials and placentals on the other—goes back to the Triassic period.

doi: 10.1038/nature13718

心血管生物学:間葉内皮転換は心臓の血管新生に寄与する

Mesenchymal–endothelial transition contributes to cardiac neovascularization p.585

This study shows that cardiac injury induces cardiac fibroblasts to undergo mesenchymal–endothelial transition and acquire an endothelial-cell like fate, a process mediated, in part, by a p53-dependent mechanism — use of a small molecule activator of p53 increases mesenchymal–endothelial transition, leading to reduced scarring and better preservation of heart function.

doi: 10.1038/nature13839

構造生物学:ヌクレオソームに結合したPRC1ユビキチン化モジュールの結晶構造

Crystal structure of the PRC1 ubiquitylation module bound to the nucleosome p.591

The crystal structure of the PRC1 ubiquitylation module bound to its nucleosome core substrate is determined, revealing how a histone-modifying enzyme achieves substrate specificity by recognizing nucleosome surfaces distinct from the site of catalysis, and uncovering a unique role for the ubiquitin E2 enzyme in substrate recognition.

doi: 10.1038/nature13890

Letters

宇宙:おうし座T型星の円盤における空間的に解像された磁場構造

Spatially resolved magnetic field structure in the disk of a T Tauri star p.597

Measurements of polarized 1.25-mm continuum emission from the accretion disk of the T Tauri star HL Tau show that the magnetic field inside the disk cannot be dominated by a vertical component, and that a purely toroidal field also does not fit the data; this suggests that the role of the magnetic field in the accretion of a T Tauri star is more complex than the current theoretical understanding.

doi: 10.1038/nature13850

宇宙:若い低質量多重星系GG Tau Aにおける惑星形成の可能性

Possible planet formation in the young, low-mass, multiple stellar system GG Tau A p.600

Investigation of the triple stellar system GG Tau A reveals gas fragments within the central cavity between the Keplerian outer ring orbiting the entire system and the stars themselves; gas flow from this outer ring appears capable of sustaining the inner disk surrounding component star GG Tau Aa beyond the accretion lifetime, leaving time for planet formation to occur.

doi: 10.1038/nature13822

量子物理学:電子の量子トモグラフィー

Quantum tomography of an electron p.603

Quantum tomography of individual electrons, which in principle yields complete knowledge of their quantum states, is demonstrated by initially preparing them in a well-controlled quantum state called a leviton.

doi: 10.1038/nature13821

ナノテクノロジー:細いグラフェンナノリボンのジグザグ端における室温磁気秩序

Room-temperature magnetic order on zigzag edges of narrow graphene nanoribbons p.608

In graphene nanoribbons of ‘zigzag’ edge orientation, the edges host unpaired electron spins that couple to generate long-range magnetic order (switching from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic inter-edge configuration as the ribbon width increases) under ambient conditions, enhancing the prospects for graphene-based spintronic devices.

doi: 10.1038/nature13831

ナノテクノロジー:脂質二重層と生細胞膜におけるカーボンナノチューブを通した確率的輸送

Stochastic transport through carbon nanotubes in lipid bilayers and live cell membranes p.612

Short carbon nanotubes spontaneously insert into lipid bilayers and live cell membranes to form channels with useful and tunable transport properties that make them a promising biomimetic nanopore platform for developing cell interfaces, studying nanofluidic transport in biological channels, and creating stochastic sensors.

doi: 10.1038/nature13817

気候科学:最終退氷期における全球の炭素循環の百年スケールの変化

Centennial-scale changes in the global carbon cycle during the last deglaciation p.616

Carbon dioxide and methane records from a West Antarctic ice core show that although gradual variations in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide during the last glacial termination are linked to changes in Antarctic temperature, the concentration underwent three abrupt, centennial-scale changes related to sudden climate changes in the Northern Hemisphere.

doi: 10.1038/nature13799

進化生物学:石灰海綿類は1個のParaHox遺伝子と動的な発現を示す散在型NKホメオボックス遺伝子群を持つ

Calcisponges have a ParaHox gene and dynamic expression of dispersed NK homeobox genes p.620

A study of the genomes of calcisponges shows that they contain at least one ParaHox gene, adding weight to the ‘ghost locus’ hypothesis that Hox and ParaHox genes were present in the earliest animal ancestor, but subsequently lost in some sponge lineages.

doi: 10.1038/nature13881

発生生物学:植物の初期胚発生への母方ゲノムと父方ゲノムの寄与は同等ではない

Non-equivalent contributions of maternal and paternal genomes to early plant embryogenesis p.624

A functional assessment of paternal gene activation in Arabidopsis confirms that paternal genome activation does not occur in one early discrete step, shows that maternal and paternal genomes do not make equivalent contributions to early plant embryogenesis, and uncovers an unexpectedly large effect of hybrid genetic background on paternal gene activity.

doi: 10.1038/nature13620

がん:がん遺伝子除去に抵抗性を示す膵がん細胞はミトコンドリア機能に依存している

Oncogene ablation-resistant pancreatic cancer cells depend on mitochondrial function p.628

KRAS mutations are a driver event of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; here, a subpopulation of dormant tumour cells, relying on oxidative phosphorylation for survival, is shown to be responsible for tumour relapse after treatment targeting the KRAS pathway.

doi: 10.1038/nature13611

微生物学:転写依存的なCRISPR-Casターゲッティングを介したテンペレートファージの条件的寛容

Conditional tolerance of temperate phages via transcription-dependent CRISPR-Cas targeting p.633

The Staphylococcus epidermis CRISPR-Cas system can prevent lytic infection but tolerate lysogenization by temperate phage through a transcription-dependent DNA targeting mechanism.

doi: 10.1038/nature13637

免疫学:病気の際には、腸管上皮の迅速なフコシル化が宿主–常在菌の共生を維持する

Rapid fucosylation of intestinal epithelium sustains host–commensal symbiosis in sickness p.638

Systemic exposure to Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands during sickness is shown to induce fucosylation of the small intestine in mice; some of the fucose is shed into the intestinal lumen, where it provides nourishment for the microbiota.

doi: 10.1038/nature13823

免疫学:新生児型Fc受容体機能の増強は霊長類SHIV感染に対する防御を向上させる

Enhanced neonatal Fc receptor function improves protection against primate SHIV infection p.642

A mutation in VRC01, a broadly neutralizing, HIV-1-specific antibody, confers enhanced binding to the neonatal Fc receptor, increasing the antibody half-life in the serum and localization in mucosal tissues, where it provides superior protection against rectal simian HIV-1 infection in macaques.

doi: 10.1038/nature13612

細胞生物学:2種のAPC/C化学的阻害剤による有糸分裂完了の相乗的阻止

Synergistic blockade of mitotic exit by two chemical inhibitors of the APC/C p.646

Simultaneous disruption of two different protein–protein interactions within the (APC/C–Cdc20)–substrate complex can synergistically inhibit APC/C-dependent proteolysis and mitotic exit.

doi: 10.1038/nature13660

エピジェネティクス:概日時計の機能には、アンチセンスRNAによる転写干渉が必要である

Transcriptional interference by antisense RNA is required for circadian clock function p.650

The transcriptions of frq sense and antisense RNAs are mutually inhibitory and form a double negative feedback loop required for robust and sustained circadian rhythmicity: antisense transcription inhibits sense expression by causing chromatin modifications and premature transcription termination.

doi: 10.1038/nature13671

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